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O F T H E 


Containing an Account of the 

Original of the Earth, 

And of all the 


which it hath already under- 
gone, or is to undergo, till the 
CoNsUiMMATioN of All Things. 

The Two Last Books, 

Concerning the Burning of the World, 


Concerning the New Heavens and New Earth. 
Vol. II. 

L NT) N, 

Printed for John Hooke, at the Flower-de-luce, over 
againftSc. Du/iJlan^%-Church, in Fleet-Street. 1719 

STACK wma?' 



T O T H E 

Q U E E N'S 


Excellent M a j e s t y. 



had the 
I H iCii honour to prefent the 
p^^ firft part of this The- 
^^^^^^^ ory to Your Royal 
Uncle, I prefume to offer the 
Second to Your Majefty. This 
part of the Subje6t, I hope, will 
be no lefs acceptable, for certain- 
ly 'tis of no lefs importance. 
They both indeed agree in this, 
That there is a World made 
and deftroy'd in either Treatife. 
But we are more concern'd in 
what is to come, than what is 

A 2 


The Epijlle Dedicator j. 
paft. And as the former Books 
reorefented to us the Rife and 
Fall of the Firft World ; fo 
Thefegive an account of the" pre- 
fent Frame of Nature labouring 
under the lafl Flames, and of the 
Refurrection of it in the New 
Heavens and Ne^v Earth : which, 
according to the Divine Fromi- 
fes, we are to expert. 

Cities that are burnt, are com- 
monly rebuilt more beautiful and 
regular than they were before. 
And when this World is demo- 
lilh'd by the laft Fire, He that 
undertakes to rear it up again, 
will fupply the defecfts, if there 
were any, of the former Fabrick. 
This Theory fuppofes the pre- 
fent Earth to be little better than 
an Heap of Ruins : where yet 
there is room enough for Sea and 


The Epifile Dedicatory. 
Land, forlflands and Continents, 
for feveml Countries and Domi- 
nions : But when tliefe are all 
melted down, and refin'd in the 
general Fire, they will be caft in- 
to a better Mould, and the Form 
and Qualities of the Earth will 
become Faradiiiacal. 

But, I fear, it may be thought 
no very proper Addrefs, to ftiew 
Your Majefty a World laid in 
Alhes, where You have fo great 
an intereft Your Self, and fuch 
fair Dominions; and then, to 
recompence the lofs by giving a 
Reversion in a Future Earth. 
But if that future Earth be a fe- 
cond Paradife, to be enjoyed for 
a Thouland Years ; with Peace, 
Innocency, and conftant health : 
An Inheritance there will be, an 
happy exchange for the beft 
Crown in this World. I 

The Epijik Dedicatory, 
I confefs, I could never per- 
fwade my felf that the Kingdom 
of Chrift and of his Saints, which 
the Scripture fpeaks of fo fre- 
quently, was deiign'd to be upon 
this prefent Earth. But hovrever, 
upon all Suppofitions, They that 
have done fome Good in this 
Life, will be fharers in the hap- 
pinefs of that State. To humble 
the OpprelTors, and refcue the 
OpprelTed, is a work of Genero- 
fity and Charity that cannot want 
its reward ; Yet MADA,\f, They 
are the greateft Benefactors to 
Mankind, that difpofe the World 
to become Vertu(;us : and by 
their Example, Influence, and 
Authority, retrieve that Truth 
and Justice, that have been lofl:, 
amongft Men, for many Ages. 
The School-Divines tel], us, Thofe 

The Epifile Dedicatory. 
that act or fiiffer great things tor 
the Piiblick Good, are diftin- 
guilh'd in Heaven by a Circle of 
Gold about their Heads. One 
would not willingly vouch for 
that : But one may fafely for 
what the Prophet fays, which is 
far greater : Namely, that They 
fliali ihine like Stars in the Fir- 
mament that turn many to Righ- 
teoufnefs. Which is not to be un- 
derftood, fo much, of the Con- 
veriion of fnigle Souls, as of the 
turning of Nations and People, 
the turning of the World to 
Righteoufnefs. They that lead 
on that great and happy Work, 
lliall be diftinguifh'd in Glory 
from the reft of Mankind. 

We are feniible, Madam, 

from Your Great Example, that 

Piety and Vertue feated upon a 

A 4, Throne 

The Epiftle Dedicatory. 
Throne, draw many to imitati- 
on, whom ill Principles, or the 
courfe of the World, might have 
led another way. Thefe are the 
bell, as well as ealieft Vidlories, 
that are gain'd without Conteft. 
And as Princes are the Vice- 
gerents of God upon Earth, fo 
when their Majefty is in Con- 
jun6tion with Goodnefs, it hath 
a double Character of Divinity 
upon it : And we owe them a 
double Tribute, of Fear and 
Love. Which, with conftant 
Prayers for your Majesty's pre- 
fent and future Happinefs, lliall 
be always Dutifully paid, by 

Your Ma testy 's 

Moft Humble and moil: 

Obedient Subject 


■ -'-''^ ... A 


T O T H E 


HAVE not much to fay to the 
Reader in this Preface to the 
Third Part of the Theory : fee- 
ing it treats upon a Subjeft own'd 
by all, and out of difpute : The 
Conflagration of the World. The queftion 
will be only about the bounds and limits of 
the Conflagration, the Caufes and the Man- 
ner of it. Thefe I have fixM according to the 
trueft meafures I could take from Scripture, 
and from Nature. I differ, I believe from the 
common Sentiment in this, that, in following 
St. Teter\ Philofophy, I fuppofe, that the 
burning of the Earth will be a true Lique- 
faftion or Diffolution of it, as to the exteriour 
Region. And that this lays a foundation for 
New Heavens and a New Earth '^ which 
feems to me as plain a doftrine in Chriftian 
Religion, as the Conflagration it felf. 

I have 

The Treface. 

Ifhave endeavourM to propofe an intelligr* 
bie way, whereby the Earth may be con- 
fumM by Fire. Bat if any one can propofe 
another, more probable and more confident, I 
will be the Firil Man that fhall give him 
thanks for his difcovery. He that loves 
Truth for its own fike, is willing to receive 
it from any hand : as he that truly loves his 
Country, is glad of a Victory over the Ene- 
my,> whether himfelf, or any other, has the 
glory of it. I need not repeat here, what I 
have already faid upon feveral occafions. That 
'tis the fubftance of this Theory, whether in 
this part or in other parts, that I mainly re- 
gard and depend upon. Being willing to flip- 
pafe that many fingle explications and parti- 
cdlarities ma.y be redified, upon further 
thoughts and clearer light. I know our beft 
Writings, in this Life, are but Ejjajs^ which 
ts^e leave to Pofterity to review and correft. 
As to the Style, I always endeavour to ex- 
prefsmy felf, in a plain and perfpicuous man- 
ner: that the Reader may not lofe time, nor 
wait too long, to know my meaning. To 
give m Attendant quick difpatch, is a civili- 
ty, whether you do his Bufinefs or no. I 
would not wiiUngly give any one the trouble 
of reading a Period twice over, to know the 
fence of it: left when he comes to know it, 
he fhould not think it a recompence for his 
pains. -Whereas on the contrary, if you are 
leafie to yom* 11 trader, he Will certiunly ■mft^k'4 

.you an ailowaiice for icy k4iis cenfure. ■''> 

nsitfn -it nir^o -n:, Yoii 

.,i f-^i, 

The Preface. 

You mufl: not think it ftrange however, 
thac the Author fonietimes, in meditating up'- 
on this fubieft is warm in his thoughts and ex- 
preffions. For to fee a World perifhing in 
Flames, Rocks melting, the Earth trembling, 
and an hoft of Angels in the Clouds, one mufl: 
be very much a Stoick, to be a cold and un- 
concerned Spectator of all this. And when 
we are mov'd our felves, our words will have 
a tindure of thofe paffions which we feel. 
Befides, in moral reflexions which are de- 
fign'd for ufe, there mufl: be fome heat, as 
well as dry reafon, to infpire this cold clod of 
clay, this dull body of Earth, which we car- 
ry about with us ; and you muft Ibften and 
pierce that cruft, before you can come at 
the Soul. But efpecially when things future 
are to be reprefented, you cannot ufe too 
fl:rong Colours, if you would give them life, 
and make them appear prefent to the Mind. 


Vg®j «® <jg® S® ^g® ®3) ^i)S) ®3^ ^:® ^)3^ ^^ 


O F T H E 


The Third Book. 


THE Introduciion ; with the Contents 
and Order of this Treatife. Page i 

CHAP. n. 

The true /late of the Queflion is propos'^d, 
^Tis the general do^rine of the ^nc/epitSy 
That the prefent Worlds or the prefent Frame 
of Nature^ is mutaUe and ferifl^able : Tq 
which the Sacred ISooks agree : (And natural 
Reajon can aUedge ?wthwg againli it, p. 7 
C H A P. 1 1 1. 

That the World will he defirofd ly Fire^ 
is the doctrine of the ^4nci€?its^ effecially of 
the Stoicks. That the fa?ne doHrine is more 
ancient than the Greeks^ and deri-tPd from the 
Barbarick Thilofophy^ and that prolahly from 
Noah, the Father of all Traditionary Lear?i* 


The Contents' 

Ing. The fame doBrine exfrejly authorized 
hy Revelation^ and inroll'd into the Sacred 
Canon. P- 19 

G H A P I V. 

Concerning the Time of the Conflagration^ 
and the End of the World. What the oAfiro* 
nomers fay ti^on this SuhjeB^ and u^on what 
they ground their Calculations, The true no^ 
tion of the Great Tear^ or of the Tlatonick 
Tear^ fiated and exflain*d. P* 3S 


Concerning Trofhecies that determine the 
End of the World: Of what order foever^ 
Tro^hane or Sacred: Jewijh or Chrifiian^ 
That no certain judgment can le made from 
any of them^ at what diflance we are from 
the Conflagration. p. 46 

C H A P. V I. 

Concerning the Caufes of the Conflagrati-^ 
on. The difficulty of conceiving how this 
Earth can le fet on Eire. With a general 
anfwer to that difficulty. Two fup^os'^d 
Caufes of the Conflagration^ hy the Sun*s 
drawing nearer to the Earthy or the Earth'*s 
throwing out the Central Fire^ examined and 
rejeSed. p. 61 


The true lounds of the lafi Fire^ and how 
far it is Fatal. The iiatttral Caufes and 
Materials of it^ caH into three Ranks. FirBj 
Such as are Exteriour and Fiflble upon Earth. 
Where the Volcano'* s of this Earthy and their 
EffeHs are conftder'^d. Secondly^ Such Mate-. 


The Contents. 

rials as are within the Earth, Thirdly^ Such 
as are in the eAir. * P- 74 

C H A P. V 1 1 1. 
Some new T>ifpofitions towards the Confla^ 
gration^ as to the Matter^ Form^ and Situa- 
tion of the Earth, Qomerniiig miraculous 
Caufes^ and how far the mmijlry of o^ingels 
may he engag'd in this Work. P- 94 

±^^.\.>:^: CHAP. IX. 

^' flow the Sea will he dimini(l)*d and con* 

furrPd. How tlye Rocks and Mountains will 

he thrown down and melted.^ and the whole 

exteriour Frame of the Earth dijjolv^d into a 

*\Oeluge of Fire. p. io6 


■ Concerning the hegimti?ig a?id frogrefs of 
the Conflagration^ what fart of the Earth 
will firB' he htcrnt. The manner of the fit- 
ture de[irutiion ^/ Rome, according to the 
prophetical Indications, The laH Jiate and 
confummation of th^ general Fire, p. 1 1 9 

V e H A P. X I. 

eAfi oAccoupit of thefe F.xtraor dinar y Th^^ 
nome?ia and Wonders in Nature^ that^ ac- 
cording to Scripture,, will f recede the com- 
ing of ChriB , and the Confgration of the 
World. P- 132 

oAn im^^erfeci defcription of the cowing of 
our Saviour J and of the World on Fire, p. 145 

The Conclttfon. p. 162 


The Contents. 

The Fourth Book. 
c H A p. I. 

THE Introduaion: That the World will 
7iot he arpiikilated 2?i the latl Fire^ 
That "iSve are to ex^eB^ according to Scrip-' 
ture^ and the Chriftian T)octrine^ New Hea^- 
vens and a New Earthy wheji thefe are dif- 
folv^d or burnt 7ip. p. 185 

The "Birth of the New Heavens a7td the 
New Earthy from the fecond Chaosy or the 
remains of the Old World, The Form^ Order 
and Qualities of the New Earthy according 
to Reafon and Scripture. P- ^95 

Concerning the Inhabitants of the New 
Earth That natural reafon cannot determine 
this point, That^ according to Scripture^ The 
Sons of the firB RefurreBion, or the Heirs of 
'the Milleniiiumj are to be the Inhabitants of 
the New Earth, The Teftimoriy of the Thilo- 
fophersy and of the Chriftian Fathers^ for the 
Renovation of the World. The firU Tropoji^ 
tion laid down. p. 204 

The Troof of a Millemuum^ or of a bleffed 
oAge to come, from Scripture. qA view of the 
iRApocal)pfey and of the "Vropkecies of Daniel, 
in reference to this Kjngdom of ChriB^ and of 
his Saints. p 216 

G/i view of other places of Scripture, con- 
cfrmng the Millennium^ or future Kjngdom of 


The Contents. 

ChrlB^ In what fenfe all the "Prophets have 
lorn Teftimony coficernhig it. p. 232 

CHAP. vr. 

The fenfe and tefiimonj of the "Primitive 
Churchy concerning the Millennium^ or ftitttre 
iKjngdom of Chrift : from the times of the 
eApofiles to the Nicene Council. The fee on d 
*Propofition laid down, JVhen^ by what means ^ 
and for what reafons^ that doBrine was af- 
terwards negleBed or difcounte7tanQ'd. p. 250 

The true [late of the Millennium^ according 
to Chara^ers taken from Scripture, Some 
miflakes concerning it reBified. p. 264 


The Third Troj^ofition laid down^ concern 
mng the Time and Place of the Millennium. 
Several arguments us'*d to prove^ that it can^ 
not he till after the Conflagration : and that 
the New Heavens and New Earth are the 
true Seat of the "Blejjed Millemiium, p. 274 

The chief Emfloywent of the Millejtnium 
TION, p. 292 
C H A P. X. 

Ohjefiions againft the Millennium^ an- 
fwer'^d. With fome con]eBures concerning 
the fiate of Things after the Mille?tnimn : 
eAnd what will be the final Confummation of 
this World. P- Jio 

The Review of the whole Theory, p ?2y 






^jBSi ig®) ^® (gG5 ®®) i@S^ ig«^ iS)(3) (g® ig® 

Book III. 
Concerning the Conflagration. 

€® '^(S) (g® ^gjsj ©s) igjs;) ig® «© i^ 

Chap. L 

The IntroduHion ; With the Contents ajul Or- 
der of this Work. 

EEI NG Providence hath plant- 
ed in all Men a natural defire 
and curiofity of knowing things 
to come ; and fuch things efpe- 
cially as concern our particular 
Happineft, or the general Fate 
of Mankind : This Treatife may, in both re- 
fpefts, hope for a favourable reception amongft 
inquifitive perfons : feeing thedefign of it is, to 
Book III. B give 

2 The Theory of the Earth. 

give an account of the greateft revolutions of 
Nature that are expeOied in future Ages : and 
in the firjft place, of the Conflagration of the 
Wor:ld, In which Univerfal Calamity, when 
all Nature fuffers, every Man's particular con- 
cern muft needs be involved. 

We fee with what eagernefs Men pry into 
the Stars, to fee if they can read there the 
Death of a King, or the fall of an Empire : 
'Tis not the fate of any fingle Prince or Poten- 
tate, that we calculate, but of all Mankind : 
Nor of this or that particular Kingdom or Em- 
pire, but of the whole Earth. Our Enquiries 
muft reach to that great period of Nature, when 
all things are to be diffolv'd ; both humane 
Affairs, and the Stage whereon they are afted. 
When the Heavens and the Earth will pafs a- 
way, and the Elements melt with fervent 
Heat. We defire, if poffible, to know what 
will be the face of that Day, that great and 
terrible Day, when the Regions of the Air will 
be nothing but mingled Flame and Smoke, 
and the habitable Earth turn'd into a Sea of 
molten Fire. 

But we muft not leave the World in this dif- 
order and confufion, without examining what 
will be the iffue and confequences of it. Whe- 
ther this will be the End of all Things, and 
Nature by a fad fate, lie eternally dilTolvM and 
defolate in this m.anner : or whether we may 
hope for a Reftauration : New Heavens and a 
ISlew Earthy which the Holy Writings make 
mention of, more pure and perfeQ: than the for- 
mer. As if this was but as a Refiner'' s fire^ to 


Concerning the Co^iflagratioH. 5 

purge out the drofs and courfer parts, and then 
caft the Mafs again into a new and better 
Mould. Thefe things, with God's affiftance, 
fhall be matter of our prefent enquiry ; Thefe 
make the general fubject of this Treatrfe, and 
of the remaining parts of this Theory of the 
Earth. Which now, you fee, begins to be a 
kind of Prophecy or Prognoftication of things 
to come ; as it hath been hitherto an Hiftory of 
tilings pafs'd ; of fach ftates and changes as 
Nature hath already undergone. And if that 
account which we have given of the Origin of 
the Earth, its firft and Paradifaical form, and 
the diifolution of it at the Univerfal Deluge, 
appear fair and reafonable : The fecond diffo- 
lution by Fire, and the renovation of it out of 
a fecond Chaos, I hope will be deduc'd from as 
clear grounds and fuppofitions. And Scripture 
ic felf will be a more vifible Guide to us ia 
thefe following parts of the Theory, than it 
was in the former. In the mean time, I take 
occafion to declare here again, as I have done 
heretofore, that neither this, nor any other 
great revolutions of Nature, are brought to pafs, 
by Caufes purely Natural, without the condufl 
of a particular Providence. And 'tis the Sacred 
Books of Scripture that are the Records of this 
Providence, both as to Times paft, and Times 
to come; As to all the fignal Changes, either 
of the Natural World, or of Mankind, and 
the different Oeconomies of Religion. In which 
refpecls, thefe Books, tho' they did not contain 
a Moral Law, would notwithftanding be, as 

B 2 the 

4 The Theory of the E A r t h, 

the moft myftical, ib alfo the moft valuable 
Books in the World. 

This Treatife, you fee, will confift of Two 
Parts : The former whereof is to give an ac- 
count of the Conflagration ; and the latter, of 
the New Heavens and New Earth following 
upon it ; together with the ftate of Mankind 
in thofe New Habitations. As to the Confla- 
gration, we firft enquire, what the Antients 
thought concerning the prefent frame of this 
World ; whether it was to perifh or no ; whe- 
ther to be deftroyed, or to ftand eternally in 
this pofture: Then in what manner they 
thought It would be deftrovM ; by what force 
or violence ; whether by Fire or other ways. 
And with rhefe Opinions of the Antients we 
will compare the doflrine of the Prophets and 
Apoftles, to difcover and confirm the truth of 
them. Inthefecond place, We will examine 
what Calculations or Conjeftures have been 
made concerning the time of this great Cata- 
ftrophe, or of the End of this World. Whe- 
ther that Period be definable or no ; and whe- 
ther by Natural Arguments, or by Prophecies. 
Thirdly, We will confider the Signs of the ap- 
proaching Conflagration : Whether fuch as will 
be in Nature, or in the fl:ate of Humane Af- 
fairs ; but efpecially fuch as are taken notice of 
and recorded in Scripture. Fourthly, Which 
is the principal Point, and yet that wherein 
the Antients have been mofl: filent, IVhatCaufes 
there are in Nature, what Preparations, for this 
Conflagration : Where are the Seeds of this U- 
niverfal Fire, or Fuel fufficient for the nourifli- 


Concerning the Qonjlagrathn. 5 

ing of it ? Laftly, In what Order, and by what 
Degrees, tlie Conflagration will proceed : la 
what manner the frame of the Earth will be 
diifoIvM; and what will be the dreadful Coun- 
tenance of a "Burjting World. 

Thefe heads are fct down more fully In the 
Argument of each Chapter; and feem to be 
fufficient for the Explication of this whole mat- 
ter : Taking in fome additional Difcourfes, 
which, in purfuing thefe Heads, enter of their 
own accord, and make the work more even 
and entire. In the Second Part, we reftore the 
World that we had deftroy'd : Build New Hea- 
vens and a new Earth, wherein Right eouf7iefs 
fiall dwell. Eftablifli that new order of Things, 
which is fo often celebrated by the Prophets : 
A Kingdom of Peace and of Juftice, where 
the Enemy of Mankind fliall be bound, and 
tJie Prince of Peace fhall rule. A Paradife 
without a Serpent, and a Tree of Knowledge, 
not to wound, but to heal the Nations. Where 
will be neither curfe^ nor fain^ nor deaths nor 
difeafe. Where all things are new, all things 
are more perfeft, both the World it felf, and 
its Inhabitants. Where the Firft-born from 
the Dead, have the Firft-fruits of glory. 

We dote upon this prefent World, and the 
enjoyments of it : And 'tis not without pain, 
and fear, and reluftancy, that we are torn 
from them ; as if our hopes lay all w^ithin the 
compafs of this Life. Yet, I know not by 
what good fate my Thoughts have been al- 
w^ays fixt upon things to come, more than up- 
oa things prefcnt. Thefe I know, by certain 

B J Expe^ 

6 The Theory of the Earth. 

Experience, to be but trifles ; and if there 
be nothing more confiderable to come, the 
whole being of Man is no better than a trifle. 
But there is room enough before us in that we 
C2i\l Eternity^ for great and Noble Scenes; and 
the Mind of Man feels it felf leiTen'd and 
ftraitenM in this low and narrow ftate ; wifhes 
and waits to fee fomething greater. And if it 
could difcern another World a coming, on this 
fide Eternal Life; a beginning Glory, the heft 
that Earth can bear, it would be a kind of Im- 
mortality to enjoy that profpeft before-hand ; 
To fee, when this Theatre is diilolv'^d, where 
we fliall aft next, and what Parts. What 
Saints and Heroes, if I may fo fay, will appear 
upon that Stage; and with what Luftre and 
Excellency. How eafy would it be,under a view 
of thefe Futurities, to defpife the little Pomps 
and Honours, and the momentary Pleafures of 
a Mortal Life. But I proceed to our Subject. 

C H A p. 

Concerning the Conflagration. 7 

C H A P. 11. 

The true {late of the Queftlon is Tropos'^d. 

*Tis the general doBrine of the oAntients^ that 
the pefent Worlds or the prefent frame of 
Nature^ is mutable and feYifhahle : To which 
the Sacred "Books agree ; and Natural Reafon 
can alledge nothing againft it. 

WHEN we fpeak of the End or Deftru- 
aion of the World, whether by Fire 
or otherwife, 'tis not to be imagin'd that we 
underftand this of the Great Univerfe ; Sun, 
Moon, and Stars, and the Higheft Heavens ; 
as if thefe were to perifli or be'deftroy'd fome 
few years hence, whether by Fire or any 0- 
ther way. This Queflion is only to be under- 
ftood of the Sublunary Worlds of this Earth and 
its Furniture ; which had its Original about fix 
thoufand years ago, according to the Hiftory 
of Mofes'y and hath once ah'eady been deftroy- 
ed, when tlie Exterior Region of it broke, and 
the Abyfs iffuing forth, as out of a Womb, over- 
flow'd all the habitable Earth, Gen. j. 11. Job 
38. 8. The next Deluge is that of Fire ; which 
will have the fame Bounds, and overflow the 
Surface of the Earth much-what in the fame 
manner. But the Coeleftial Regions, where 
the Stars and Angels inhabit, are not concern'd 
in this Fate : Thofe are not made of combu- 
ftible Matter; nor, if they were, could our 

B 4 Flames 

'8 The Theory of<tloe Earth. 

Flames reach them. PofTibly thofe Bodies may 
have changes and revolutions peculiar to them- 
fel es, but in ways unknown to us, and after 
long and unknown periods of time. There- 
fore when we fpeak of the Conflagration of the 
World, Thefe have no concern in the queftion ; 
nor any other part of the Univerfe, than the 
Earth and its dependances. As will evidently 
appear when we come to explaia the Manner 
and Caufes of the Conflagration. 

And as this Conflagration can extend no fur- 
ther than to the Earth and its Elements, fo nei- 
ther can it dcfl:roy the matter of the Earth ; 
but only the form and falTiionof it, as it is an 
habitable World. Neither Fire, nor any other 
Natural Agent can deflroy Matter, that is, re- 
duce it to nothing : it may alter the m.odes and 
qualities of it, but the iiiblTance will always 
remain. And accordingly the Apofl:le, when 
he fpeaks of the mutability of this World, fays 
only, The figure or fafliion of this World fajfes 
away^ i Cor, 7. 31. This ftrufture of the 
Earth and difpofition of the Elements : And all 
the Vborks of the Earth, as St. 'Veter fays ; a 
Epft. 3, All its natural productions, and all the 
works of art or humane induftry ; thefe will 
perifli, melted or torn in pieces by the Fire ; 
but without an annihilation of the Matter, any 
more than in the former Deluge. And this 
will be further provM and illuftrated in the be* 
ginning of the following Book. 

The queftion being thus ftated, we are next 
to conflder the fenfe of Antiquity upon thefe 
two Points : Firft, Whether this Sublunary 


Concerning the Co?iflagration. 9 

World is mutable and perifliablc. Secondly, 
By the force and afti'on of whatcaufes, and ia 
what manner it will perifh : whether by Fire 
or otherwife. oAriftotle is very irregular in 
his Sentiments about the jflate of the World ; 
He allows it neither beginning nor ending, rife 
nor fall, but wouM have it eternal and immu- 
table. And this he underftands not only of 
the Great Univerfe, but of this Sublunary 
World, this Earth which we inhabit: where- 
in he will not admit there ever have been or 
ever will be, either general Deluges or Con- 
flagrations. And as if he was ambitious to bs 
thought fingular in his opinion about the Eter- 
nity of the World, He fays, oAll the rAncie?n? 
before him, gave fome beginning or origin to 
the World : But were not indeed fo unanimous 
as to its future fate : Some believing it immu- 
table, or as the Philoibphers call it, incorrupti- 
ble ; Others, That it had its fatal times and Pe- 
riods, as lelTer Bodies have ; and a term of age 
prefixt to it, by Providence. 

But before we examine this Point any further, 
it will be neceffary to reflect upon that which 
we noted before, an ambiguity in the ufe of the 
word Worldj which gives frequent occafion of 
miftakes in reading the Ancients : when that 
which they fpeak of the great Univerfe^ we 
apply to the Sublunary World : or on the con-, 
trary, what they fpeak of this Earth, we ex- 
tend to the whole Univerfe. And if fome of 
them, befides oAriftotle^ made the World incor- 
ruptible, they might mean that of the G/T^f 
Univerfe^ which they thought would never be 


i'o The Theory of the Earth. 

diflblvM or perifh as to its Mafs and Bulk: But 
fingle parts and points of it (and our Earth is 
no more) may be varioufly transformed, and 
made habitable and unhabitable, according 
to certain periods of time, without any pre- 
judice to their Philofophy. So Tlato^ for in- 
ftance, thinks this World will have no Diffolu- 
tion : for, being a work {o beautiful and noble, 
the goodnefs of God, he fays, will always pre- 
ferve it. It is moft reafonable to underftand this 
of the Great Univerfe ; for, in our Earth, Tlata 
himfelf admits fuch diffolutions, as are made 
by general Deluges and Conflagrations ; and 
we conted for no other. So likewife in other 
Authors, if they fpeak of the immortality of 
the World, you muft obferve what World they 
apply it to : and whether to the Matter or the 
Form of it : and if you remember that our Dif- 
courfe proceeds only upon the Sublunary 
World, and the Diffolution of its form, you 
will find little in antiquity contrary to this 
doftrine. I always except oAriftotle^ (who 
allow'd of no Providence in this inferiour 
World) and fome Tythagoreans faldy fo calPd, 
being either fictitious Authors, or Apoftates 
from the dodrine of their Mafter. Thefe 
being excepted, upon a view of the reft, you 
will find very few diiTenters from this general 

Tlato'^s argument againft the diffolution of 
the World, from the goodnefs and wifdom of 
God, wou'd not be altogether unreafonable, 
tho' apply ^d to this Earth, if it was fo to be dif- 
folv'd, as never to be reftor'd again. But we 


Co7icerning the Conflrgratton. ii 

expeO: New Heavens 2.nd a Neis) Earth upon 
the dilTolution ofthefe: Better in all refpects, 
more commodious and more beautiful. And 
the feveral perfeclions of the Divine Nature, 
Wifdom, Power, Goodnefs, Juftice, SanQ:ity, 
cannot be fo well difplay'd and exemplify'd m 
any one fingle ftate of Nature, as in a fuccefli- 
on of States : fitted to receive one another ac- 
cording to the difpofitions of the Moral World, 
and the order of Divine Providence. Where- 
fore Tlato\ argument from the Divine Attri- 
butes, all things confider'd, doth rather prove 
a fucceflion of Worlds, than that one fingle 
World fljould remain the fame throughout all 
ages, without change or variation. Next to 
the Tlatouifisj the Stoicks were moft confi- 
derable in matters relating to Morality and 
Providence : And their opinion, in this cafe, is 
well known; they being lookt upon by the Mo- 
derns, as the principal Authors of the doftrine 
of the Conflagration. Nor is it lefs known that 
the School of T^emocritus and Epcurus made 
all their Worlds fubjeQ: to difiblution; and by 
a new concourfe of Atoms reflorM them again* 
Laftly, The lojtick Philophers, who had Thales 
for their Mafter, and were the firft Naturalifts 
amongfl: tlie Greeks^ taught the fame doQrine, 
We have indeed bur an imperfect account left 
us of this Sefl:, and 'tis great pity ; for as it was 
one of the moft ancient, fo it feems to have 
been one of the moft confiderable amongft 
the Greeks for Natural Philofophy. In thofe 
remains which 'Diogenes Laertitis hath pre- 
ferv'dj oi Q^^nay.agorasy o/inaximenes^ o^^rche^ 

%2 The Theory of the Bart h. 

Jaus^ &:c. all great Men in their time, we find 
that they treated much of the Origin of the 
World, and had many extraordinary Notions 
about it, which come lame and defeftive to us. 
The doftrine of their Founder, Thales^ which 
made all things to confift of Water,feems to have 
a great refemblance to the dotlrine oiMojes and 
St. Teter^ about the conftitution of the Firft 
Heavens and Earth, Gen i. 2 Tet. 2. 5. But 
there is little in Laertius what their opinion 
was about the Diflblution of the World. Other 
Authors inform us more of that. StoiatM^ EcL 
7h)f, 1. 1, c. 24. joins them with Leuciffu^ and 
the Epicureans : Shnflkius with Heraclitus 
and the Stoich^ in this doftrine about the 
corruptibility of the World. So that all the 
Schools of the Greek Philofophers, as we noted 
before, were unanimous in this point, except- 
ing the Terifatetich\ whofe Mafter, c/^r/- 
ftotle^ had neither modefty enough to follow 
the docirine of his PredeceiTors, nor wit enough 
to invent any thing better. 

Befides thefe Sefts of Philofophers, there 
were Theologers amongft the Greeks^ more 
ancient than thefe Se£ls, and more myftical. 
oAriftotle often diftinguiflieth the Naturalifis 
and the Theologues^ o\ (piffim, ol btoAopt. Such 
were Orpheus and his follov/ers, who had more 
pf the Ancient Oriental Learning than the fuc- 
ceeding Philofophers. But they writ their Fhi- 
lofophy, or Theology rather, Mythologically 
and Poetically, in Parables and Allegories, 
chat needed an interpretation. All thefe Theo- 
bgers fuppoied the Earth to rife from a Chaos: 


Concerning the Conflagration. 15 

And as they fa id that Love was the Princi- 
ple at firft, that united the loofe and fevered 
Elements, and formed them into an Habita- 
ble World : So they fuppofed that if Strife 
or Contention prevaiPd, that would again dif. 
folve and difunite them, and reduce things 
into a Chaos : Such as the Earth will be in, 
upon the Conflagration. And it further ap- 
pears, that both thefe Orders of the Learned 
in Greece fuppos'd this prefent frame of Nature 
might perifh, by their doftrine of "Periodical 
Revolutions^ or of the Renovation of the 
World after certain periods of time : which 
was a do£l:rine common amongft the learned 
Greeks^ and received by them from the ancient 
Barbarick Nations. As will appear more at 
large in the following Book, Ch. 5. In the mean 
time we may obferve that Origen in anfwer- 
ing Celfusj Lib. 9. about the point of the Re- 
furreftion, tells him, That Doftrine ought not 
to appear fo ftrange or ridiculous to him, fee- 
ing their own Authors did believe and teach 
the Renovation of the Worlds after certain Ages 
or Periods. And the truth is, this Renovation 
of the World, rightly ftated, is the fame thing 
with the Firfi RefurreBion of the Chriitians. 
And as to the Second and general Refurreftion, 
when the Righteous fliall have Celeftial Bo- 
dies ; 'tis well known that the Tlatonifts and 
Pythagoreans cloath'd the Soul with a Celeflial 
Body, or, in their Language, an Ethereal Ve- 
hicle, as her laft Beatitude or Glorification. 
So that Origen might very juftly tell his ad- 
verfary, he had no reafon to redicule the Chri- 


t^ The Theory of the Earth. 

.ftian DoQ:rine of the Refurreftion, feeing their 
own Authors had the main ftrokes of it in their 
•Traditionary Learning. 

I will only add one remark more, before w6 
leave this Subject, to prevent a miftake in the 
word Immortal or Immortality^ when applyed 
to the World. As I told you before, the equi- 
vocation that was in that term Worlds it being 
us'd fometimes for the whole Univerfe, fome- 
times for this inferiour part of it where we live; 
fo likewife we muft obferve, that when this 
Inferiour World is faid to be Immortal^ by the 
Philofophers, as fometimes it is, that common- 
ly is not meant of any fingle ftate of Nature, 
or any fingle World, but of a fucceffion of 
Worlds, confequent one upon another. As a 
family may be faid immortal, not in any fingle 
perfon, but in a fucceffion of Heirs. So as, 
many times, w^hen the Ancients mention the 
immortality of the World, they do not there- 
by exclude the Diifolucion or Renovation of it , 
but fuppofe a viciffirude, or feries of Worlds 
fucceeding one another. This obfervation is 
not mine, but was long fincemade by Simfli- 
ciusj Stobaus^ and others, who tell us in what 
fenfe fome of thofe Philofophers who allowed 
the World to be perifhable, did yet affirm it 
to be immortal : namely, by fucceffive renova- 

Thus much is fufficient to fliew the ihnfQ 
and judgment of Antiquity, as to the charge- 
ablenefs or perpetuity of the World. But An- 
cient Learning is like Ancient Medals, more 
efl:eemed for tlicir rarity, than their real ufe ; 


Concerning the Conflagration. 15 

unlefs the Authority of a Prince make them 
currant. So neither will thefe Teftimonies be 
of any great effect, unlefs they be made good 
and valuable by the Authority of Scripture. 
We mufi: therefore add the Teftimonies of the 
Prophets and Apoftles to thefe of the Greeks 
and 'Barbarians^ that the evidence may be 
full and undeniable. That the Heavens and 
the Earth will perifli or be chang'd into another 
form, is, fometimes, plainly expreft, fometimes 
fuppos'd and alluded to in Scripture. The 
Prophet Davids teftimony is exprefs, both for 
the beginning and ending of the World : in the 
102. Tfalm^ Ver, 25, 26, 27, Of old haft thou 
laid the foundation of the Earthy ufid the hea^ 
vens are the work of thy hands. They fiall 
feripj hut thou flmlt endure : yea^ all of them 
fiall wax old like a garment ; as a vefiure fhalt 
thou change them^ and they flmll he changed^ 
"But thou art the fame^ and thy Tears Jhallhave 
no end. The Prophet Ifaiah\ teftimony is no lefe 
exprefs, to the fame purpofe, Ch, 51. 6. Lift up 
your Eyes to the heavens^ and look u-pon the 
Earth heneath : for the heavens fhall va7iiflr 
away like fmoke^ and the Earth jhall wax old 
like a garment^ and they that dwell therein fiaU 
die in like manner, Thefe Texts are plain and 
explicit ; and in alluHon to this day of the 
Lord, and this deftruftion of the World, the 
fame Prophet often ufeth Phrafes that relate to 
it : As the Concujjion of the Heavens and the 
Earthy Ifa. 15. ij. The /leaking of the foun- 
dations of the World, ch. 24. 18, 19. The dif-- 
folution of the Hoft ofHeaveii^ ch. 34. 4. And 


1 6 The Theory of the Earth. 

cur Sacred Writers have expreflions of the 
like force, and relating to the fame effect : As 
the Hills meltmg like wdx^ at the frej'ence of 
the Lordy Pfal. 97. 5. Shattering once more all 
the Parts of the Creation, Hagg, 2. 6. Over- 
turning the mountains^ and maVing the -pillars 
of the Earth to tremble^ Job 9. 5, 6. If you 
refleO: upon the explication given of the De- 
luge in the firft part of this Theory, and attend 
to the manner of the Conflagration, as it will 
be explain'd in the Sequel of this Difcourfe, you 
will fee the juftnefs and fitnefs of thefe exprefli- 
0ns : That they are not Poetical Hyperboles, or 
random expreflions, of great and terrible things 
in general, but a true account of what hath 
been, or will be, at that great Day of the 
Lord. 'Tis true, the Prophets fometimes ufe 
fuch-like exprefhons figuratively, for commo- 
tion in States and Kingdoms, but that is only by 
way of Metaphor and accommodation ; the 
true bafis they ftand upon, is that ruine, over- 
throw, and dilTolution of the Natural World, 
wdiichwasonceatthe Deluge, and willbeagain, 
after another manner, at the general Confla- 

As to the New Teftament, our Saviour fays, 
Heaven and Earth fiallfafs away^ hut his words 
JImll not-pafs away^ Matth. 24. 3 5. St. Tatil fays, 
the Schefue of this World ; the fafhion, form, 
and compofition of it, pafeth away^ i Cor. 7. 
31. And when mention is made of New He a* 
vens and a New Earthy which both the Pro- 
phet Jfaiah^ Ifa. 65. 17, &if 66, 22. and the A- 
poftles St. Teter and St. John, Rev. 2 1 . i . 2 Tet. 

3. 13. men- 

Concerning the Conflagration. 17 

^. 15, mention, 'tis plainly imply'd, that the 
old ones will be diflblvM. The fame thing is 
alfo imply'd, when our Saviour fpeaks of a 
Renafce7tcy or Regeneration^ Matt. 19. 28. and 
St.Teter^o^d. Reftitiition of all things, oAFt. j. 
21. For what is now, muft be abolifh'd, be- 
fore any former order of things can be reftor'd 
or reduced. In a word, If there was nothing 
in Scripture concerning this Subjeft, but that 
difcourfe of St. Teter'^s^ in his Second Epiftle 
and Third Chapter, concerning the triple order 
and fucceffions of the Heavens and the Earth; 
pad, prefent, and to come ; that alone wou'd 
be a conviftionand demonftration to me, that 
this prefent World will be dilTolv'd. 

You will fay, it may be, in the lafl: place, we 
want ftill the teftimonyof Natural Reafon and 
Philofophy to make the evidence compleat. 
I anfwer, 'tis enough, if they be filent, and 
have nothing to fay to the contrary. Here are 
witnelTes, Humane and Divine, and if none 
appear againft them, we have no reafon to re- 
fufe their teftimony, or to diftruft it. Philofo- 
phy will very readily yield to this Doftrine, 
that all material Compofitions are diffolvable : 
and fhe will not wonder to fee that die, which 
file had feen born ; I mean this Terreftrial 
World. She ftood upon the Chaos, and fee it 
roll it felf, with difficulty and after many 
ftruglings, into the form of an habitable Earth : 
And that form flie fee broken down again at 
the Deluge; and can as little hope or expeft 
now, as then, that it fliould be everlafting and 
immutable. There would be nothing great 

C or 

1 8 The Theory of the E a ?v t h. 

or confiderable in this Inferiour World, if them 
were not fuch Revolutions of Nature. The 
Seafons of the Year, and the frefh ProduQions 
of the Spring, are pretty in their way ; But 
when the (oAnms Mag7ius) Great Tear comes 
about, with a new order of all things, in the 
Heavens and on the Earth, and a new drefs of 
Nature throughout all her Regions, far more 
goodly and beautiful than the faireft Spring ; 
This gives a new Life to the Creation, and 
fhows the greatnefs of its Author. Befides, 
Thefe Fatal Cataftrophes are always a punifli- 
nient to degenerate Mankind, that are over- 
whelmed in the Ruins of thefe perifliing Worlds. 
And to make Nature her felf execute the Di- 
vine Vengeance againft Rebellious Creatures, 
argues both the Power and Wifdom of that 
Providence that governs all things here below. 
Thefe things Reafon and Philolbphy approve 
of; but if you further require that they fliould 
fhew a NeceJJity of this future Deftruftion of 
the World, *^'from Natural Caufes^ with the 
time and all other circumftances of this effect ; 
your demands are unreafonable, feeing thefe 
things do not depend folely upon Nature. But 
if you will content your felf to know what 
difpofitions there are in Nature towards fuch 
a change, how it may begin, proceed, and be 
confummate, under the conduft of Providence, 
be pleafed to read the following Difcourfe for 
your further fatisfaftion. 

C K A p. III. 

Concerning the Conflagratios. 19 

Chap. III. ; 


That the World will he deftroy'd hy Fire^ is the 
doHrine of the oAnciejits^ ef^ecialfy of the 
Stoicks. That the fame dottrine is more an- 
cient than the Greeks, and derived from the 
'^arharick Tbilofofhy^ and That frohahly 
from Noah ; the Father of all Traditionary 
Lear7iing. The fame dotirine exfrejly au- 
thorized hy Revelation^ and inrolPd into the 
Sacred Canon. 

THAT the prefent World, ortheprefent 
frame of Nature, will be deftroy'd, we 
have already flhewn. In what manner this 
deftruftion will be, by what force or what 
kind of fate, muft be our next enquiry. The 
Philofophers have always fpoken of Fire and 
Water ^ thofe two unruly Elements, as the only 
Caufes that can deftroy the World, and work 
our ruin; and accordingly they fay, all the 
great and fatal Revolutions of Nature, either 
paft or to come, depend upon the violence of 
thefe Two \ when they get the mailery, and 
overwhelm all the reft and the whole Earth, 
in a Deluge or Conflagration. But as they 
make thefe Two the Deftroying Elements, lb 
theyalfo make them the Purifying Elements. 
And accordingly in their Luftrations, or their 
Rites and Ceremonies for purging fin, Fire and 
Water were chiefly made ufe of, both amengfl: 
the Romansy Greeks and 'Barharians. ■ And 

C 2 when 

20 The Theory of the Earth. 

when thefe Elements over-run the World, it 
is not, they fay, for a final deftruQion of it, 
but to purge Mankind and Nature from their 
impurities. As for purgation by Fire and Wa- 
ter, the ftileof our Sacred Writings does very 
much accommodate itfelf to that fenfe ; and the 
Holy Ghoft, who is the great Purifier of Souls, 
is compared in his operation upon us, and in 
our regeneration, to Fire or Water. And as for 
the external World, St. Teter^ lEf. ^,21. makes 
the Flood to have been a kind of 'Baptizing 
or Renovation of the World. And St. Taul, 
I Cor. J. 1 J. and the Prophet Malachy^ Mai. ^. 
2, 3. makes the laft Fire, to be a purging and 
refining fire. But to return to the Ancients. 

The Stoich efpecially, of all other Sefls 
amongfl: the Gr^^^j, have preferved the doftririe 
of the Conflagration, and made it a confidera- 
ble part of their Philofphy, and almofl: a cha- 
rafter of their order. This is a thing fo well 
known that I need not ufe any Citations to 
prove it. But they cannot pretend to have 
been the firft Authors of it neither. For, be- 
fides that amongft the Greeks themfelves, 
Hemclitus and Emfedocles^ more ancient than 
^^;/^, the Matter of the Stoich-, taught this 
doGrine, 'tis plainly a branch of the Barbarick 
Philofophy, and taken from thence by the 
Greeks, For it is well known that the moft 
ancient and myfl:ick Learning amongft the 
Greeks., was not originally their own, but bor- 
rowed of the more Eaflrern Nations, by Or- 
fheusyTjthagoras^Tlato^2ind many more, who 
travePd thither, and traded with the Priefl-s for 


Concerning the Co?tflagration, 21 

Knowledge and Philofophy; and when they 
got a competent flock, returned home, and fet 
up a School, or a Sect, to inftruft their Coun- 
try-men. But before we pafs to the Eaftern 
Nations, let us, if you pleafe, compare the 
Roman Philofophy upon this Subjeft, with that 
of tlic Greeks J 

The Roma7is were a great people, that m.ade 
a fliew of Learning, but had little -in reality, 
more than Words and Rhetorick. Their curi- 
ofity or emulation in Philofophical Studies 
was fo little, that it did not make different 
Sefts and Schools amongft them, as amongft 
the Greeks, I remember no Philofophers they 
had but fuch as Tullyj Seneca^ and fom^- of their 
Poets. And of thefe Lucretius^ Luc an and 
Ovid., have fpoken openly of the Conflagration. 
OvicPs Verfes are well known, 

Efj^e (j^uo^ue infatis reminifcitur^ ^ff^'^^ tempis^ 
Quo 7nare^ quo Tellus^ correct aque Regia Cceli 
oArdeat^ ^ mundi moles o^erofa lahoret. 

gA Time decreed ly Fate^ at length will corne^ 
When Heavens and Earth and Seasjljall bave 

{their doom ; 
oA fiery doom: oAnd Nature'* s mighty frame 
Shall break J and he dijfolv'^dinto aflame. 

We fee Tully\ fenfe upon this matter in Sci- 
^o\ Dr^am. When the old man fpeaks to his 
Nephew oAfricanus^ and fliews him from the 
Clouds, this fpot of Earth, wliere we live ; 
He tells him, tho' our anions fliould be great, 

C J and 

22 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

and fortune favour them with fuccefs, yet there 
wou'd be no room for any lafting Glory in this 
World ; for the World it felf is tranfient and 
fugitive. .And a Deluge or a Conflagration, 
which neceffarily happen after certain periods 
of time, fweep away all Records of humane 
aGions. As for Sejteca., he being a profeft 
Stmcli^ we need not doubt of his Opinion in this 
point. W^ may add here, if you pleafe, the 
Sibylline verfes^ which were kept with great 
Religion, in the Capitol at Rome^ and conful- 
ted with much ceremony upon folemn occafions. 
Thefe SihyJs v/ere the Prophetefles of the Gen^ 
tiles^ and tho^ their Writings now have many 
fpurious additions, yet none doubt but that the 
Conflagration of the World was one of their 
original Prophecies* 

Let us now proceed to the Eafiern Nations. 
As the Ro??^rr4s received the fmall skill thev 
had in the Sciences, from the Greeks ; fo the 
Greeks receivM their chief Myftick Learning 
from the 'Barbarians : that is, from the yE-gyf- 
tians^ "Perjians^ Thce?ticiafis^ and other Eaftern 
Nations : For 'tis not only the Weftern or 
Northern people, that they called 'BarhariaiiSy 
but indeed all Nations befides rhemfelyes. For 
that is commonly the vanity of great Empires, 
to uncivilize in a manner all the refl: of the 
World ; and to account all thofe People 'Bar- 
laroiis^ that are not fubjeO: to their dominion. 
Thefe however, whom they calPd fo, were the 
mofl: ancient People, and had the firfl: Learning 
that was ever heard of after the Flood. And 
amongft thefe, the Mgyftians w^ere as famous 

Concerning the Conflagration. 25 

as any; whofe Sentiment in this particular of 
the Conflagration is well known. For Tlato^ 
who livM amongft them feveral Years, tells 
us m his Timau6^ that it was the doftrine of 
their Priefts, that the fatal Cataftrophes of the 
World were by Fire and Water. In like man- 
ner the Terftans made their beloved God, Firej 
at length to confume all things that are capa- 
ble of being confum'd : For that is faid to have 
been the doctrine of Hydafpes^ one of their 
great Magi or Wife Men. As to the Thceni- 
cians^ I fufpecl very much that the Stoicks had 
their Philofophy from them, {Juft, Mar. oApoL 
2.) and amongft other things the Conflagra- 
tion. We fliall take Notice of that hereafter. 

But to comprehend the oArabians alfo, and 
Indians^ give me leave to refleft a little upon 
the ftory of tlie Thcenix. A ftory well known, 
and related by fome antient Authors, and is in 
fhort this : The Thcenix^ they fay, is a Bird 
in eArahia^ fndia^ and thofe Eaftern Parts, fin- 
gle in her Kind, never more than one at a 
time, and very long-liv'd ; appearing only at 
the expiration of the Great Tear^ as they call 
it : And then flie makes her felf a Nefl: of 
Spices, which being fet on fire by the Sun, or 
fome other fecret power, flie hovers upon it, 
and confumes her felf in the flames: But, 
which is mofl: wonderful, out of thefe aflies 
rifeth a fecond Thcenix ; fo that it is not fo 
much a Death as a Renovation. I do not 
doubt but the flory is a fable, as to any fucli 
kind of Bird, fingle in her Species, living and 
and dying, and reviving in that manner ; But 

C 4 'th 

24 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

tis an Apologue, or a Fable with an Interpre- 
tation, and was intended as an Emblem of the 
World ; which, after a long Age, will be con- 
fum'd in the laft Fire : And from its Aflies or 
Remains will arife another World, or a new- 
form'd Heavens and Earth. This, I think, is 
the true Myftery of the Thcsnix^ under which 
Symbol the Eailern Nations prefervM the do- 
ftrine of the Conflagration and Renovation 
of the World. They tell fomewhat a like 
ftory of the Eagle, foaring aloft fo near the 
Sun, that by his Warmth and enlivening Rays, 
fhe renews her Age and becomes Young again. 
To this the Tfaimijt is thought to allude, Pfai. 
105. 5. Thy Totith Jhall he renewed like the 
Eagles: Which the Chaldee Paraphraft ren- 
ders, hi mundo venture renovabis^ fictit eAqtd^ 
la^ juventntem ttiam. Thefe things to me 
feem plainly to be Symbolical, reprefenting that 
World to come which the Paraphrait mentions, 
and the firing of this. And this is after the 
manner of the Ealiern Wifdom ; v/hich al- 
w^ays lov'd to go fine, cloath'd in Figures and 

And not only the Eaftern *B^rZ'^n^?;/j, but 
the Northern and Weflern alfo, had this do- 
fl-rine cf the Conflagration amongfl: them. 
The ^Sf^^/j/W/j-, in their difpute with the^^^^- 
ftiaiis about Antiquity, argue upon both Sup- 
pofitions, of Fire or Water, deiiroying the 
Laft World, or beginning This. And in the 
Wefl:, the Celts^ the moft Antient People there, 
had the fame Tradition ; for the 'T>ruids^ who 
wxre their Priefts and Philofophers, deriv'd, 


Concerning the Conflagration. 25 

;iot from the Greeks^ but of the old Race of 
Wife Men, that had their Learning traditional- 
ly, and, as it were, hereditary from the Firfl: 
Ages: Thefe, as Straho tells us, lib, ^, gave 
the World a kind of Immortality by repeated 
Renovations ; and the Principle that deftroy'd 
it, according to them, was always Fire or 
Water. I had forgot to mention in this Lift, 
the Chaldeans ; whofe Opinion we have from 
"Berofm in Seneca^ Nat. Qudfi. ^. c. 29. They 
did not only teach the Conflagration, bur alio 
fixt it to a certain period of time, when there 
fliould happen a great Conjunftion of the Pla- 
nets in Cancer. Laftly, We may add, to clofe 
the Account, the Modern Indian Philofophers, 
the Reliques of the old "Bragmans : Thefe, as 
Majfem tells us, Ml. 16. Hi[L hid, declare, that 
the World will be renewM after an Univerfal 

You fee of what Extent and Univerfality 
throughout all Nations, this Doftrine of the 
Conflagration hath been. Let us now confider 
what defects or Exceffes there are in thefe an- 
tient Opinions, concerning this fate of the 
World, and how they may be refl:ified: That 
we may admit them no further into our Be- 
lief, than they are warranted by Reafon, or 
by the Authority of Chrifl:ian Religion. The 
firft Fault they feem to have committed about 
this Point, is this. That they made thefe Re- 
volutions and Renovations of Nature, indefi- 
nite or endlefs : As if there would be fuch a 
Succeffion of Deluges and Conflagrations to 
all Eternity. This the Stoicks feem plainly to 


26 The Theory of the E A r t h. 

have affeited, as appears from Numenim^ Thilo^ 
Simplkim and others. St. Jerome^ Efifl, 60. 
imputes this Opinion alfo to Origen ; but he 
does not always hit the true Senfe of that 
Father, or is not fair and juft in the Reprefen- 
tation of it. Whofoever held this Opinion, 'tis 
a manifefl: Errour, and may be eafily rectified 
by the Chriftian Revelation; which teaches 
us plainly, that there is a final Period and Con- 
fummation of all things that belong to this 
Sublunary or Terreftrial World. When the 
Kjngdom Jhall he deliver'* d u^ to the father ; 
and Time fhall be no more. 

Another Errour they committed in this do- 
£brine, is, the Identity, or Samenefs, if I may 
fb fay, of the Worlds fucceeding one another. 
They are made indeed ot the fame Lump of 
Matter, but they fupposM them to return alfo 
in the fame Form. And, which is worfe, 
that there would be the fame Face of humane 
Affairs ; the fime Perfons and the fame Ani- 
ons over again ; fo as the fecond World would 
be but a bare repetition of the former, with- 
out any variety or diverfity. Such a revoluti- 
on is commonly calPd thcTlatoriickTear : A pe- 
riod, when all things return to the fame pofture 
they had fome thoufands of years before ; as 
a Playafted over again, upon the fame Stage, 
and to the fame Auditory. This is a ground- 
lefs and injudicious fuppofition. For, whether 
we confider the Nature of Things, The Earth, 
after a dilTolution, by Fire or by Water, could 
not return into the fame form and fafliion it 
had befgre; Or whether we confider Provi-. 


Co7tcerni7ig the CoJifiagration, 27 

dence, it would no ways fuit with the Divine 
Wifdom and Juftice to bring upon the ftage 
again thofe very Scenes, and that very courfe 
of humane affairs, which it had fo lately con- 
demned and deftroy'd. We may be affur'd 
therefore, that, upon the diffolution of a 
World, a new order of things, both as to Na- 
ture and Providence, always appears : And 
what that new order will be, in both refpeSs, 
after the Co?iflagratton^ I hope we fliall, in 
the following Book, give a fatisfaclory Ac- 

Thefe are the Opinions, true or flilfe, of the 
Antients ; and chiefly of the Stoicks^ concern- 
ing the myftery of the Conflagration, It will 
not be improper to enquiie in the lafl: place. 
How the Stoichs came bv this doctrine : Whe- 
ther it was their difcovery and invention, or 
from whom they learned it. That it was not 
their own invention, we have given fufficient 
ground to believe, by fliewing the antiquity 
of it beyond the Times of the Stokks. Be- 
fides, what a Man invents himfelf, he can give 
the reafons and caufes of it, as things upon 
which he founded his invention : But the Sto^ 
ich do not this, but according to the antient 
traditional way, deliver the conclufion without 
proof or premilTes. We nam'd Her adit us and 
Emfedocles amongft the Greeks to have taught 
this doftrine before the Stoicks : And, accord- 
ing to Tlutarckj{deT)efec.Orac.) Hefiod and Or- 
phem^ Authors of the highefl: Antiquity, fung of 
this lafl: Fire in their Philoibphick Poetrv. But I 
fafpeO: the Stokks had this doSlrine from the 

28 The Theory of the Bart h. 

Thcenicians ; for if we enquire into the original 
of thatSeQ:, we fliall find that their Founder 
Xe7to was a Barbarian or Semi-barbarian, de- 
riv'd from the Thcenicians^ as Laertitts and 
Cicero give an account of him. And the 
7hmdcians had a great Share in the Oriental 
Knowledge, as we fee by Sanchomathon\ re- 
mains in Eufeliws* And by their myftical 
Books which Suidas mentions, from whence 
"Pherecydes^ Tythagoras his Mafter, had his 
Learning. We may therefore reafonably pre- 
fume, that it might be from his Countrymen, 
the Thcenicians^ that Zfno had the doftrine of 
the Confl^gratioju Not tliat he brought it firft 
into Greece^ but ftrongly revived it, and made 
it ahnoft peculiar to his Se£t. 

So much for the Stoicks in particular, and 
the Greeks in general. We have alfo you fee, 
tracM thefe Opinions higher, to the firft Bar- 
barick Philofophers ; who were the firft Race 
of Philofophers after the Flood. But Jofephus 
tells a formal Story of Pillars fet up by Sethj 
before the Flood ; implying the Foreknowledge 
of this Fiery Deftruftion of the World, even 
from the Beginning of it. His words, lib. i. 
c. 5. are to this effeft, give what credit to 
them you you think fit : Seth and his fellow 
(lude7its having found out the knowledge of the 
cceleftial ''Bodies^ and the order and diffofition 
of the Univerfe ; ajtd having alfo r€ceiv*d from 
Adam a Trofhecy^ that the World fiould have 
a double deftruBwn^ one by Water^ another by 
Fire : To freferve and tranfmit their know- 
ledge^ in either cafe^ to ;pofierity, they raifed 


Concerning the Conflagration. 29 

two Tillars^ one of 'Brick^ another of Stopze, 
and ingravH ufon them their Thilofophj and 
Inventions. oAnd one of thefe Tillars^ the 
Author fays, (Kctw ^ -Zvm^^ waj ft an ding i?i 
Syria, even to his time. I do not prefs the Be- 
lief of this Story ; there being nothing, that I 
know of, in Antiquity Sacred or Prophane, that 
gives a joynt teftimony with it. And thofe 
that fet up thefe Pillars, do not feem to me to 
have underftood the Nature of the Deluge or 
Conflagration ; if they thought a Pillar, either 
of Brick or Stone, would be fecure, in thofe great 
diffolutions of the Earth. But we have purfu- 
ed this doftrine high enough without the help 
of thefe Ante-diluvian Antiquities : Namely, 
to the earlieft People, and the firft Appearances 
of Wifdom after the Flood. So that, I think, 
we may juftly look upon it as the doftrine of 
Noah^ and of his immediate Pofterity. And 
as that is the higheft Source of Learning to the 
prefent World ; fo we fliould endeavour to car- 
ry our Philofophical Traditions to that Ori- 
ginal : For I cannot perfwade my felf but 
that they had amongft them, even in thofe 
early days, the main ftrokes or conclufions of 
the beft Philofophy : Or, if I may fo fay, a 
form of found doftrine concerning Nature and 
Providence. Of which Matter, if you will 
allow me a fhort Digreflion, I will fpeak my 
Thoughts in a few Words. 

In thofe Firft Ages of the World after the 
Flood, when Noah and his Children peopled 
the Earth again, as he gave them Precepts of 
Morality and Piety for the Conduct of their 


^o The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Manners ; which are iifuallv calFd Tracepta 
NoachidaYum^ the Trecefts q{ Noah^ frequent- 
ly mentionM both by the Jews and Chriftians : 
So ahb he deliv^er'd to them, at leaft, if we 
judge aright, certain Maxims or Conclnfions 
about Providence, the ftate of Nature, and the 
fate of the World : And thefe, in proportion, 
may be calPd ^Dogmata Noachidarum^ the Do^ 
brines of N(Mh^ and his Children. Which 
made a Syftem of Philofophy or fecret Know- 
ledge amongft them, deliverM by Tradition 
from Father to Son ; but efpecially preferv'd 
amongft their Prietts and Sacred Perfons, or 
fuch others as were addiflied to Contempla- 
tion. This I take to be more antient than 
Mofes himTelf, or the Jezmfl) Nation. But it 
would lead me too far out of my way, to fet 
down, in this place, the Reafons of my Judg- 
ment. Let it be fufficient to have pointed on- 
ly at this Fountain-head of Knowledge, and fo 
return to our Argument. 

We have heard, as it were, a Cry of Fire, 
throughout all Antiquity, and throughout 
all the People of the Eaith. But thofe Ala- 
rums are fometimes falfe, or make a great- 
er noife than the thing deferves. For my 
Part, I never truft Antiquity barely upon its 
own account, but always require a fecond wit- 
nefe either fi'om Nature, or from Scripture : 
What the Voice of Nature is, we flhall hear 
all along in the following Treatife : Let us 
then examine at prefent, wdiat Teftimony the 
Prophets and Apoftles give to this antient Do- 
ftrine of the Conflagration of the World. The 


Concerning the Coftflagration. ji 

Prophets fee the World a-fire at a diftance and 
more imperfeftly, as a Brightnefs in the Hea- 
vens, rather than a burning flame: But St. 
Teter defcribes it, as if he had been {landing 
by, and feen the Heavens and Earth in a red 
Fire ; heard the cracking Flames and the tum- 
bling Mountains, 2'?et. ^. lo. In the day of 
the Lord, The Heavens flmU pafs away with 
a great noife^ and the Elements flmll melt with 
fervent heat : The Earth alfoj and the works 
that are therein^ (hall he burnt uf. Then, af- 
ter a pious Ejaculation, he d.ddsjFer. 12. Look- 
ing for and haftening the coming of the day of 
God^ wherein the Heave?is^ being on fire^ Jhafl 
be dijfolved ; and the Elements Jhall melt with 
ferve?tt heat. This is as lively as a Man could 
exprefs it, if he had the dreadful Spectacle be- 
fore his Eyes. St. Teter had before taught 
the fame do£lrine (ver. 5. 6, 7.") but in a more 
Philofophick way; defcribing the double Fate 
of the World, by Water and Fire, with rela- 
tion to the Nature and Conftitution of either 
World, paft or prefent. The Heavens and the 
Earth were of old^ confifatig of water and by 
water : whereby^ the World that then wcis^ be- 
ing overflowed with water ^ ferif)*d. "But the 
Heavens and the Earth which are now^ by the 
fame Word are kept in flore^ referved unto fire 
againfi the day of "Judgment^ and -perdition of 
ungodly^ or oAtheifiical ?nen. This Teftimony 
of St. Teter being full, direfl, and explicit, 
will give Light and ftrength to feveral other 
Paffages of Scripture, where the fame thing is 
expreft Obfcurely or bv Allufion. As w^hen St. 


5 2 The Theory of the Earth. 

Tatil fays, The fire fl)all try every mail's work in 
that day^ i Cor. 5. 12, i^. And our Saviour 
fays, The tares (hall he burnt in the fire^ at 
the end of the Worlds Matt. 15. 40, 41, 42. 
Accordingly it is laid, both by the Apoftles 
and Prophets, that God will come to Judgment 
in Fire, St, "^aul to the Thejjalonians, 2 TheJJ] 
2. 7, 8. promifeth the perfecuted Righteous, 
Reft and Eafe, IVhen the Lord fiall he reveaU 
ed from Heaven^ with his mighty oAngels^ in 
flaming fire : taking vengeance on them that 
know not God^ &c. And fo to the Hebrews 
St. Vaul fays, ch. 10. 27. that for wilful Apo- 
ftates there remaineth no m.ore Sacrifice for 
fin, hut a certain fearful looking for of judg* 
ment^ and fiery ijtdignation^ vohich fhall devour 
the adverfaries^ or enemies of God. And in 
the i2tb Chapter, ver, 26, 27, 28, 29. healludes 
to the fame thing, when after he had fpoken of 
Jhaking the Heavens and the Earth once more, 
he exhorteth, as St. '?eter does upon the fame 
occafion, to reverence and godly fear^ Tor our 
God is a confuming Tire, 

In like manner the Prophets, when they (peak 
of deftroying the wicked, and the Enemies of 
God and'Chrift, at the end of the World, re- 
prefent it as a deftruQiion by Fire. Pfal. 11,6. 
Ufon the wicked the Lord fl) all rain coals ^ fire^ 
and brimfone^ and a hurniiig temfeft : This 
Jhall be the portion of their Cup. And Pfal. 
50. J. Our God fiall come^ and will not be flow : 
oA fire JhaJl devour before him,, and it (Imll he 
very tempeftuom round ahout bini. And in the 
beginning of thofe two triumphal Pfalms, the 


Concer?iing the Conflagration. 5J 

fixty eighth, and ninety feventh, we fee plain 
Allufions to this coming of the Lord in fire. 
The other Prophets fpeak in the fame Style, 
of a fiery Indignation againft the wicked^ in 
the Day of the Lord : As in Ifaiah 66. 1 5. For 
lehold the Lord will come with fire^ and with 
his Chariots like a whirl-wind^ to render his 
anger with fury^ and his rehihe with flames 
of fir e^ (and ch. J4. 8, 9, 10.) And m'Vanielj 
c. 7. 9, 10. The Antient of days is placed up- 
on his Seat of Judgment, coverM in flames. 
/ beheld till the Thrones were fet, and the 
cAntient of days did fit ^ whofe garment was 
white as fnow^ and the hair of his head like 
the fure wool : His Throne was like the fiery 
flame^ his wheels as lurning fire. qA fiery 
fir earn ijjried and came forth from before him : 
Thoufand thoufands miniftred unto him^ and ten 
thoufand times ten thoufafid fiood before him : 
The judgment was fet^ and the ^ooks were 
opened. The Prophet Malachy^ r. 4. i. de- 
fcribes the Day of the Lord to the fame effeft, 
and in like colours ; "Behold the 'Day cometh^ 
that Jhall burn as an Oven : and all the froud^ 
yea^ and all that do wickedly (!)till be as fiub^ 
ble \ and the day that comet h (l)all bprn them 
itpy faith the Lord of Hofts^ that it flhtll leave 
them 7ieither root nor bra^ich. And that na- 
ture her felf, and the Earth fliall fuffer in that 
fire, the Prophet Zfpha?iy tells us, c. 5. 8. 0,411 
the Earth pall be devoured with the fire uf my 
jealoufte, Laftly, This confumprion of the 
Earth by Fire, even to the Foundations ot it, 
is expreft livelily by Mofes in his Song, TJeut. 

D 31.22. 

34 The Theory cf the E a r t h. 

32. 2 2. G/^ fire is kifidledin my anger ^ andJl)nU 
lurn untotheloweft Hell: a}idfi)dlco?ijume the 
Earth with her ificre/^fe^ and jet on fire the 
foundations of the Mountains, 
. If we refleft upon thefe Witneffes ; and ef- 
pecially the firft and laft, Mofes and St. '?eter ; 
at what a great diiiance of Time they writ 
tlieir Prophecies, and yet how well they agree, 
we muft needs conclude they were afted by 
the fame Spirit ; and a Spirit ihat fee thorough 
all the Ages of the V/orld, from the Beginning 
to the end. Thefe Sacred Writers were fo re- 
mote in Time from one another, that they 
could not confer together, nor confpire, either 
in a falfe Teftimony, or to make the fame 
Prediction. But being under one common In- 
fluence and Infpiration, which is alwas confi- 
ftent with it felf, they have dictated the fame 
things, tho' at two thoufand Years diftance 
fometimes from one another. This, befidesmany 
other Confiderations, makes their Authority in- 
conteftable. And upon the- wdiole Account, you 
fee, that the Doctrine of the future Conflagra- 
tion of the Worlds having run through all Ages 
and Nations, is, by the ioint. Confent of the 
Prophets and Apoiiles, adopted into the Chri- 
ftian Faith. 

C H A p< 

Concerning the Conflagration. 55 

Chap. IV. 

Concerniftg the time of the Conflagration^ and 
the end of the World. What the aAftrojiO' 
mers fay i^^on this Suu]e'cf^ and v.^on what 
they aground their Calculations : The true 
Notion of the Great Tear^ or of the Tlato- 
nick Tear^ ftated and explained. 

HAVING, in .this Firfl: Seftion, laid a 
iure Foundation, as to the SubjeQ: of 
OLir Difcourfe; the Truth and Certainty of the 
Conflagration whereof w^ are to treat; we 
will now proceed to enquire after the Time^ 
Canfes^ and Manner of it. We are naturally 
more inquifitive after the End of the World, 
and the Time of that Fatal Revolution, than 
after the Caufes of it : For thefe, we know, 
are irrefiftible, whenfoever they come, and 
thererefore we are only follicitous that they 
fhould not overtake us, or our near Pofterity. 
The Romans thought they had the fates of their 
Empire in the Books of the Sibyls, wiiich were 
kept by the Magiftrates as a Sacred Treafure. 
We have alio our Prophetical Books, more fa- 
cred and more infallible than theirs, which 
contain the fate of all the Kingdoms of the 
Earth, and of that glorious Kingdom that is to 
fucceed. And of all Futurities, there is none 
can be of fuch importance to be enquired af- 
ter, as this lalt Scene and clofe of all humane 

D 2 * If 

36 The Theory of the E a r t h.' 

If I thought it poUible to determine the 
Time of the Coiiflagration from the bare In* 
tuition of Natural Caufes, I would not treat 
of it in this Place, but referve it to the laft ; 
after we had brought into view all thofeCaufes, 
weigh'd their Force, and examined how and 
when they would concur to produce this great 
effe£t. But I am fatisfied, that the Excitation 
and Concourfe of thofe Caufes does not depend 
upon Nature only ; and tho' the Caufes may 
be fufficient when all united, yet the Union of 
them at fuch a Time, and in fuch a Manner, 
I look upon as the effeft of a particular Pro- 
vidence : And therefore no Forefight of ours, 
or Infpedion into Nature, can difcover to us 
the time of this Conjuncture. This Method 
therefore of Prediftion from Natural Caufes be- 
ing laid afide as impracticable, all other Me- 
thods may be treated of in this Place, as being 
independent upon any thing that is to follow 
in the Treatife ; and it will be an Eafe to the 
Argument todifcharge it of this Part, and clear 
the way by degrees to the principal Point, 
which is, thQ Caufes 2ind Manner of the Con- 

Some have thought it a kind of Impiety in 
a Chriftian, to enquire after the End of the 
World ; becaufe of that Check which our Sa- 
viour gave his Difciples, when, after his Re- 
furreftion, enquiring of him about the Time 
of his Kingdom, he anfwer'd. It is not for you 
to know the times or the feafons^ which the 
Father hath fut in his own ]>ower^ Afts i. 7. 
And, before his death, when he was difcourfing 


Concerning the Conflagration, ^7 

of the Confummation of all things. He told 
them exprefly, that tho' there fliould be fiich 
and fuch previous Signs as he had mentioned, 
ytt^Ofthat day and hour knoweth no man. No^not 
the (Angels that are in Heaven^ hit my Father 
onlj^ Matt. 24. 56. Be it fo, that the Difciples 
defervM a Reprioiand, for defiring to know, 
by a particular Revelation from our Saviour, 
the ftate of future Times ; when many other 
things were more neceffary for their Inftru- 
ftion, and for their Miniftry. Be it alfo ad- 
mitted, that the Angels, at that diftance of 
Time, could not fee thorow all Events to the 
End of the World ; it does not at all follow 
from thence, that they do not know it now ; 
when, in the Courfe of Sixteen Hundred Years, 
many Things are come to pafs, that may be 
Marks and Direftions to them to make a 
JudgmxCnt of what remains, and of the lafl: Pe- 
riod of all things. However, there will be no 
Danger in our Enquiries about this Matter, fee- 
ing they are not fo much to difcover the Cer- 
tainty, as the Uncertainty of that Period, as to 
humane knowledge. Let us therefore confider 
what Methods have been ufed, by thofe that 
have been curious and bufie to meafure the du- 
ration of the World. 

The Stoich tell us. When the Sun and the 
Stars have drunk up the Sea, then the Earth 
fliall be burnt. A very fair Prophecy : But, 
How long will they be a drinking? For unlefs 
we can determine that, we cannot determine 
when this Combuftion will begin. Many of 
the Antient^ thought that the Stars were nou- 

D 5 riflfd 

5 8 The' Theory of the Earth.- • 

rilli'd by the Vapours of the Ocean and -of the 
moift Eai-th, {Cicer. de Nat, T). lib. 2.) And 
when that Nourifhment was fpent, being of 
a £ery Nature, they would prey upon the Bo- 
dy of the Earth it felf, and confume that, after 
they had confumM the Water. This is o!d- 
faihioriM Philofophy, and now, that the Na- 
ture of thofe Bodies is better known, will fcarce 
pafs for currant. 'Tis true, we muft expeft 
Ibme difpontions towards the Combuftion of 
the World, from a great Drought and I3eficca- 
tion of the Earth : But this helps us nothing 
on our way ; for theQj-ieftion ftill returns, IVhe/i 
will this immoderate Drous^ht or Drynefs hap- 
pen ? cind that's as ill to refolve as the former. 
Therefore, as I faid before, I have no hopes of 
deciding the Qiieftion by Phyfiology or Natural 
Caufes ; let us then look up from the Earth to 
the Heavens, to the Aftronomers and the Pro- 
phets ; Thefe think they can define the Age 
and Duration of the World ; the one by their 
Art, and the other by Infpiration. 

We begin with the Aftronomers; whofe 
Calculations are founded either upon the Af- 
pefts and Configurations of tlie Planets, or up- 
on the Revolutions of the Fixt Stars : Or laft- 
ly, upon that which they call g^;^;^^^ M^^;^-2//<f, 
or the Great Tear, whatfoever that Notion 
proves to be when it is rightly interpreted. As 
to the Planets, 'Berofas tells us, The Chaldeans 
fuppofe Deluges to proceed from a great Con- 
jundion of the Planets in Cafricorfi^ (Se?i. Nat, 
qu. lib. J. c. 29,) And from a like Coniuncliort 
in the oppofite Sign of Ca^ncer^ the Conflagra- 

Concerning the Conflagration. - 39 

tlon will enfuc. So that if we compute by the 
Aftronomical Tables how long it will be to 
fuch a CoiijunQion, we find at the fame Time 
how long it will be to the Conflagration, This 
^Doctrine of x\\t Chaldeans fome Chriftian Au- 
thors have owned, and ft/ilowed the fame Prin- 
ciples and Method. 

If thefe Authors would deal fairly with Man- 
kind, they fliould ILew us fome Connexion be- 
twixt thefe Caufes and the EffeQs which they 
make confequent upon them. For 'tis an un- 
reafonable thing to require a Man's Affent to 
a Propofition, where he fees no Dependence or 
Connexion of Terms ; unlefs it come by Re- 
velation, or from an infallible Authority. If 
you fay, llie Conflagration will be at the firffc 
great Conjunction of the Planets m Cancer^ 
and I fay it will be at the next Eclipfc of the 
Moon, if you fliew no more Reafon for your 
Aifertion than I for mine, and neither of us 
pretend to Revelation or Infallibihty, we may 
jufily expecc :o be equally credited. Pray what 
Reafon can you give why the Planets, when 
they meet, fliculd plot together to fet on Fire 
their Fellow-Planet, the Earth, who never did 
them any Harm ? But now there is a plaufible 
Reafon for my Opinion ; for the Moon, when 
Eclips'd, may think herfelf aflronted by the 
Earth interpofing rudely betwixt her and the 
Sun, and leaving her to grope her way in the 
Dark : She therefore may jullly take her Re- 
venge as file can. But you'll fay, 'cis not in 
the Power of the Moon to fet the Earth on 
Fire, if flie had Malice enough to do it. No, 

P 4 nor, 

4© The Theory of the Earth. 

no:-, fay I, is k la the Power of the other Planets, 
that are far more diftant from the Earth than 
the Moon, and as ftark dull Lumps of Earth 
as fhe is. The plain Truth is, The Planets are 
fo many Earths ; and our Earth is as much a 
Planet as the brighteft of them. 'Tis carried 
about the Sun with the fame common Stream^ 
and fhines with as much Luftre to them, as 
they do to us : Neither can they do any more 
Harm to it, than it can do to them. 'Tis now 
well known, that the Planers are dark opake 
Bodies, generally made up of Earth and Water, 
as our Globe is ; and have no Force or Action, 
but that of reverberating the Light which the 
Sun cafts upon them. This blind fuperftitious 
Fear or Reverence for the Stars, had its Ori- 
ginal from the antient Idolaters : They thought 
them Gods, and that they had Domination over 
humane Affairs. We do not indeed worfliip 
them, as they did ; but fome Men retain ftill 
the fame Opinion of their Vertues, of their 
Rule and Influence upon us and our Affairs, 
which was the ground of their Worfliip. 
'Tis full Time now to fweep away thefe 
Cobwebs of Superftition, thefe Relicks of Pa- 
ganifm. I do not fee how we are any more 
concerned in the Poftures of the Planets, than 
in the Poftures of the Clouds ; and you may as 
well build an Art of Prediftion or Divination 
upon the one as the other. They muft not 
know much of the Philofophy of the Heavens, 
or little confider it, that think the Fate, either 
^ of fingle Perfons, or of the whole Earth, can 
\ de* 

Concerning the Conflagration. ^x 

depend upon the Afpeds or figur'd Dances of 
thofe Bodies. 

But you'll fay, it may be, tho' no Reafon 
can be given for fuch effefts, yet Experience 
does atteft the Truth of them. In the firft 
Place, I anfwer, no Experience can be produ- 
ced for this EfteO: we are fpeaking of, the 
Conflagration of the World. Secondly, Ex- 
perience fallacioufly recorded, or wholly in fa- 
vour of one fide, is no Proof If a publick 
Regifter was kept of all Aftrological Predicti- 
ons, and of all the Events that followed upon 
them, right or wrong, agreeing or difagreeing, 
I could willingly refer the Caufe to the Deter- 
mination of fuch a Regifter, and fuch Expe- 
rience. But that which they call Experience, 
is fo ftated, that if One Prediftion of Ten hits 
right, or near right, it fliall make more Noife, 
and be more taken Notice of, than all the 
Nine that are falfe. Juft as in a Lottery, 
where many Blanks are drawn for one Prize, 
yet thefe make all the Noife, and thofe are 
forgotten. If any one be fo lucky as to draw 
a good Lot, then the Trumpet founds, and his 
Name is regifter'd, and he tells his good For- 
tune to every body he meets ; whereas thofe 
that lofe, go filently away with empty Pockets, 
and are afhamM to tell their Loffes. Such a 
Thing is the Regifter of Aftrological Expe- 
riences ; they record what makes for their Cre- 
dit, but drop all blank Inftances, that would 
difcover the Vanity or Cheat of their Art. 

So much for the Planets. They have alfo a 
pretended Calculation of tlie End of the World 


i|.^ The Theory of the E a r t h, 

from the fixt Stars and the Firmament. V/hich 
in fhort is this : They fuppofe thefe Bodies, be- 
iides the Hurry of their Diurnal Motion from 
Eaft to Weft, quite round the Earth in Four 
and Twenty Hours, to have another retrograde 
■Motion from Weft to Eaft, which is more (low 
and leifurely : And when tliey have finilli'd the 
-Circle of this Retrogradation, and come up 
-again to the fame Place from whence they 
ftarted at the Beginning of the World, then 
this Courfe of Nature will be at an End ; and 
cither the Heavens will ceafe from all Motion, 
^ a new Set of Motions will be put a foot, 
and the World begin again. This is a Bundle 
of FiSions tied ^p in a pretty Knot. In the 
£rft place, there is no fuch thing as a folid Fir- 
mament, in which the Stars are fixt, as Nails in 
^ Board. The Heavens are as fluid as cur Air, 
and the higher we go, the more thin and fub- 
xie is the ethereal Matter. Then, the fixt. Stars 
are not all in one Surface, as they feem to us, 
nor at an equal Diftance from the Earth, but 
are placM ia feveral Orbs higher and higher^; 
there being infinite Room in the great Deep 
of the Heavens, every way, for innumerable 
Stars and Spheres behind one another, to fill and 
beautify the immenfe Spaces of the Univerfe. 
Laftly, The fixt Stars have no Motion com- 
mon to them all, nor any Motion fingly, unlefs 
upon their own Centres ; and therefore, never 
leaving their Stations, they can never return 
to any common Station, which they woald, fup- 
pofe them to have had at the Beginning of the 
World.. So as this Period they fpeak of, wtee?- 
i::o.: by 

• Coficernhg the Conflagration, 43 

by they would meafure the Duration of the 
World, is meerly imaginary, and hath no Foun-' 
dation in the true Nature or Motion of the Ce- 
leftial Bodies. 

But in the third Place, They fpeak of an 
ANNUS MAGNUS, 2. Gretrit Tear : A 
Revolution fo call'd, whatfocver it is, that i$ 
of the fame Extent with the Length of tho 
World. This Notion, I confefs, is more An- 
tient and Univerfal, and therefore I am the 
more apt to believe that it is not altogether 
groundlefs. But the Difficulty is, to find out 
the true Notion of this Great Tear^ what is to 
be underliood by it, and then of what Length 
it is. They all all agree, tliat it is a Time of 
fome grand Inftauration of all Things, or a Re- 
Iticution of the Heavens and the Earth to their 
former State ; that is, to the State and Pofture 
they had at the Beginning of the World ; fuch 
therefore as will reduce the Golden Age, and 
that happy State of Nature wherein Things 
were at firft. If fo, if thefe be the Marks and 
Properties of this Revolution, which is call'd 
the Great Tear^ we need not go fo far to find 
the true Notion and Interpretation of it. Thofe 
that have read the Firft Part of this Theory, may 
remember, that in the Second Book, Chdf. 5. we 
■gave an Account what the Pofture of the Earth 
was at the Beginning of the World, and what 
were the Confeqiiences of that Pofture, a per^ 
fet Hal Sf ring ?^M(\ Equinox throughout all the 
Earth : And if the Earth was reftor'd again to 
that Pofture and Situation, all that is imputed 
to the Great Tear^ would immediately follo\y 


44 The Theory of the P. art h. 

upon it, without ever difturbing or moving 
the fix'd Stars, Firmament, or Planets ; and yet 
at the fame Time all thefe three would return 
or be reftorM to the fame Pofture they had at 
the Beginning of the World ; fo as the whole 
Cha rafter of the Great Tear would be truly 
fiilfiird, tho' not in that way which they ima- 
gined ; but in another, more compendious, and 
of eafier Conception. My Meaning is this, If 
the Axis of the Earth was reftified, and fet 
parallel with the Axis of the Ecliptick, upon 
which the Planets, Firmament, and fix'd Stars 
are fuppos'd to move, all Things would be as 
they were at firft; a general Harmony and 
Conformity of all the Motions of the Univerfe 
would prefently appear, fuch, as they fay, was 
in the Golden Age, before any Diforder came 
into the Natural or Moral World. 

As this is an eafy, fo I do not doubt, but it 
is a true Account of that which was originally 
callM the Great Tear^ or the Great Inftauration ; 
which Nature will bring to pafs in this fimple 
Method, by rectifying the Axis of the Earth, 
without thofe operofe Revolutions, which fome 
Aftronomers have fanfied. But however, this 
Account being admitted, how will it help us 
to define what the Age and Duration of the 
World \vi\] be ? 'Tis true, many have under?- 
taken to tell us the Length of this Great Tear^ 
and confequently of the World ; but, befides 
that, their Accounts are very different, and ge- 
nerally of an extravagant Lengtli, ii we had 
the true Account, it would not allure us when 
the World would end ; b^caufe wc do not 
iKjc .- know 

Concerning the Conjlngrathn. '45 

know when it did begin, or what Progrefs we 
have already made in the Line of Time. For 
lam fatisfied, the Chronology of the World, 
whether Sacred or Profane, is loft ; till Provi- 
didence fhall pleafe to retrieve it by fome new 
Difcovery. As to Profane Chronology, or 
that of the Heathens^ the Greeks and the Ro* 
mans knew nothing above the Olympiads; 
which fell fliort many Ages of the Deluge, 
much more of the Beginning of the World. 
And the Eaftern Barbarous Nations, as they 
difagreed amongft themfelves, fo generally they 
run the Origin of the World to fuch a prodigi- 
ous Height, as is neither agreeable to Faith, nor 
Reafon. As to Sacred Chronology, 'tis well 
known, that the Difference there is betwixt 
the Greeks Hehrew^ and Samaritan Copies of 
the Bible, makes the Age of the World altoge- 
ther undetermined: And there is no way yet 
found out, how we may certainly difcover 
which of the three Copies is moft Authentick, 
and confequently what the Age of the World 
is, upon a true Computation. Seeing there- 
fore we have no Affurance how long the World 
hath flood already, neither couTd we be affur'd 
how long it hath to ftand, though, by this 
K*Annus Magnus^ or any other way, the total 
Sum, or whole Term of its Duration was tru- 
ly known. 

I am forry to fee the little Succefs we have 
had in our firft fearch after the End of the 
World, from Aftronomical Calculations. But 
'tis an ufeful piece of Knowledge to know the 
bounds of our Knowledge; that fo we may 


^6 The Theory of the E a r t h^. 

not fpend our time and thoughts about things 
that lie out of our reach. I have hctle or no 
hopes of refolving this Point by the Light of 
Nature, and therefore it only remains now to 
enquire, whether Providence hath made' it 
known by any fort of Prophecy or Revelation. 
Which fliall . be the SubieO: of the following 


C H A P. V. 

dencerning Vrophedes that determhie the end 
of the World', Of what order foever^ Tro- 
fhane or Sacred ; JevoiJI) or Chrifiian. That 
710 certain judgment can he made from any of 
them^ at what difiance we are now from the 

THE bounds of humane knowledge are 
fo narrow, and the defire of knowing 
fo vaft and illimited, that it often puts Mankind 
tipon irregular Methods of inlarging their know- 
ledge. This hath made them find out arts of 
commerce with evil Spirits, to be inftrucled by 
them in fuch Events as they could not of them- 
felves difcover. We meddle not with thofe 
Myfteries of Iniquity : but what hath appeared 
under the notion of Divine Prophecy, relating 
to the Chronology of the World : giving ei- 
ther the whole extent of it, or certain marks of 
its expiration : Thefe we purpofe to examine 
in this place. How far any thing may, or may 


Concerning the Conflagration. 47 

not, be concluded from tliem, as to the refo^; 
lutioa of our Problem, How long the World 

Amongft the Heathens I do not remember 
any Prophecies of this nature, except the SihiU 
line Oracles^ as they are ufually calPd. The 
Ancient Eaftern Philofophers have left us no 
account that I can call to mind, about the tima 
of this fatality. They fay when the "^hosni^i 
returns we muft expeft the Conflagration to 
follow ; but the age of the Thcenix they make 
as various and uncertain, as they do the compu- 
tation of their Great Tear^ Sjmholum h^Toy^Tn^nvc 
'm,}v/^^v!y.^ Th^nix. Hor oAfol. L z, c, 57. which 
two things are indeed one and the fame inef- 
fed. Some of them, I confefs, mention Six 
Thoufand Years for the whole Age of the 
World : wliich being the famous Prophecy of 
the Jews^ we flmll fpeak to it largely hereafter: 
and reduce to that head what broken Tradi- 
tions remain amongft the Heathens of the fame 
Thing. As to the Sihyline Oraclesy which 
were fo much in reputation amongft the Greeks 
and Romans^ they have been tampered with (6 
much, and changM fo often, thatthey^ re be- 
come now of little authority. They feem to 
have divided the duration of the World into 
Ten Ages, and the laft of thefe they make a 
Golden Age, a ftate of Peace, Righteoufnef; 
and Perfection : but feeing they have not de* 
termin'd, in any definite numbers, what the 
length of every Age will be, nor given us the 
fum of all, we cannot draw any conclufiojl 
from this account as to the point in queftion be- 

48 The Theory of the E a r t h: 

fore us. But mufl: proceed to the Jewifli and 
Chriftian Oracles. 

The Jeiios have a remarkable Prophecy, 
which expreffeth both the whole and the parts 
of the World's duration. The World, they 
fay, will ftand Six Thoufand Years : Two Thou- 
fand before the Law^ Two Thoufand tmder the 
Law ^andTwoThouf and under theMeffiah. This 
Prophecy they derive from EUas ; "but there 
were two of the Name, EUas the Theshite^ 
and EUas the Rahhzn^ or CahbaUft : and 'tis 
fuppos'd to belong immediately to the latter of 
thefe. Yet this does not hinder in my opinion, 
but that it might come originally from the for- 
mer EUas^ and was preferv'd in the School of 
this EUas the Rabbin^ and firft made publick 
by him. Or he added, it may be, that divifion 
of the time into three parts, and fo got a Title 
to the whole. I cannot eafily imagine that a 
Doftor that livM two hundred Years or there- 
abouts, before Chrift, when Prophecy had 
ceas'd for fome Ages amongft the Jews^ fhould 
take upon him to didate a Prophecy about the 
duration of the World^ unlefs he had been fup- 
ported by fome antecedent Cabbaliftical Tra- 
dition : which being kept more fecret before, 
he took the liberty to make publick, and fo 
was reputed the Author of the Prophecy. As 
many Philofophers amongft the Greeks^ were 
the reputed Author of fuch Doftrines as were 
much more Antient than themfelves : But they 
were the publifhers of them in their Country, 
^v the revivers of them after a long filence j and 


Concerning the Conflagration. 49 

fo, by forgetful pofterky, got the honour of the 
firft invention. 

You will think, it may be, the Time is too 
long and the Diftance too great betwixt Elias 
the Tbeslite^ and this Elias the Rahbin^ for a 
Tradition to fubfift all the while, or be pre- 
ferv'd with any competent Integrity. But it 
appears from St. Jude\ Epiftle, that thtTropbe^ 
cies of Enoch ^ (who livM before the Flood^ re- 
lating to the day of Judgment and the end of 
the World, were extant in his time, either in 
Writing or by Tradition: And the diftance 
betwixt Enoch and St. "Jtide was vaftly greater 
than betwixt the two Elias^s. Nor was any 
fitter to be infpirM with that knowledge, or to 
tell the firft News ot that fatal Period, than the 
old Prophet Elias^ who is to come again and 
bring the alarum of the approaching Confla- 
gration. But however this conjefture may- 
prove as to the original Author of this Pro- 
phecy, the Prophecy it felf concerning the Sex- 
millennial duration of the World, is very much 
infifted upon by the Chriftian Fathers. Which 
yet I believe is not fo much for the bare Au- 
thority of the Tradition, asbecaufe they thought 
it was founded in the Hiitory of the Six days 
Creation^ and the Sahtath fucceeding : as alfb 
in fome other Typical precepts and ufages in 
the Law of Mojes. But before w^e fpeak of 
that, give me leave to Name fome of thofe 
Fathers to you, that were of this Judgment, 
and fuppofed the great Sabbatifm would fuc- 
ceed after the World had ftood Six Thou- 
fand Years. Of this opinion was St. 'Barnabas 
Book IIL E in 

5q The Theory cf the E a e. t h. 

in his Catholick Epiftie, ch^ i 5. Where he ar- 
gues that the Creation will be ended in Six 
Thoufand Years, as it was finilliM in Six Days : 
Every day according to the Sacred and myfti- 
cal account, being a Thoufand Years. Of the 
fame judgment is St. Iren^us^ both as to the 
concluficn and the reafon of it, L. 5. c. 28, 19, 
50. He faith, the Hiftory of the Creation in 
fix days, is a 7iarration as to what is faftj a?id 
a Trophecy of what is to come. As the Work 
was faid to be confummated in fix days, and 
the Sabbath to be the feventh : So the confum- 
mation of all things will be in Six Thoufand 
Years, and then the great Sabbatifm to come 
on in the bleiTed reign of Chrift. Hippolitiis 
Martyr, defciple of Iren^us^ is of the fame 
judgment, as you may. fee in Thotius^ ch. 202. 
Lactantius in his "Divine hi[Httttions^ /. y, c, 
14. gives the very fame account of theftate and 
continuance of the World, and the fame Proofs 
for it, and fo does St. Cj^rian^ in his Exhort a^ 
tion to Martyrdom^ ch. 11. St. Jerome xx\OKt 
than once declares himfelf of the fame Opinion ; 
and St. Q.4ufii?i^ C. T>, L 20. c, 7. tlio' he wa- 
vers and was doubtful as to the MiUermium^ or 
Reign of Chrift upon Earth, yet he receives 
this computation without hefitancy, and upon 
the foremention'd grounds. So 'Johannes T^a- 
mafcenus de fideOrthodoxa^ takes Seven Millen- 
naries for the entire fpace of the World, from 
the Creation to the general Refurreftion, the 
Sabbatifm being included. And that this was 
a received and approvM opinion in early times, 
we may colled from the Author of the Que- 


C oncer fling the Conflagration, 51 

fiions^and anfwers adOrthodoxos in \juftin Mar^ 
tyr. Who givinii^ an anfwer to that enquiry 
about the fix Thoufand- Years term of the 
Worldj fays, We may conjecture from many p/^- 
ces of Scripture^ that thofe are in the righty 
that fay fix thoufand years is the time frefixt 
for the duration of this frefent frame of the 
World. Thefe Authors I have examined my 
felf : but there are many others brought in con- 
firmation of this opinion : as St. Hilary^ oAna* 
ftaftus Sifiaita^ Sanftus Gaudentius^ Q. Julius 
Hilarion^ Junilius oAfricanus^ Ifidorus Hi/pa* 
lenflsy Caffiodorus^ Gregorius Magnus^ and 0- 
thers, which I leave to be examined by thofe 
that have curiofity and leifure to do it. 

In the mean time it muft be confefl: that 
many of thefe Fathers were under a mifl:ake 
in one refpeft, in that they generally thought 
the World was near an end in their time. An 
errour, which we need not take pains to con- 
fute now ; feeing we, who live tw^elve hundred 
or fourteen hundred years after them, find the 
World fl:ill in being, and likely to continue fo 
for fome confiderable time. But it is eafie to 
difcern whence their miflake proceeded: not 
from this Prophecy alone, but becaufe they 
reckonM this Prophecy according to the Chro- 
nology of the Seft7iagint : W' hich fetting back 
the beginning of the World many Ages be^ 
yond the Hebrezv^ thefe Six Thoufand Years 
were very near expir'd in the time of thofe 
Fathers ; and that made them conclude that 
the World was very near an End. We will 
make no Reflexions, in this place, upon tliat 

E 2 Chronology 

52 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Chronology of the Seftuaghit^ left it fliould 
too much interrupt the Thred of our Difcourfe. 
But it is neceffary to fhew how the Fathers 
grounded this computation of Six Thoufand 
Years, upon Scripture. 'Twas chiefly, as we 
fuggefted before, upon the Hexameroji^ or the 
Creation finifhM in Six T)ays^ and the Sahlath 
enfuing. The Sabbath, they faid, was a type 
of the Sabbatifm, that was to follow at the 
end of the World, according to St. Taul^ Ch. 5. 
to the Hebrews ; and then by analogy and 
confequence, the Six Days preceding the Sab- 
bath, muft note the fpace and duration of the 
World. If therefore they could difcover how 
much a Day is reckoned for, in this miftical 
computation, the fum of the Six Days would 
be eafily found out. And they think, that 
according to the Pfalmift, (Tfai. 90. 4.) and 
St. Teter, (2. Epft. :^.%,) a "^Day may be efti- 
mated a Thoufand Tears ; and confequently Six 
Days muft be counted Six Thoufand Years, 
for the duration of the World. This is their 
interpretation, and their inference : but it muft 
be acknowledged, that there is an effential 
weaknefs in all typical and allegorical argu- 
mentations, incomparifon of literal. And tliis 
being allow'd in diminution of the proof, w^e 
may be bold to fay, that nothing yet appears, 
either in Nature, or Scripture, or Humane 
Affairs, repugnant to this fuppofition of Six 
Thoufand Years : which hath Antiquity, and 
the Authority of the Fathers, on its fide. 

We proceed now to the Chriftian Prophe- 
cies concerning the end of the World. I do 


Concerning the Conflagration. 55 

not mention thofe in T)aniel^ becaufe lam not 
fatisfied that any there (^excepting that of the 
Fifth Kingdom it felf ) extend fo far. But in 
the eApocahffe of St. John^ which is the laft 
Revelation we are to expecl, there are feveral 
Prophecies that reach to the Confummation of 
this World, and the Firft RefurreQ:ion. The 
Seven Seals^ the ,Seven Trumpets^ the Seven 
Viah^ do all terminate upon that great Period. 
But they are rather Hiftorical Prophecies than 
Chronological ; they tell us, in their Language, 
the Eve;its, but do not meafure or exprefs the 
time wherein they come to pais. Others there 
are that may be call'd Chronological, as the 
treading under Fooi the Holy City^ Forty a?id 
Two Months^ o^ipoc. n. 2. The IVitnejjes op- 
pofing Antichrift, o?te Thoufand Two Hundred 
and Sixty T)ajs^ oApoc, 11. ^. The flight of 
the Woman into the IVildernefs^ for the fame 
number of Days, or for a Time^ Times, and 
half a Ti?fie, Q/ipoc. 12. 6. iff i^ And laflly. 
The War of the Beaft againft the Saints, Forty 
Two Monthsj oApoc. i?. 5. Thefe all, you 
fee, exprefs a Time for their Completion ; and 
all the fame Time, if I be not miftaken: But 
they do not reach to the End of the World. Or 
if fome of them did reach fo far, yet becaufe 
we do not certainly know where to fix their 
Beginning, we mull: ftili be at a Lofs, when^ 
or in wliat year they w^iil expire. As for in- 
ftance. If the Reign of the Beait, or the Preach- 
ing of the Witneffes be 1260 years, as is rea- 
fonably fuppos'd ; yet if we do not know cer- 
tainly when this Reign, or this Preaching begun, 

E J neither 

^4 The Theory of the Earth. 

neither can we tell when it will end. And the 
Epocha's or beginnings of thefe Prophecies are 
fo differently calculated, and are things of fo 
long debate, as makes the difcuflion of them 
altogether improper for this place. Yet it muft 
be confeft, that the beft conjeftures that can be 
made concerning the approaching End of the 
World, muft be taken from a judicious exami- 
nation of tliefe points : and according as we 
gather up the Prophecies of the Apocalypfe, 
in a fucceffive com.pietion, we fee how by de- 
grees we draw nearer and nearer to the con- 
clufion of all. But till fome of thefe enlight- 
ning Prophecies be accompIifliV!, we are as a 
Man that awakes in the Night, all is dark 
about him, and he knows not how far the 
Night is fpent : but if he watch till the light 
appears, the firft glimpfesuf that will refolve 
his doubts. We ix\\i{\: have a little patience, 
and, I think, but a little ; ftill eyeing thofe Pro- 
phecies of the Refurreaion of the Witnejjesy 
and the 'Defrefjlon of oAntichrifi : till by their 
accomplifhment, the Day dawn, and the Clouds 
begin to change their colour. Then we fhall 
be able to make a near guefs, when the Sun of 
righttoufnefs will arife. 

So much for Prophecies. There are alfo 
Signs^ which are look'd upon as forerunners 
of the coming of our Saviour : and therefore 
may give us fome direction how to judge of 
the diftance or approach of that great Day. 
Thus many of the Fathers thought the comhig of 
fiAfiticbrili w^ould be a ilgn to give the World 
notice of its approaching End. But we may 


Concerning the Conflagration. 55 

eafily fee, by what hath been noted before, 
what it was that led the Fathers into that mi- 
ftake. They thought their Six Thoufand 
Years were near an End, as they truly were, 
according to that Chronology they followed : 
and therefore they concluded the Reign of An- 
tichrill: muft be very fliort, whenfoever hecame, 
and that he could not come long before the 
End of the World. But we are very well 
aiTur'd from the Revelation of Saint '^ohn^ 
that the reign of Antichriil: is not to oe fo 
fiiort and tranfient ; and from the profpec): and 
Hiftory of Chriftendorn, that he hath been 
already upon his Throne many Hundreds of 
Years. Therefore this Sign wholly falls to the 
ground; unlefs you will take it from the fall 
of Antichrift, rather than from his firil entrance. 
Others expetl the coming of Elias to give 
warning of that Day, and prepare the way 
of the Lord. I am very willing to admit that 
Elias will comie, according to the fence of the 
Prophet Malachij Ch. 4. 5, 6. but he will not 
come with obfervation^ no more than he did 
in the Perfon of John the Baptift ; He will not 
bear the name of Elias^ nor tell us he is the 
Man that went to Heaven in a fiery Chariot, 
and is now come down again to give us warn- 
ing of the laft Fire. But fome divine Perfon 
may appear before the Second coming of our 
Saviour, as there did before his firft coming, 
and by giving a New light and Life to the 
Chriftian Doftrine, may diffipate the mifts of 
error, and abolifh all thofe little Controverfies 
.aniongft good men, and the Divifions and Ani- 

E4 mofities 

56 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

mofities that Spring from them : enlarging 
their Spirits by greater Difcoveries, and unit- 
ing ihem all in the Bonds of Love and Charity, 
and in the common ftudy of Truth and Per- 
fedion. Such an Elias^ the Prophet feems to 
point at ; And may he come, and be the great 
Peace-maker and preparer of the ways of the 
Lord. But at prefent, we cannot from this 
Sign make any judgment when the World will 

Another Sign preceding the End of the 
World, is, 77?^ converfion of the Jews ; and 
this is a wonderful fign indeed. St. Tatd feem.s 
exprefly to affirm it, Rom. 11.25, 26. But it 
is differently underftood, either of their Con- 
verfion only, or of their Reftoration to their 
own Country, Liberties and Dominion. The 
Prophets bear hard upon this fenfe fometimes, 
as you may fee in Ifaiah^ Ezekiel^ Hofea^ oAmos. 
And to the fame purpofe the ancient promife of 
Mofes is interpreted, "Deut. ^o. Yet this feems 
to be a thing very unconceivable : unlefs we 
fuppofe the Ten Tribes to be ilill in fome hid- 
den corner of the World, from whence they 
may be conduced again to their own Coun- 
try, as once out of Egypt ^ by a miraculous Pro- 
vidence, and eftablifhM there. Which being 
known,will give the ala rum to all the oih^vjevos^ 
in the World, and make an univerfal confluence 
to their old Home. Then our Saviour by an ex- 
traordinary Appearance to them, as once to 
St Taul^ Joh. 19. J 7. and by Prophets oApoc. 
I. 7. Mat. 25. 59. rais'd up amongft them for 
that purpofe, may convince them that he is the 


Concerning tie Conjlagratton. 57 

true MeflTiab, and convert them to the Chrifti- 
an Faith ; which will be no more ftrange, than 
was the firft Converfion oT the Gentile World. 
But if we be content with a Converfion of the 
Jews^ without their reftoration ; and of thofe 
Two Tribes only which are now difperft 
throughout the Chriftian World and other 
known parts of the Earth : That thefe fliould 
be converted to theChriftian Faith, and incor- 
porated into the Chriftian Commonwealth, 
lofing their national character and diftinction. 
If this, I fay, will fatisfie the Prophecies, it is 
not a thing very difficult to be conceived. For 
when the World is reducM to a better and 
purer ftate of Chriftianity, and that Idolatry 
in a great meafure, removed, which gave the 
greateft fcandal to the "^jews^ they will begin 
to have better thoughts of our P.eligion, and 
be difposM to a more ingenuous and unpre- 
judicVl examination of their Prophecies con- 
cerning the MefTiah : God raifing up men a- 
mongft them of divine and enlarged Spirits, 
Lovers of Truth more than of any particular 
Sect or Opinion ; with light to difcern it, and 
courage to profefs it. Laftly, it will be a co- 
gent argument upon them, to fee the Age of 
the World fofar fpent, and no appearance yet 
of their long expefted MefTiah. So far fpent, 
I fay, that there is no Room left, upon any 
computation wdiatfoever, for the Oeconomy of 
a Meffiah yet to come. This will make them 
refleft more carefully and impartially upon 
him whom the Chriftians propofe, jefus of 
Nazareth^ whom their Fathers Crucified at 

58 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

^erufalem. Upon the Miracles he wrought, 
in his Life and after his Death : and upon the 
wonderful propagation of his Doftrine through- 
out the World, after his A fcenfion. And laftly, 
upon the defolation of Jerufalem^ upon their 
ownfcatterM and forlorn condition, foretold 
by that Prophet, as a Judgment of God upon 
an ungrateful and wicked People. 

This 1 have faid to ftate the cafe of the Con- 
verfion of the "jews^ which will be a Sign of 
the approaching Reign of Chrift. But alafs, 
what appearance is there of this Converfion 
in our Days, or what judgment can we make 
from a fign that is not yet come to pafs ? 'Tis 
ineffeftual as to us, but may be of ufe to po- 
fteriry. Yet even to them it will not deter- 
mine at what diftance they are from the end of 
the World, but be a mark only that they are 
not far from it. There will be Signs alfo, in 
thofe laft days, in the Heavens, and in the 
Earth, and in the Sea, forerunners of the Con- 
flagration ; as the obfcuration of the Sun and 
Moon, Earth-quakes, roarings of the troubled 
Sea, and fuch like diforders in the natural 
World. 'Tis true, but thefe are the very pangs 
of Death, and the ftrugglings of Nature juft 
before her diflblution, and it will be too late 
then to be aware of our ruine when it is at the 
door. Yet thefe being Signs or Prodigies 
taken notice of by Scripture, we intend, God 
willing, after we have explained the caufes and 
manner of the Conflagration^ to give an acr 
count alfo whence thefe unnatural commotions 


Concernhig the Con^agratton. 59 

will proceed, that are the beginnings or imme- 
diate introduftions to the lalt Fire. 

Thus we have gone through the Prophecies 
and Signs that concern the bil: Day and the 
lall fate of the World. And how little have 
we learned from them as to the time of that 
great revolution ? Prophecies rife fometimes 
with an even gradual light, as the Day rifeth 
upon the Horizon : and fometimes break out 
fuddenly like a Fire, and we are not aware of 
their approach till we fee them accoraplifh'd. 
Thofe that concern the End of the World arc 
of this latter fort to unobferving Men ; but 
even to the moft obferving, there will ftill be 
a Latitude ; We muft not expciSl to calculate 
the coming of our Saviour like an Eclipfe, to 
Minutes and Half Minutes. There are Times 
a?id Sepjons which the Father hath put iu his 
ow^i power. If it was defigned to keep thefe 
things fecret, we mud: not think to out- wit 
Providence, and from the Prophecies that are 
given us, pick out a difcovery that was not 
intended we fliould ever make. It is deter 
min'd in the Councils of Heaven jult how far 
we fhall know thefe events before-hand, and 
with what degree of certainty : and with this 
we mull: be content whatfoever it is. The 
aAfocalyffe of St. John is the la ft Prophetical 
declaration of the Will of God, and contains 
the fate of the Chriftian Reh'gion to the End 
of the World, its purity, degeneracy, and re- 
vivifcency. The head of this degeneracy \s 
call'd The "Beafl, the falfe Trofhet, the Whore 
of bah)lQ?ij ia Prophetical terms : and in an 


6o The Theory of the Earth. 

Ecclefiaftical term is commonXy c^Wd eAnti- 
chrifi. Thofe that bear Teftimony againft this 
degeneracy, are call'd the WitHejjes: who, 
after they have been a long time, in a m.ean 
and perfecuted condition, are to have their Re- 
furredion and Afcenfion : that is, be advancM 
to Power and Authority. And this Refurre- 
ftion of the Witneffes and depreffion of oATiti- 
chrifi^ is that which will make the great turn 
of the World to Righteoufnefs, and the great 
Crifis, whereby we may judge of its drawing 
to an End. 'Tis true, there are other Marks, 
as the pa fling away of the Seco7td Woe^ eApoc. 
c. 9. which is commonly thought to be the 
Ottoman Empire : and the Etrufion of the 
Fials, e.4potu:, 16. The firft of thefe will be 
indeed a very confpicuous Mark, if it follow 
upon the Refurreftion of the WitnelTes, as by 
the Prophecy it feems to do, ch. 11. 14. But 
as to the Vials, tho' they do plainly reach in a 
Series to the End of tlie World, I am not 
fatisfied with any expofition I have yet met 
with, concerning their precife Time or Con- 

In a Word, 'tho the fum and general con- 
tents of a Prophecy be very intelligible, yet 
the application of it to Time and Perfons may 
be very lubricous. There muft be obfcurity in 
a Prophecy, as well as fnadow in a Pidure. 
All its lines muft not ftand in a full Light. For 
if Prophecies were open and bare-fac'd as to 
all their parts and circumftances, they would 
check and obftruft the courfe of humane af- 
fairs y and hind{:v.^ if it was pOiTible, their own 


Concerning the Conflagration. 6\ 

accomplifhment. Modefty and Sobriety are 
m all Things commendable, but in nothing 
more than in the explication of thefe Sacred 
Myfteries ; and we have {t^x\ fo many mifcar- 
ry by a too clofe and particular application of 
them, that we ought to dread the Rock about 
which we fee fo many Shipwrecks. He that 
does not err above a Century in calculating the 
laft period of l^ime, from what evidence we 
have at prefent, hath, in my opinion, caft up 
his Accounts very well. But the Scenes will 
change faft towards the Evening of this long 
Day, and when the Sun is near fetting, they 
will more eafily compute how far he hath to 

Chap. VL 

Concerning the Caufesofthe Conflagration. 

The difficulty of concelvhig how this Earth can 
he fet on Tire, With a getter al a?ijwer to 
that difficulty. Two fuj)fos'd caujes of the 
Conflagration^ ly the Su?i*s drawing nearer 
to the Earthy or the Eartlfs throwing out 
the central Flre^ examined and rejected. 

WE have now made our way clear to 
the principal point, The Caufes of the 
Conflagration: How the Heavens and the 
Earth will be fet on Fire, what materials are 
f repar'd, or what Train of Caufes, for that 


62 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

purpofe. The Antients, who have kept us 
company pretty well thus far, here quite de- 
fert us. They deal more in Conclufions than 
Caufes, as is ufual in all Traditional Learning. 
And the Scotch themfelves, who inculcate fo 
much the DoSrine of the Conflagration, and 
make the ftrength of it fuch as to diifolve the 
Earth into a fiery Chaos, are yet very fhort 
and fuperficial in their Explications, how this 
fliall come to pafs. The latent Seeds of Fire, 
thev fay, fliall every where be let loofe, and 
that Element will prevail over all the reft, and 
Transform every Thing into its own nature. 
But th'jfe are general Things that give little 
fatisfaftion to inquifitivePerfons. Neither do 
the modern Authors that treat of the fame 
SubjeQ:, relieve us in this particular : They are 
willing to luppofe the Conflagration a fuper- 
ficial Effeft, that fo they may excufe themfelves 
the Trouble of enquiring after Caufes. 'Tis, 
no doubt, in a Sort, fupernatural : and fo the 
Deluge was : yet Mojes fets down the Caufes 
of the Deluge, the Rains from above, and the 
difruption of the Abyfs. So there muft be 
Treafures of Fire provided againft that Day, 
by whofe eruption this fecond Deluge will be 
brought upon the Earth. 

To ftate the Cafe fairly, we mufl: firft re- 
prefent the difficulty of fetting the Earth on 
Fire: Tie the Knot, before we loofe it ; that 
fo we may the better judge whether the Caufes 
that iliall be brouglit into View, may be fuffi- 
cient to overcome fo great oppofition. The 
difficulty, no doubt, will be chiefly from the 


Concerning the Conflagration. 6j 

great quantity of Water that is about our Globe; 
whereby Nature feems to have made provifion 
againil: any invafion by Fire, and fecur'd us 
from that Enemy more tlian any other. We 
fee half of the Surface of the Eaith covered 
with the Seas : whofe Chanel is of a vaft 
depth and capacity. Befides innumerable Ri- 
vers, great and fmall, that Water the Face of 
the dry Land, and drench it with perpetual 
moifture. Then within the bowels of the 
Earth, there are Store-Houfes of fubterra- 
neous Waters : which are as a referve, in cafe 
the Ocean and the Rivers fhould be overcome. 
Neither is Water our only Security, for the 
hard Rocks and ftony Mountains, which no 
Fire can bite upon, are fet in long ranges upori 
the Continents and Iflands : and muft needs 
give a flop to the progrefs of that furious En- 
emy, in cafe he fhould attack us. Laftly, The 
Earth it felf is not combuftible in all its parts. 
'Tis not every Soyl that is fit fewel for the Fire. 
Clay, and Mire, and fuch like Soyls will rather 
choak and ftifle it, than help it on its way. By 
thefe means one would think the Body of the 
Earth fecur'd ; and tho' there may be partial 
Fires, or inundations of Fire, here and there, 
in particular Regions, yet there cannot be aa 
Univerfal Fire throughout the Earth. At leafb 
one would hope for a fafe retreat towards the 
Poles, where there is nothing but Snow, and 
Ice, and bitter cold. Thefe regions fure are 
in no danger to be burnt, whatfoever becomes 
of the other climates of the Earth. 


^4 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

This being the ftate and condition of the 
prefent Earthy one would not imagine by thefe 
preparations, 'twas ever intended that it fhould 
perifli by an Univerfal Fire. But fuch is often 
the method of Providence, that the exteriour 
face of Things looks one way, and the defign 
lies another ; till at length, touching a Spring, 
as it were, at a certain Time, all thofe affairs 
change pofture and afpeQ, and fhew us which 
way Providence inclines. We muft therefore 
fuppofe, before the Conflagration begins, there 
will be difpofitions and preparatives fuitableto 
fo great a Work : and all antiquity, facred and 
prophane, does fo far concur with us, as to 
admit and fuppofe that a great drought will 
precede, and an extraordinary heat and drinefs 
of the Air, to ufher in this Fiery Doom. And 
thefe being things which often happen in a 
courfe of Nature, we cannot difallow fuch eafie 
Preparatiohs, when Providence intends fo great 
a Confequence. The Heavens will be fhut up, 
and the Clouds yield no Rain; and by this, 
with an immoderate Heat in the Air, the 
Springs of Water will become dry, the Earth 
chapM and parch' d, and the Woods and Trees 
made ready Fewel for the Fire. We have in- 
ftances in Hiftory t!iat there have been Droughts 
and Heats of this Nature, to that degree, that 
the Woods and Forefts have taken Fire, and 
the outward Turf and Surface of the Earth, 
without any other caufe than the drinefs of 
the Seafon, and the vehemency of the Sun. 
And which is m.ore confiderable, the Springs, 
and Fountains being dryM up, the greater Ri- 
• vers 

Coficermng the Conflagration. 65 

Vers have been fenfibly lefTcn'd, and the lefler 
quite emptied and exhal'd. Thefe Things 
which happen frequently in particular Coun- 
tries and Climates, may, at an appointed Time, 
by the Difpofition of Providence, be more uni- 
verfal throughout the Earth ; and have the 
fame EfFeGs every where, that we fee by Ex- 
perience they have had in certain Places. And 
by this Means we may conceive it as feifible 
to fet the whole Earth on Fire in fome little 
Space of Time, as to burn up this or thac 
Country after a great Drought. But I mean 
this, with Exception ftill to the main Body of 
the Sea ; which will indeed receive a greater 
Diminution from thefe Caufes than we eafily 
imagine, but the final Confumption of it will 
depend upon other Reafons, whereof we mufl 
give an Account m the following Chapters. 

As to the Mountains and Rocks, their lofty 
Heads will fink when the Earthquakes begin 
to roar, at the Beginning of the Conflagration ; 
as we fhall fee hereafter. And as to the Earth 
it felf, 'tis true there are feveral Sorts of Earth 
that are not proper Fuel for Fire ; but thofe 
Soils that are not fo immediately, as clayey 
Soils, and fuch like, may, by the Strength of 
Fire, be converted into Brick, or Stone, or 
Earthen Metal, and fo melted down and vitri- 
fied. For, in conclufion there is no Terreftri- 
al Body that does not finally yield to the Force 
of Fire,and may either be converted into Flame, 
incorporated Fire, or into a Liquor more ardent 
than either of them.. Laitly, As to the Polar 
Regions, which vou think will be a fafe Re- 
Book III. ' F treat 

66 The Theory of the E a ti t n. 

treat and inacceffiblc to the Fire ; 'Tis true, 
unlefs Providence bath laid fubterraneous Trea- 
fures of Fire there unknown to us, thofe Parts 
of the Earth will be the laft confum'd. But it 
is to be obierv'd, that the Cold of thofe Regi- 
ons proceeds from the Length of their Winter, 
and their Diftance from the Sun wlien he is be- 
yond the ^Equator ; and both thefe Caufes will 
be removM at the Conflagration. For we fup- 
pofe the Earth will then return to its primitive 
Situation, which we have explained in the Se- 
cond Book of this Theory, chap. ^. and Vv^ill 
have the Sun always in its ^Equator ; whereby 
the feveral Climates of the Earth will have a 
perpetual Equinox, and thofe under the Poles 
a perpetual Day: And therefore all the Excefs 
of Cold, and all the Confequences of it, will 
foon be abated. However, the Earth will not 
be burnt in one Day, and thofe Parts of the 
Earth being uninhabited, there is no Inconve- 
nience that they fhould be more flowly con- 
fum'd than the reft. 

This is a general Anfwer to the Difficulty 
proposed about the PofTibility of the Confla- 
gration ; and being General only, the Parts of 
it mufl: be more fully explained and confirm'd 
in the Sequel of this Difcourfe. We fhould 
now proceed direftly to the Caufes of the Con- 
flagration, and ihow in wliat manner they do 
this great Execution upon Nature. But to be 
iuft and impartial in this Enquiry, we ought 
firft to feparate the fpurious and pretended 
Caufes from thofe that are real and genuine ; 
to make no falfe Mufl:ers, nor any fliow of be- 


Concerning the Conflagration. 67 

ing ftrongcr than we are; and if we can do 
our Work with lefs Force, it will be more to 
our Credit ; as a Viftory is more honourable 
that is gain'd w^ith fewer Men. 

There are two grand capital Caufes which 
feme Authors make uf^of, as the cl'.ijf Agtnts 
in this Work, the 6'//;/, and the Central Fire. 
Thefe two great Incendiaries, they fay, will 
be let loofe upon us at the Conflagration: The 
one drawing nearer to the Earth, and the other 
breaking out of its Bow^els into thefe upper Re- 
gions. Thefe are potent Caufes indeed, more 
than enough to deftroy this Earth, if it was a 
Thoufand Times bigger than it is. But for 
that very Reafon, I fufpefl: they are not the 
true Caufes ; for God and Nature do not ufe to 
employ unneceffary Means to bring about their 
Deiigns. Difproportion and Over-fufficiency 
is one fort of falfe Meafures, and 'tis a Sign we 
do not thoroughly underlland our Work, "when 
we put more Strength to it than the Thing re- 
quires. Men are forward to call in extraordi- 
nary Powers, to rid their Hands of a trouble- 
fome Argument, and fo make a fliort Difpatch 
to fave themfelves the Pains of further Enqui- 
ries ; but fuch Methods as they, commonly have 
no Proof, fo they give little Satistaftion to an. 
inquifitive Mind. This Suppofition of burn- 
ing the Earth, by the Sun drawing nearer and 
nearer to it, feems to be made in Imitation of 
theStory of *P/?^^^(?;/, who driving the Chariot 
of the Sun with an unfteady Hand, came fo 
near the Earth that he fet 'it on Fire. But 
how^evcr, we will not reject any Prctenfions 

F 2 with 

6% 'The TJjeory of the E a r t n. 

without a fair Trial : Let us examine therefore 
what Grounds they can have for either of thefe 
Suppofitions, of the Approximation of the Surl 
to the Earth, or the Eruption of the Central 
Fire. ' '^ 

As to the Sun, I defire firft to be fatisfied in 
prefent Matter of FaQ; : Whether by any In- 
ftrument or Obfervation it hath or can be dif- 
cover^d, that the Sun is nearer to the Earth 
now, than he was in former Ages ? Or, If by 
any reafoning or comparing Calculations, fuch 
aConclufion can be made? If not, this is but 
an imaginary Caufe, and as eafily deny'd as 
proposed. Aftronomers do very little agree in 
their Opinions about the Diftance of the Sun : 
Ttolemy^ oAlhategnit'Cs^ Copernicm^ Ticho^ J\ep- 
ley\ and others more Modern, differ all in their 
Calculations; but not in fuch a Manner or 
Proportion, as lliould make us beh'eve that the 
Sun comes nearer to the Earth, but rather goes 
further from it. For the more Modern of them 
make the Diftance greater than the more An- 
tient do. K^efler fiys, the Diftance of the Sun 
from the Earth Hes betwixt 700 and 2000 Se- 
midiameters of the Earth: But Rrcchlm makes 
it betwixt 700 and 7000 : And GottefredWen- 
deline hath taken 14656 Semidiameters, for a 
middle Proportion of the Sun's Diftance ; to 
which Kfl^ler himfelf came very near in his 
later Years. So that you fee how groiindlefs 
our Fears are from the Approaches of an Ene- 
my, that rather flies from us, if he change Po- 
fture at all. And we have more Reafon to be- 
lieve the Report of the m.odern Aftronomers, 


Concerning the Conflagration. 6c) 

tbanof the Antlent, in this Matter; botlibecaufe 
the Nature of the Heavens and of the Celefti- 
al Bodies is now better known, and alfo be- 
caufe they have found out better Inftruments 
and better Methods to make their Obferva- 

If the Sun and Earth were come nearer to 
.one another, either the Circle of the Sun's di- 
iirnal Arch would be lefs, and fo the Day 
fliorter; or the Orbit of the Earth's annual 
Courfe would be lefs, and fo the Year fliorter : 
Neither of which we have any Experience of. 
And thofe that fuppofe us in the Centre of the 
World, need not be afraid till they fee Mercu- 
ry and rei/ud^ in a Combuftiori, for they lie be- 
twixt Us and Danger ; and the Sim cannot 
come fo readily at us with his fiery Darts, a$ 
at them, who ftand in his Way. Laftly, This 
languifliing Death by the gradual Approaches 
of the Sun, and that irreparable Ruin of the 
Earth, which at laft mufl: follov\^ from it, do 
neither of them agree with that Idea of the 
CcnflagratioH^ which the Scripture hath given 
us ; for it is to come fuddenly and unexpefted- 
]y, and take us off like a violent Fever, not as 
a lingring Confumption. And the Earth is al- 
io to be dertroyed by Fire, as not to take 
away all Hopes of a Refurreclion or Renovati- 
on : For we are affur'd by Scripture, that there 
will be new Heavens and a new Earth after 
thefe are burnt up. But if the Sun fliould 
come fo near us as to make the heavens f>a/s 
azva-) with a noife^ and melt the ele?}ie?its with 
fl'rvent heat^ and deftroy the Form and all the 

F J Works 

yo The Theory of the Earth. 

Works of the Earth, What Hopes or Poffibih'- 
ty would there beof a RenovatiOxn, while the 
Sun continued in this Pofture ? He would more 
and more confume and prey upon the Carcafs 
of the Earth, and convert it at length either 
into anHeapof Aflies, or a Lump of vitrified 

So much for the Sun. As to the Central 
Fire^ 1 am very well fatisfied it is no imaginary 
Thing : A\\ Antiquity liath prefervM fome fa- 
crcd Monument of it : The Fe/ial Fire of the 
Romans^ which was fo religioufly attended : 
The Trytoneia cf the Greeks were to the fame 
Purpofe, and dedicated to Fefla: And the Ty- 
retheia of the Terfians^ where Fire was kept 
continually by the Magi. Thefe all, in my O- 
pinion, had the fame Origin and the fame Sig- 
nification. And tho' I do not know any parti- 
cular Obfervation, that does direftly prove or 
demonftrate that there is fuch a Mafs of Fire in 
the Middle of the Earth ; vet the beft Accounts 
we have of the Generation of a Planet do llip- 
pofe it ; and 'tis agreeable to the whole Oeco- 
nomy of Nature : As a Fire in the Heart, 
which gives Life to her Motions and Produdi- 
ons. Eut however,* the Qiicftion is not at pre- 
fent, about the Exiftence of this Fire, but the 
Eruption of it, and tlie Effect of that Eruption ; 
which cannot be, in my Judgment, fuch a Con- 
flagration as is defcribM in Scripture. 

This Central Fire muft be encIosM in a Shell 
of great Strength and Firm.nefs ; for being of 
it felf the lighteft and moft aftive of all Bodies, 
it would not be detained in that loweft Prifon 


Concerning the Conflagration. 71 

without a ftrong Guard upon it. 'Tis true, 
we can make no certain Judgment of what 
Thicknefs this Shell is ; but if we fuppofe this 
Fire to have a Twentieth Part of the Semidia- 
meter of the Earth, on either Side the Centre, 
for its Sphere, which feems to be a fair Allow- 
ance ; there would (till remain Nineteen Parts, 
for our Safeguard and Security. And thefe 
Nineteen Parts of the Semidiameter of the 
Earth will make ^268 Miles, for a Partition- 
Wall betwixt us and this Central Fire. W!io 
would be afraid of an Enemy lock'd up in io 
ftrong a Prifon ? But you'll fay, it maybe, 
tho' the Central Fire, at the Beginning of the 
World, might have no more Room or Space 
than what is mentioned ; yet being of that 
Activity that it is, and corrofive Nature, it 
may, in the Space of fome Thoufands of Years, 
have eaten deep into the Sides of its Prifon ; 
and fo come nearer to the Surface of the Earth 
by fome Hundreds or Thouiands of Miles, than 
it was at firft. This would be a material Ex- 
ception, if it could be made out. But what 
Phoenomenon is there in Nature that proves 
this ? How does it appear by any Oblervation, 
that the Central Fire gains Ground upon us ? 
Or is increafed in Qtiantity, or come nearer to 
the Surface of the Earth ? 'l know nothing tliat 
can be offered in Proof of this : And if'^there 
be no Appearance of a Change, nor any fenfi- 
ble EffeQ: of it, 'tis an Argument there is none, 
or none confiderable. If the Quantity of tliit 
Fire was confiderably incrcas'd, it muft needs, 
befides other EfFeQ:s, have made tlie Body of 

F 4 tlie 

72 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

the Earth confiderably lighter. The Earth 
having, by this converfion of its own Subflance 
into Fire, loft fo much of its heavieft Matter, 
and got fo much of the lighteft and moft Ac- 
tive Element inftead of it : and in both thefe 
refpecls its gravity would be manifeftly Lef- 
feny. Whith if it really was in any confider- 
able degree, it would difcover it felf by fome 
change, either as to the motion of the Earth, 
or as to its Place or Station in the Heavens. 
But there being no external Change obferva- 
ble, in this or any other refpeft, 'tis reafonable 
to prefijme that there is no confiderable inward 
Change, or no great confumption of its inward 
Parts apd Subftance : and confequently no great 
increafe of the Central Fire. 

But if we fliould admit both an encreafe and 
eruption of this Fire, it would not have that 
effefl: which is pretended. It might caufe fome 
Confufion and Diforder in thofe Parts of the 
Earth where it broke out, but it would not 
make an univerfal Conflagration, fuch as is re- 
prefented to us in Scripture. Let us fuppofe 
the Earth to be open or burft in any Place, un- 
der the Pole, for inftance, or under the ALqua- 
tor : and let it gape as low as the Central 
Fire. At this chafm or rupture we fuppofe 
the Fire would gufii out; and what then 
would be the confequence of this when it came 
to the furface of the Earth? It would either 
be diffipated and loft in the Air, or fly ftill 
higher towards the Heavens in a Mafs of 
Flame. But what execuvion in the rpean 
Time would it do upon the Body of the Eardi ? 


Concerning the Conflagration. 75 

^Tis but like a Flafh of Lightning, or a Flame 
ifluing out of a Pit, that Dies prefently. Be- 
fides, this Central Fire is of that Subtilty and 
Tenuity that it is not able to inflame grofs 
Bodies : no more than thofe Meteors we call 
Lambent Fires^ inflame the Bodies to which 
they ftick. Laflily, in explaining the manner 
of the Conflagration, we mufl: have regard 
principally to Scripture ; for the explications 
given there are more to the purpofe, than all 
that the Philofophers have faid upon that Sub- 
jefl:. Now, as we noted before, 'tis manifefl: 
in Scripture that after the Conflagration there 
will be a Refiatiration^ New Heavens and a 
New Earth, 'Tis the exprefs Do8:rine of St. 
Teter^ befides other Prophets : We mufl: there- 
fore fuppofe the Earth reduc'd to fuch a Chaos 
by this lafl: Fire, as will lay the Foundation of 
a New World, 2 Tet, ^. 12, i j. Which can 
never be, if the inward Frame of it be broke, 
the Central Fire exhaufl:ed, and the exterior 
region fuck'd into thofe central Vacuities;. 
This mufl: needs make it lofe its former Poife 
and Libraticn, and it wifl thereupon be thrown 
into fume other Part of the Univerfe, as the 
ufelefs fhell of a broken Granado, or as a dead 
Carkafs and unprofitable Matter. 

Thefe Reafons may be Sufficient why we 
fhould not depend upon thofe pretended Cau- 
fes of the Conflagration, The Suns advance 
towards the Earth, or fuch a rupture of the 
Earth as wifl let out the Central Fire. Thefe 
Caufes, I hope, will appear fuperfluous, when 
we fliall have given an account of the Confla- 

74 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

gration without them. But Young Philofo- 
phers, like young Soldiers, think they are ne- 
ver fufficiently armed ; and often take more 
"Weapons, than they can make ufe of, when 
they come to Fight. Not that we altogether 
rejeft the Influence of the Sun, or of the Cen- 
tral Fire; efpecially the latter. For in that 
great efluation of Nature, the Body of the 
Earth will be much open'd and relaxated ; and 
when the Pores are enlarged, the Steams of that 
Fire will fvveat out more plentifully into all its 
Parts; but ftill without any rupture in the 
VefTels or in the Skin. And whereas thefe Au- 
thors fuppofe the very Veins burft, and the vi- 
tal Blood to gufli out, as at open Flood-gates, 
we only allow a more copious perfpiration, and 
think that fufficient for all purpofes in this cafe. 

H A P. 


The true "Bounds of the Laft Yire^ and how far 
it is fatal. The natural Caufes a?id Mate^ 
rials of it^ cafi i?ito Three Ranks : Firfiy 
juch as are Exterior and Vifille ufon the 
Earth ; where the Volcano"^ s of the Earthy 
and their effects^ are confider'^d. Seco7tdly^ 
fuch Materials as are within the Earthy 
Thirdly^ fuch as are in the odir. 

AS we have, in the preceding Chapter, 
laid afide thofc Caufes of the Confla-r 
gration, which we thpught top great and cum? 

" berfome 

Co7tcermng the Conflagration, 75 

berfome ; fo now we muft, in like manner, 
examine the EtFefl:, and reduce that to its jafb 
Mea fares and Proportions ; that there may be 
notliing left fuperfluous on either fide ; Then, 
by comparing the real Powers with the Work 
they are to do, both being ftated within their 
due Bounds, we may the better judge how 
they are proportioned to one another. 

We noted before, that the Conflagration had 
nothing to do witli the Stars and fuperiour 
Heavens, but was wholly confin^l to tliis Sub- 
lunary World. And this Deluge of Fire will 
have much what the fame Bounds, that the 
Deluge of Water had formerly. This is ac* 
cording to St. Teter\ Doftrine, for he makes 
the fame parts of the Univerfe to be the Subjecl 
of both : Namely, the inferiour Heavens and 
the Earth, z Tet. 3. 5, 6. The Heavens and 
the Earth which were then^ ferifl)d in a "De- 
luge of Water : Ver. 7. ^ut the Heavens and 
the Earth that are now^ are referv\i to Fire. 
The prefent Heavens and Earth are fubftituted 
in the Place of thofe that perifii'd at the Dcr 
luge, and thefe are to be over-run and deftroy'd 
by Fire, as thofe were by Water. So that the 
Apoftle takes the fame Regions, and the fame 
Space and Compafs for the one as for tlie other, 
and makes their Fate different according to 
their different conflitution, and the different 
order of Providence. This is the fenfe St. 
oAuftin gives us of the Apoftle's Words, and 
thefe are the Bounds he fets to the laft Fire ; 
whereof a modern Commentator is fo well 
affur'd, that he fays, Efliiis in he, They neither 


76 The Theory of the Earth. 

under ft and "Divinity^ norThilofo^hy^ that would 
make the Conflagration reach above the Ele- 
mentary Heavens. 

Let thefe be then its Limits upwards, the 
Clouds, Air, and Atmofphere of the Earth. 
But the queftion feems more doubtful, How far 
it will extend downwards, into the Bowels of 
the Earth. I anfwer ftill, to the fame depth 
that the Waters of the Deluge reach'd : To 
the loweft Abyffes and the deepeft Caverns 
within the Ground. And feeing no Caverns 
are deeper or lower, at leafl: according to our 
Theory, than the bottom of the great Ocean, 
to that Depth, I fuppofe, the Rage of this Fire 
will penetrate, and devour all before it. And 
therefore we rauft not Imagine, that only the 
outward Turf and habitable furface of the 
Earth will be put into a Flame and laid Waft : 
the whole exteriour Region of the Earth, to 
the Depth of the deepeft part of the Sea, will 
fuffer in this Fire ; and fuffer to that degree, as 
to be melted down, and the Frame of it dif- 
iolv'd. For we are not to conceive that the 
Earth will be only Scorcht or Charkt in the 
laft Fire, there wfll be a fort of Liquefaftion 
and Diffolution ; Y<.ev. 15. 2. 2 '?et, y 10. T/^/. 
97. 5. it will become a molten Sea mingled with 
Fire^ according to the expreffion of Scripture. 
And this diffulucion may reafonbly be fuppos'd 
to reach as low as the Earth hath any hollow- 
neffes, or can give vent to Sm.oak and Flame. 

Wherefore taking thefe for the Bounds and 
Limits of the laft great Fire, the next Thing^ 
10 beenquirM iat.o, ^re the Natural Caufis o{ 


Concerning the Conflagration. 77 

it. How this ftrange Fate will Sei!2:e upon the 
Sublunary World, and with an irrefiftible Fu- 
ry fubdue all Things to it felf. But when I 
fay Natural Catifesj I would not be fo under- 
flood, as if I thought the Conflagration was a 
pure Natural Fatality^ as the Stoicks feem to 
do. No, 'tis ^iinixt Fatality; The Caufes in- 
deed are Natural, but the adminiftration of 
them is from an higher Hand. Fire is the 
Inftrument, or the executive Power, and hath 
no more force given ic t;}ian what it hath 
naturally ; but the concurrence of thefe Cau- 
fes, or of thefe Fiery Powers, at fuch a Time, 
and in fuch a Manner, and the condu£t of them 
to carry on and compleat the whole Work 
without ceffation or interruption, that I look 
upon as more than what material Nature could 
Effeft of it felf, or than could be brought to 
pafs by fuch a Government of Matter, as is 
the bare refult of its own Laws and determina- 
tions. When a Ship fails gently before the 
Wind, the Mariners may ftand Idle ; but to 
guide her in a Storm, all Hands muft be at 
Work. There are Rules and Meafures to be 
obferv'd, even in thefe Tumults and Defolations 
of Nature, in deftroying a World, as well as 
in making one, and therefore in both it is rea- 
fonable to fuppofe a more than ordinary Provi- 
dence to fuperintend the Work. Let us not 
therefore be too Pofitive or Prefumptuous in 
our conjectures about thefe Things, for if there 
be an invihble Hand, Divine or Angelical, that 
touches the Springs and Wheels ; it will not be 
eafie for us to determine, with certainty, the 


78 The Theory of the E a"r t h. 

order of their Motions. However 'tis our 
duty to fearch into the ways and Works of 
God, as far as we can : And we may without 
Offence look into the Magazines of Nature, 
fee what provifions are made, and what pre- 
parations for this great Day ; and in what 
Method 'tis moft likely the defign will be exe- 

But before we proceed to mark out Materials 
for this Fire, give me leave to obferve one con- 
dition or property vin the Form of this prefent 
Earth, that makes it capable of Inflammation. 
'Tis the manner of its conftruftion, in an hol- 
low cavernous form : By reafon whereof, con- 
taining much Air in its cavities, and having 
many inlets and outlets, 'tis in mofl: Places 
capable of ventilation, pervious and paffabie to 
the Winds, and confequently to the Fire. Thofe 
that have read the former Part of this Theory, 
IBook, 6, 7. know how the Earth came into 
this Hollow and Broken Form, from whatcaufes 
and at what Time ; Namely, at the Univerfal 
Deluge ; when there was a Difruption of the 
exteriour Earth that fell into the Abyfs, and fo, 
for a Time, was overflow'd with Water- 
Thefe Ruins recover'd from the Water, we 
inhabit, and thefe Ruins only will be burnt 
up ; For being not only unequal in their Sur- 
face, but alfo Hollow, Looie, and incompad 
within, as ruins ufe to be, they are made there- 
by capable of a Second Fate, by inflammation. 
Thereby^ I fav, they are made combuftible ; 
for if the exteriour Regions of this Earth were 
as clofe and compact in all their Parts, as w^e 


Cojtcerning the Confl^gratto7t. 79 

haveReafon to believe the interiour Regions 
of it to be, the Fire could have little Power 
over it, nor ever reduce it to fuch a State as is 
required in a compleat Conflagration, fuch as 
ours is to be. 

This being admitted, that the Exteriour Re- 
gion of the Earth ftands Hollow, as a well fet 
Fire, to receive Air freely into its Parts, and 
hath iflues for Smoke and Flame : It remains 
to enquire what Fewel or Materials Nature 
hath fitted to kindle this Pile, and to continue 
it on Fire till it be confumM ; or, in plain 
Words, What are the Natural Caufes and 
fre-paratives for a Conflagration. The firft 
and moft obvious preparations that we fee in 
Nature for this Effefl:, are the "Burning Moun- 
tains or Volcano's of the Earth. Thefe are 
leiTer Eflays or Preludes to the general Fire ; 
fet on purpofe by Providence to keep us awake, 
and to mind us continually, and forewarn us 
of what we are to expeft at laft. The Earth 
you fee is already kindled, blow but the Coal, 
and propagate the Fire, and the Work will 
go on, l[a. JO. 5 J. To-phet is frepar^d of oldy 
and when the Day of Doom is come, and the 
Date of the World expir'd, the 'Breath of the 
Lord fliall make it burn. 

But befides thefe Burning Mountains, there 
are Lakes of pitch and brimftone, and oily Li- 
quors difperft in feveral parts of the Earth. 
Thefe are to enrage the Fire as it goes, and to 
fortifie it againft any refiftance or oppofition. 
Then all the v^egetable productions upon the 
Surface of the Earth, as Trees, Shrubs, Grafs, 


8o The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Corn, and fuch like : Every Thing that grows 
out of the Ground, is Fewel for the Fire ; and 
tho' they are now accommodated to our 
ufe and fervice, they will then turn all againft 
us ; and with a mighty Blaze, and rapid courfe, 
make a devaftation of the outward furniture 
of the Earth, whether Natural or Artificial. 
But thefe Things deferve fome further confi- 
deration, efpecially that ftrange Phasnomenon 
of the Volcano's or "Burbling Mountains^ which 
we will now confider more particularly. 

There is nothing certainly more terrible m 
all Nature than Fiery Mountains, to thofe that 
live within the View or Noife of them ; but 
it is not eafie for us, who never fee them nor 
heard them, to reprefent them to our felves with 
fuch juft and lively imaginations as fliall excite 
in us the fame Paflions, and the fame horrour as 
they would excite, if prefent to our Senfes. 
The Time of their eruption and of their Ra- 
ging, is, of all others, the moft dreadful ; but, 
many, Times, before their eruption, the Symp- 
toms of an approaching fit are very fright- 
ful to the People. The Mountain begins to 
Roar and. Bellow in its hollow caverns ; cries 
out, as it were, in Pain to be delivered of 
fome Burthen, too heavy to be Born, and too 
big to be eafily difcharg'd. The Earth fliakes 
and Trembles, in apprehenfion of the Pangs 
and Convulfions that are coming upon her* 
And the Sun often hides his Head, or appears 
with a difcolour'd Face, Pale, or Dusky, or 
Bloody, as if all Nature was to fuffer in this 


Concerning the Conflagration. 8i 

Agony. After thefe forerunners or Symp- 
tomes of an Eruption, the wide Jaws of the 
Mountain open : And firft, Clouds of Smoke 
iffue out, then Flames of Fire, and after that 
a mixture of all Soits of burning matter ; 
Red hot Stones, Lumps of Metal, half-diffolv'd 
Minerals, with Coals and Fiery Afhes. Thefe 
fall in thick fhowres round about the Moun- 
tain, and in all adjacent Parts ; and not only 
fo, but are carried, partly by the force of the 
expulfion, and partly by the Winds, when 
they are aloft in the Air, into far diftant Coun- 
tries. As from Italy to Conftantinofle^ and 
crofs the Mediterranean Sea into oAfrick ; as 
the beft Hiftorians, Trocofius^d^mmianus Mar^ 
ciUinus^ and Dion Cajfius ; have attefted. 

Thefe Volcano's are planted in feveral re- 
gionsof the Earth, and in both Continents, This 
of ours, and the other of oAtnerica. For by re- 
port of thofethat have view'd that new-found 
World, there are many Mountains in it that 
belch out Smoke and Fire ; fome conftantly, 
and others by fits and intervals. In our Con- 
tinent Providence hath varioufly difperft them, 
without any Rule known to us ; but they are 
generally in Idands or near the Sea. In the 
AfiatickOrienral Iflands they are in great abun- 
dance, and Hiftorians tell us of a Mountain 
in the Ifland Java^ that in the year, 1586. at 
one Eruption kil?d Ten Thoufand People in 
the Neighbouring Cities and Country. But 
we do not know fo well the Hirtory of thofe 
remote Volcano's, as of fuch as are in Europe 
and nearer Home. In Ifelandj tho' it lie with- 

Book.III. G jj^ 

Bz The Theory of the E a r t h. 

in the Polar Circle, and is fcarce habitable hy 

reafon of the extremity of cold, and abundance 

of Ice and Snow, yet there are three burning 

Mountains in that Ifland ; whereof the Chief 

and moft remarkable is Hecla, This hath its' 

Head always cover'd with Snow, and its belJy 

always filPd with Fire ; and thefe are both fo 

ftrong in their Kind, and equally Powerful, 

that they cannot deftroy one another. It is 

faid to caft out, when it rages, befides Earth, 

Stones and A flies, a fort of Flameing Water, 

As if all contrarieties were to meet in this 

Mountain to make it the more perfeQ: refem- 

blance of Hell, as the credulous inhabitants 

fancy it to be. 

But there are no Volcano's in my opinion, 
that deferve our obfervation fo much, as thofe 
that are in and about the Mediterranean Sea ; 
There is a knot of them called the Vtdcanian 
Ijlands^ from their Fiery Eruptions, as if they 
were the Forges of Vulcan ; as Stromlolo^ Li- 
fara^ and otliers, which are not fo remarkable 
now as they have been formerly. However, 
without difpute, there are none in the Chriftian 
"World to be compared with Mtna and Vej'uvi^ 
6US ; one in the Ifland of Sicily^ and the other 
in Camfania^ overlooking the Port and City of 
Naples. Thefe Two, from all memory of 
Man and the moft antient Records of Hiftory, 
have been famM for their Treafures of Sub- 
terraneous Fires : which are not yet exhaufted,, 
nor diminifli'd, fo far as is perceivable; for 
they rage ftill, upon occafions, with as much 
fiercenefs and violence, as tliey ever did in for- 

Concerning the Conflagration. 85 

filer Ages ; as if they had a continual fupply 
to Anfwer their Expences, and were to ftand 
till the laft P^ire, as a Type and Prefiguration 
of it, throughout all Generations. 

Let us therefore take thefe two Volcano's as 
a Pattern for the Reft; feeing they are well 
known, and ftand in the Heart of the Chri- 
ftian World, where, 'tis likely, the laft Fire v/ill 
make its firft AfTault. j^tna^ of the two, is 
more fpoken of by the Antients, both Poets 
and Hiftorians ; and we fhould fcarce give cre- 
dit to their relations concerning it, if ibme later 
Eruptions did not equal or exceed the fame of all 
that have been reported from former Ages« 
That it heated the Waters of tlie Sea, and co- 
vered them over with Afhes ; crackM or dif- 
folvM the Neighbouring Rocks ; darkened the 
Sun and the Air ; and caft out, not only mighty 
Streams of Flame, but a Floud of melted Ore 
and other Materials ; Thefe Things we can 
now believe, having had experience of greater^ 
or an account of them from fuch as have beea 
Eye-WitnelTes of thefe Fires, or of the frefh 
JRuins and fad efFedl-s of them. 

There are two things efpecially, in thefe 
Eruptions of Mtna., that are moft prodigious in 
themfelves and moft remarkable for our pur- 
pofe. The Rivers of Fiery matter that break 
out of its Bowels, or are fpew^d out of its 
Mouth; and the vaft burning Stones whicli 
it Flings into the Air, at a ftrange height and 
diftance. As to thefe Fiery Rivers or Tor- 
rents, and the matter whereof they are com- 
pounded, we have a full account of them by 

G 2 ^^U 

84 The Thedry of the Earth'. 

(Alphonfus 'Borellus^ a learned Mathematician 
at Tifa ; who after the laft great Eruptioii in 
the Year 1669. went into Sicilj^ while the 
fa£t was frefh, to view and Sur\^ey what ALt- 
na had done or fuffer'd. And he fays the quan- 
tity of matter thrown out of the Mountain at 
that Time, upon Survey amounted to Nine- 
ty three Millions, Eight Hundred Thirty Eight 
Thoufand, Seven Hundred and Fifty cubical 
Paces. So that if it had been extended in 
length upon the Surface of the Earth, at the 
Breadth and Depth of Three Foot, it would 
reach further than Ninety Three Millions of 
Paces ; which is more than Four Times the 
Circuit of the whole Earth, taking a Thoufand 
Paces to a Mile. ♦ This is ftrange to our im- 
agination andalmoft incredible, thatone Moun- 
tain riiould throw out fo much Fiery Matter, 
befides all the Aflies that were difperil: through 
the Air, far and near, and could be brought to 
no account. 

'Tis true, all this matter was not aftually 
inflam'd or liquid Fire. But the reft that was 
Sand, Stone and Gravel, might have run into 
Glafs or fomc melted liquor like to it, if it had 
not been thrown out before the heat fully 
reacht it. However, Sixty Million Paces of 
this Matter, as the fame Author computes, 
were liquid Fire, or came out of die Mouth 
of the pit in that Form. This m.ade a River 
of Fire, fometimes two Miles broad, accor- 
ding to his computation ; but according to the 
obfervation of others who alfo viewed it, the 
Torrent of Fire was Six or Seven miles broad, 


Co7iceY7iing the Conflagration, S5 

and fometimes Ten or Fifteen Fathoms deep; 
and forc'd its way into the Sea near a Mile, 
prefe.rying it feif alive in the midft of the Wa- 

This is beyond all the infernal Lakes and Ri- 
vers, eAcheron^ Thlegeton^ Coc)tus^ all that the 
Poets hav.e talkt of. Their greatefl: fiftions 
about Hell have not come up to the realitv of 
one of our burning Mountains upon Earth, 
Imagin then all our Volcano'*^ ^'^gi^g at once in 

this manner. But I will not purfue that 

fuppofition yet; Give me leave only to add 
J]ere what I mentioned in the Second Place, 
The vaft 'Burning Stones which this Moun- 
tain, in the Time of its rage and eftuation, 
threw into the Air with an incredible Force. 
This fame Author tells us of a Stone Fifteen 
Foot long, that was flung out of the Mouth of 
the Pit, to a miles diftanc-e. And when it fell^ 
it came from fuch an height and with fuch a 
violence, that it buried it felf in the Ground 
Eight Foot deep. What trifles are our A4or- 
tar-Pieces and Bombes, when compar'd with 
thefe Engines of Nature ? When flie flings out 
of the wide Throat of a Volcano, a broken 
Rock, and twirles it in the Air like a little bul- 
let; then lets it fall to do execution here below, 
as Providence fhall point and direfl; it. It 
would be hard to give an account how fo great 
an impulfe can be given to a Body fo ponde- 
rous. But ther's no difputing againli matter 
of Fad ; and as the Thoughts of God are not 
like our Thoughts, fo neither are liis Works 
Ifke pur Works. 

G -i Thus 

g6 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Thus much for jEtna. Let us now give an 
inftance in Fefuvim^ ^nothtv 'Bur mng Moun- 
tain upon the coaft of the Mediterranean, 
which hath as frequent Eruptions, and fome 
as terrible as thofe of ALt?ia^ Lib. 66. T)io7i 
Cafjius (one of the heft writers of the Roman 
Hiftory) hath given us an account of one that 
happened in the Time of Titus Vejfatia^i ; and 
tho' he hath not fet down particulars, as the 
former Author did, of the quantity of Fiery 
matter thrown out at that Time : yet fup- 
pofing that proportionable to its Fiercenefs in 
other refpecls, this feems to me as dreadful an 
Eruption as any we read of; and was accom^- 
panied with fuch Prodigies and Commotions in 
the Heavens and the Earth, as made it look 
like the beginning of the laft Conflagration. 
As a prelude to this Tragedy, He fays there 
were Arrange Sights in the Air, ^nd after that 
followed an extraordinary drought. Then the 
Earth legun to Tremble aud Qualie^ arid the 
Concuffions 'were fo great that the Ground 
feeni'd to rife and "Boil uP in fome places^ and 
in others the to^s of the Moimtains funk in or 
tumbled down, eAt the fa7ne time were great 
JSloifes and Sounds heard^ fame were filter ra'^ 
neous^ like thunder within the Earth ; others 
above ground^ like groaiis cr hellowings, Th^ 
Sea roar'^d^ The Heavens ratled with a fearful 
noife^ and then came afudden and mighty cracky 
as if the, frame of Nature had broke ^ or all the 
Mountains of the Earth had fain down at once. 
eAt length Vefuvius hirji^ and threw out of 
its Womb^ firff^ huge Stones^ then a vaft quan- 

Concerning the Conjlagratio7t. 87 

thy of Fire and Smoak^ fo as the <Air was all 
darknedy a7id the Sun was hid^ as if he had 
been under a great Ecliffe. The day wasturrPi 
into Nighty aiid light into darlznefs ; a7td the 
frighted Teoj)le thought the Gy ants were mak- 
ing war againfi Heavejty and fa^ifted they fee 
the flmpes and images of Gyants in the Smoak^ 
,a7id heard the foimci of their Trumpets. Others 
thought the World was retur7iing to its firft 
Chaosy or goi7ig to he all cmifvrrPd with fire, 
in this ge7ieral confufion and co?i[ter7iation they 
knew not where to he fafe^ fome rtm out of the 
Fields into the Houfes^ others out of the Hotifes 
into the Fields ; Fhofe that voere at Sea hafie7i^d 
to Landy a7id thofe that were at Land endea- 
vour'' d to get to Sea ; fiill tlmiking every flace 
fafer than that where they were, "Be fides gr of- 
fer lumfs of Matter^ there was thrown out of . 
the Mou7itain fuch a prodigious qua7itity of 
Q^jljesy as covered the Land and Sea^ a7id fiWd 
the oAir^fo as^ he/ides other damage s^ the 'Birds^ 
"Beafisy and Fijhes^ with Men^ Women a7id 
Childre7Ly were defer oy^^d^ within fuch a compafs\ 
and two e7itire Cities ^ HerciJanium a7id Pom* 
peios, were overwhehP dimth a power ofo^^fjes^ 
as the Teople were fit i7ig in the Theater. Nay^ 
thefe oApes were carried by the winds over 
the Mediterranean i7tto oAfrich^ and into jE- 
gypt a7id Syria, o^ind at Pvome they choali^d 
the oAir on a fudden^ fo as to hide the face of 
the Sun, Whereuj^on the Teople^ not hiowi7ig 
the Caufe^ as 7iot havi7ig yet got the News fror/i 
Campania of the Erupion of Vefuvius, could 
figp imagine what the rea\'on fliould be ; hut 

G 4 thought 

8? The Theory of the E a r t h. 

thought the Heavens and the Earth were com^ 
ing together^ The Sun coming down^ and the^ 
Earth '/ping to take its ^lace above. Thus far 
the Hiitorian. 

You fee what diforders in Nature, and what 
an alarum, the Eruption of one Fiery Moun- 
tain is capable to make ; Thefe things, no 
doubt, would have made ftrong impreffions 
upon us, if we had been Eye-WitneiTes of 
them ; But I know, reprefentations made from 
dead Hiftory, and at a diftance, though the 
teftimony be never fo credible, have a much 
lefs effeQ: upon us than what we fee our felves, 
and what our fenfes immediately inform us of, 
I have only given you an account of two Vol- 
cano's, and of a fingle Eruption in either of 
them; Thefe Mountains are not very far di- 
ftant from one another : Let us fuppofe two 
fuch Eruptions, as I have mention^, to happen 
at the famie Time, and both thefe Mountains 
to be raging at once, in this Manner ; By that 
violence you have feen in each of them fingly, 
you will eafily imagine what a terrour and de- 
folation they would carry round about, by a 
conjuftion of their fury and all their effefts, 
in the Air and on the Earth. Then, if to thefq 
two, you fliould joyn two more, tlie Sphere of 
their aftivity would ftill be enlarg'd, and the 
Scenes become more dreadful. But, to comr 
pleat the fuppofition. Let us imagine all the 
Volcano's of the whole Earth, to be prepared 
and fet to a certain Time ; which time being 
come, and a fignal given by Providence, al] 
thefe Mines begin to play at once ; I mean. All 

• thefe 

Concerning the Cojipigration, 89 

thefe Fiery Mountains burft out, and difcharge 
themfelves in Flames of Fire, tear up the roots 
of the Earth, throw Hot burning Stones, fend 
out ftreamsof Flowing Metals and Minerals, 
and all other forts of ardent Matter, which 
Nature hath lodg'd in thofe Treafuries. If all 
thefe Engines, I fay, were to play at once, the 
Heavens and the Earth would leem to be in a 
Flame, and the World in an univerfal combu- 
ftion. But we may reafonably prefume, that 
againft that great Day of vengeance and exe- 
cution, not only all thefe will be employed, but 
alfo new Volcano's will be open'd, and new 
Mountains in every Region will break out into 
Smoke and Flame ; juft as at the Deluge, the 
Abyfs broke out from the Womb of the Earth, 
and from thofe hidden ftores fent an immenfe 
quantity of Water, which, it may be, the In- 
habitants of that World never thought of be- 
fore. So we muft expefl: new Eruptions, and 
alfo new fulphureous Lakes and Fountains of 
Oyl, to boyl out of the ground ; And thefe all 
united with that Fewel that naturally grows 
upon the Surface of the Earth, will be fufficient 
to give the firft onfet, and to lay waft all the 
liabitable World, and the Furniture of it. 

But we fuppofe the Conflagration will go 
lower, pierce under-ground, and dilTolve tha 
fubftance of the Earth to fome confiderablc 
depth ; therefore befides thefe outward and 
vifible preparations, we muft confider all the 
hidden invifible Materials within the Veins of* 
the Earth ; Such are all Minerals or Mineral 
juices and concretions that are igniferous, or 


90 The Theory of the E a'r t h, 

capable of inflammation ; And thefe canned 
eafily be reckonM up or eftimated. Some of 
the moft common are, Sulphur, and all Sul- 
phureous Bodies, and Earths impregnated with 
Sulphur, Bitumen and Bituminous concretions; 
inflammable Salts, Coal and other foffiles that 
are ardent, with innumerable mixtures and 
compofitions of thefe kinds which being openM 
by Heat, are unfluous and inflammable ; or 
by attrition difcover riie latent feeds of Fire. 
But befides confiftent Bodies, there is alfo much 
volatile Fire within the Earth, in Fumes, Steams, 
and exudations, w^hich will all contribute to this 
EfFe£l. From thefe ftores under-ground all 
Plants and Vegetables are fed and fupply'd, as 
to their Oily and Sulphureous parts ; And ail 
hot Waters in Baths or Fountains, muft have 
their original from fome of thefe, fome mixture 
or participation of them. And as to the "Bri- 
ti[b Soyl, there is fo much Coal incorporated 
with it, that when the Earth fiiall burn, we 
have reafon to apprehend no fmall danger from 
that Subterraneous EfiCmy. 

Thefe difpofitions, and this Fewel we find^ 
In and upon the Earth, towards the laft Fire. 
The third fort of Provifion is in the Air ; All 
fiery Meteors and Exhalations engendered and 
jform'd in thofe Regions above, and difcharg'd 
ppon the Earth in fevcral way$. I belive there 
were no fiery Meteors in the ante-diluvian 
Heavens ; which therefore St. Teter lays, were 
confiituted of Water \ had nothing in them but 
what was Watery. But he fays, the Heavens 
that are novo have treafjres of f ire^ or are re- 


Concerning the Cofiflagration, 91 

fervM for Fire, as things laid up in a Store 
Houfe for that purpofe. We have Thunder 
and Lightning, and Fiery Tempefts, and there 
is nothing more vehement, impetuous, and 
irrefiftible, where their force is directed. It 
feems to me very remarkable, that the Holy 
Writers defcribe the coming of the Lord^ and 
the deftruftion of the wicked, in the nature 
of a Tempeft, or a Storm of Fire, Tfal. 11.6. 
Up07i the wicked the Lord (Imll Rain Coals^ 
Fire and '^rirnftofiej a?id a burning Tempeff^ 
this (J)aU be the portion of their Cuf, And in 
the lofty Song of David (TJal 18.) which, in 
my judgment, refpefts both the paft Deluge 
and the future Conflagration, 'tis faid, ver. i j, 

14, 15. The Lord alfo t hundred in the Heavens^ 
and the Highefi gave his voice^ Hail-Stones 
and coals of Lire. Tea^ he fent forth his ar^ 
rows andfcattered them^ and he jjjot out lights 
nings and difccnifitcd them. Then the Chanels 
of Waters were feen^ and the foundations of 
the World were difcover^d ; at thy rebuke, 
Lord J at the blaft of the breath of thy noftrils. 
And a like Fiery coming is defcrib'd in the 
ninety feventh Pfalm, as alfo by Ifaiah, Ifa. 66. 

15. 'Daniel, T)an. 7. 9, 10, and St. TauL z 
Thejf I. 8. And laftly, in the e.4pocalypfe], 
when the World draws to a conclufion, as iu 
the feventh Trumpet (ch. 11. 19.) and the Se- 
venth Vial (^ch. 16. 18.) we haveftill mention 
made of this Fiery Tempeft of Lightnings 
and Thunderings. 

We may therefore reafonably fuppofe, that^ 

before the Conflagration^ the Air will be fur« 

■ ' ' ' charg'd 

92 The Theory of the E a r t h.' 

chargM every where, (by a precedent drought) 
with hot and Fiery exhalations ; And as againft 
the Deluge, thofe regions were burthened with 
Water and moift Vapours, which were pour'd 
upon the Earth, not in gentle fhowers, but 
like Rivers and Catarads from Heaven ; fo 
they will now be filPd with hot Fumes and 
fulphureous Clouds, which will fometimes flow 
in Streams and Fiery Impreffions through the 
Air, fometimes make Thunder and Lightnings, 
and fometimes fall down upon the Earth in 
Flouds of Fire. In general, there is a great 
analogy to be obferved betwixt the tw^o Delu- 
ges, of Water and of Fire ; not only as to the 
bounds of them, w^hich were noted before; 
but as to the general caufes and fources upoa 
which they depend, from above and from be- 
low. At the Floud the Windows of Heayea 
were opened above, and the Abyfs was opened 
below ; and the Waters of thefe two joyn'd 
together to overflow the World. In like man- 
ner, at the Conflagration, God will rain down 
Fire from Heaven, as he did once upon Sodom ; 
^nd at the fame Time the fubterraneous Store- 
Houfes of Fire will be broken open, w-hich 
anfwers to the difruption of the Abyfs : And 
riiefe two meeting and mingling together, 
will involve all the Heaven and Earth in 

This is a fhort account of the ordinary Stores 
of Nature, and the ordinary Preparations for a 
generalFire ; and in contemplation of thefe, *P//;sy 
the Naturalifl:, faid boldly, //■ was one of the greats 
eft wonders of the Worfdy that the Wqrtd was 


Concerning the Conflagration. pj 

not every *T>ay fet on Fire. We will conclude 
this Chapter with his words, in the Second 
Book of his Natural Hiftory) ch, io6, 107. 
having given an account of fome Fiery Moun- 
tains, and other Parts of the Earth thatare the 
Seats and Sources of Fire, He makes this re- 
flexion ; Seeing this Elemerit is fo fruitful that 
it hrings forth it [elf and multiplies and en^ 
creafes from the leafi Sfarh ; What are we 
to expert fromfo many Fires already kindled 07t 
the Earth? How does Nature feed and fatisfy 
fo devouring an Eletnent^ andfuch a great vora- 
city throughout all the Worlds without lofs or 
diminution of her f elf ? oAdd to thefe Fires we 
have mentioned^ the Stars and the great Sun^ 
then all the Fires made for human ufes ; Fire in 
Stones^ in Wood^ in th^ Clouds and in Thundery 


94 The Theory of the E a r t h, 


Some new difpo/ltions towards the Conflagra^ 
tioHj as to the Matter^ Form^ and [ttuation 
of the Earth, Concer7iing miraculous Can-* 
fesy and how far the miniflery of o/ingels 
may be engaged in this Worh 

WE have given an Account, in the pre- 
ceding Chapter, of the ordinary prepa- 
rations of Nature for a general Fire ; We novv* 
are to give an account of the extraordinary^ 
or of any new difpofitions, which towards the 
End of the World, may be fiiperadded to the 
ordinary ftate of Nature. I do not, by thefe, 
mean Things openly miraculous, anc^fdperna- 
tural, but fuch a change wrought in Nature 
as fhall ftill have the Face of Natural Caufes, 
and yet have a greater tendency to the Confla- 
gration. As for example, fuppofe a great 
Drought, as we noted before, to precede this 
Fate, or a general heat and drynefs of the Air 
and of the Earth ; becaufe this happens fome* 
times in a courfe of Nature, it will not be 
look'd upon as prodigious. 'Tis true, fome of 
the Antients fpeak of a Drought of Forty 
Years, that will be a forerunner of the Con-^ 
flagration, fo that there will not' be a Watery 
Cloud, nor a Pvainbow feen in the Heavens, 
for fo long Time. And this they impute to 
Elias^ who, at his, coming, will ftop the 


Coficernhtg the Conflagration, 95 

Hain and fhut up the Heavens to make way 
for the laft Fire. But thefe are exceffive and 
ill-grounded fuppofitions, for half Forty Years 
Drought will bring an univerfal fterility upon 
the Earth, and thereupon an Univerfal Famine, 
with innumerable Difeafes ; fo that all mankind 
would be deftroyed before the Conflagration 
could overtake them. 

But we will readily admit an extraordinary 
Drought and deficcation of all Bodies to ufher 
tn this great fatality. And therefore whatfoe- 
ver we read in Natural Hiftory, concerning 
former Droughts, of their drying up Foun- 
tains and Rivers, parching the Earth and mak- 
ing the outward Turf take Fire in feveral 
Places \ filling the Air with fiery imprellions, 
making the Woods and Forefts ready Fewel, 
and fometimes to kindle by the heat of the 
Sun or<a flafli of Lightning : Thefe and whac 
other effefts have come to pafs in former 
Droughts, miay come to pafs again; and that 
in an higher Meafure, and fo as to be of more 
general extent. And we muft alfo allow, that 
by this means, a great degree of inflamma- 
bility, or eafinefs to be fet on Fire, will be fu- 
perinduc'd, both into the Body of the Earth, 
and of all Things that grow upon it. The 
heat of the Sun will pierce deeper into its 
bowels, when it gapes to receive his Beams, 
and by chinks and widened pores makes way 
for their palTage to its very Heart. And, on 
the other Hand, it is not improbable, but that 
upon this general relaxation and incalefcency 
of the Body of the Earth, the Central Fire may 


g6 The Theory of the E a r T h. 

have a freer efflux, and diffafe it felf in greater 
abundance every way ; fo as to afFefl: even thefe 
exteriour Regions of the Earth, fo far as to 
make them ftill more catching and more cum- 

From this external and Internal Heat afting 
upon the Body of the Earth, all Minerals that 
have the Seeds of Fire in them, will be open'd, 
and exhale their Effluviums more copioufly : As 
Spices, when warm'd, are more odoriferous, and 
fill the Air with their Perfumes ; fo the Particles 
of Fire that are fliut up in feveral Bodies, will 
eafily flie abroad, when by a further degree 
of Relaxation you fhake off their Chains, and 
opens the Prifon- Doors. We cannot doubt, but 
there arc many Sorts of Minerals, and many 
Sorts of Fire-ftones, and of Trees and Vegeta- 
bles of this Nature, which will fweat out their 
oily and fulphureous Atomes, when by a gene- 
ral Heat and Drinefs their Parts are loofen'd 
and agitated. 

We have no Experience that will reach fo 
far, as to give us a full Account what the State 
of Nature will be at that Time; I mean, after 
this Drought, towards the End of the World ; 
But we may help our Imagination, by compa- 
ring it with other Seafons and Temperaments 
of the Air. As therefore in the Spring the 
Earth is fragrant, and the Fields and Gardens 
are filPd with the fweet Breatliings of Herbs 
and Flowers; efpecially after a gentle Rain, 
when their Bodies are foftned, and the Warmth 
of the Sun makes them^evaporate more freely: 
So a greater Degree of Heat afting upon all the 


Concerning the Conflagration. 97 

Bodies of the Earth, like a ftronger Fire in the 
Alcmbick, will extrafl: another Sort of Parts or 
Particles, more deeply incorporated and more 
difficult to be difintangled ; I mean oily Parts, 
and fuch undifcoverM Parcels of Fire, as lie 
fix'd and imprifon'd in hard Bodies. Thefe, I 
imagine, will be in a great meafure fet a-float, 
or drawn out into the Air, which will abound 
with hot and dry Exhalations, more than with 
Vapours and Moifture in a wet Seafon ; and 
by this means, all Elements and Elementary- 
Bodies will ftand ready, and in a proximate 
Difpofition to be inflamed. 

Thus much concerning the laft Drought, 
and the general Effects of it. In the next 
Place, we mufl: confider the Earthquakes that 
will precede the Conflagration, and the Confe- 
quences of them. I noted before, that the ca- 
vernous and broken ConftruCtion of the pre- 
fent Earth, was that which made it obnoxious 
to be deftroyM by fire; as its former Conftru- 
ftion over the Abyfs, made it obnoxious to be 
deftroyM with Water. This Hollownels of 
the Earth is moft.fenfible in mountainous and 
hilly Countries, which therefore I look upon as 
moft fubjeSt to Burning ; but the plain Coun- 
tries may alfo be made hollow and hilly by 
Earthquakes, when the Vapours not finding an 
eafy Vent, raife the Ground and make a forci- 
ble Eruption, as at the Springing of a Mine. 
And tho^ Plain Countries are not fo fubjefl: to 
Earthquakes as Mountainous, becauie they have 
not fo many Cavities and fubterraneous Vaults 
to lodge the Vapours in ; yet every Region hath 

H more 

pS The Theory of the E a r t h. 

more or lefs of them : And after this Drought, 
the Vacuities of the Earth being every where 
enlarged, the Quantity of Exhalations much en- 
creas'd, and the Motion of them more ftrong 
and violent, they will have their Effefts in ma- 
ny Places where they never had any before. 
Yet I do not fuppofe that this will raife new 
Ridges of Mountains, like the Q.4lps or 'Pyre^ 
nea7is^ in thofe Countries that are now plain, 
but that they will break and Icofen the Ground, 
make greater Inequalities in the Surface, and 
greater Cavities within, than what are at pre- 
fent in thofe Places : And by this means the 
Fire will creep under them, and find a Paffage 
thorough them, with more Eafe than if they 
were compaft, and every where continued and 

But you Will fay, it may be, How does it 
appear that there will be more frequent Earth- 
quakes towards the End of the World ? If this 
precedent Drought be admitted, 'tis plain that 
fiery Exhalations will abound every v/here 
within the Earth, and will have a greater Agi- 
tation than ordinary; ancJ thefe being the 
Caufes of Earthquakes, when they are rarified 
or inflamed, 'tis reafoiiable to fuppofe that in 
fuch a State of Nature fhey will more frequent- 
ly happen, than at other Times. Befides, Earth- 
quakes are taken Notice of in Scripture, as Signs 
and Fore-runners of the laft Day, as they ufu- 
ally are of all great Changes and Calamities. 
The Deftruftion of JerufaUm was a Type of 
the DeftruSion of the World, and the Evan- 
gelifts always mention Earthquakes amongft 


Concerning the Conflagration. 99 

the ominous Prodigies that were to attend it. 
But thefe Earthquakes we are fpeaking of at 
prefent, are but the Beginnings of Sorrow, and 
not to be comparM with thofe that will fol- 
low afterwards, when Nature is convulft in her 
laft Agony, juft as the Flames are feizing on 
her. Of which we fliall haveOccafion to fpeak 

Thefe changes will happen as to the matter 
and Form of the Earth, before it is attacked by 
the laft Fire ; There will be alfo another 
change as to the fttuation of it ; for that will 
be rectified, and the Earth reftor'd to the po- 
fture it had at firft, namely, of a right afpect 
and converfion to the Sun. But becaufe I can- 
not determine at what time this reftitution will 
be, whether at the beginning, middle, or end 
of the Conflagration, I will not prefume to 
lay any ftrefs upon it. "Vlato feems to have 
imputed the Conflagration to this only ; which 
is fo far true, that the Revolution call'd The 
Great Tear^ is this very Revolution, or the re- 
turn of the Earth and the Heavens to their 
firft pofture. Buttho' this may be contempo- 
rary with the laft Fire, or fome way concomi- 
tant ; yet it does not follow that it is the Caufe 
of it, much lefs the only Caufe. It may be an 
occafion of making the Fire reach more eafily 
towards the Poles, when by this change of 
fituation their long Nights and long Winters 
fhall be taken away. 

Thefe new difpofitions in our Earth which 
we expeO: before that great day, may be look'd 
upon as extraordinary, but not as Miraculous, 

H 2 becaufe 

ICO The Theory of the E a r t k. 

becaufe they may proceed from Natural Caufes 
But nov/ in the lait Place, we are to conflde^ 
7;^m?c/^/^^J• Ci^^//^j ; What influence they may 
have, or what part they may bear, in this 
.great revolution of Nature. By miraculous 
Caujes we underftand either God's immediate 
-Omnipotency, or the Miniftery of Angels ; 
and what may be performed by the latter, is 
very improperly and undecently thrown upon 
the former. 'Tis a great ftep to Omnipotency : 
and 'tis hard to define what Miracles, on this 
fide Creation, require an infinite power. We 
are fure that the Angels are Miniftring Spirits, 
and Ten Thoufand Times Ten Thoufand ftand 
about theThrone of the Almighty ,to receive his 
Commands and execute his Judgments. That 
perfect Knowledge they have of the Powers 
of Nature, and of conducting thole powers 
to the beft advantage, by adjufiijag Caufes in a 
fit fubordination one to another, makes them 
capable of performing, not only things far 
above our force, but even above our imagina- 
tion. Befides, they have a radical inherent 
Power, belonging to the excellency of their 
Nature, of determining the motions of Mat- 
ter, within a far greater fphere than humane 
Souls can ptetend to. We can only command 
our Spirits, and determin their motions with- 
in the compafs of our own Bodies; but their 
aftivity and empire is of far greater extent, and 
the outward World is much more Subjefl: to 
their dominion than to ours. From thefe con- 
fiderations it is reafonable to conclude, that the 
generality of miracles may be and are performed 


Concerm?ig the Conflagration. lOi 

fcy Angels ; It being lefs decorous to employ 
a Sovereign Power, where a fubaltern is fuffi- 
cient, and when we haftily cafl: things upon 
God, for quick difpatch, we confult our own 
cafe niore than the Honour of our Maker. 
3' I take it for granted here, that what is done 
"by an Angelical Hand, is truly providential, 
and of divine admin ill: ration ; and alfo iullly 
bears the character of a Miracle. Whatfoever 
may be done by pure material Caufes, or Hu- 
mane ftrength, we account Natural ; and what- 
foever is above thefe we call fupernatural and 
miraculous. Now what is fupernatural and 
miraculous is either the effeft of an Angelical 
Power, or of a Sovereign and Infinite Power, 
And we ought not to confound thefe two, no 
more than Natural and Supernatural ; for there 
is a greater-difference betwixt the higheft An- 
gelical Power and Omniporencv, than betwixt 
an Humane Power and Angelical. Therefore 
as the tirii Rule concerning miracles is this, 
That we mufl: not flie to Miracles, where Man 
and Nature are fufficient ; fo the Second Rule 
is this, that we muft not flie to a Sovereign in- 
finite Power, wdiere an Angelical is fufficient. 
And the reafon in both Rules is the fame, 
Namely, becaufe it argues a defeft of Wifdom 
in all Oeconomies to employ more and greater 
means than are fufficient. 

Now to make application of this to our pre- 
fent purpofe, I think it realbnable, and alfo 
flifficient, to admit the miniftery of Angels in 
the future Conflagration of the World. If 
Nature will not lay violent Hands upon her 

H s m, 

I02 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

felf, or is not fufficient to Work her own de- 
ftruftion. Let us allow T)efiro)ing eAngels to 
intereft themfelves in the Work, as the Execu- 
tioners of the Divine Juftice and Vengeance 
upon a degenerate World. Wehave examplesof 
this fo frequently in Saci'ed Hiftory, how the 
Angels have executed God's Judgments upon a 
Nation or a People, that it cannot feem new 
or ftrange, that in this laft judgment, which 
by all the Prophets is reprefented as the Great 
T)ay of the Lord^ the day of his Wrath and 
of his Fury, the fame Angels fliould bear their 
Parts, and conclude the laft fcene of that Tra- 
gedy which they had aQed in all along. We 
read of the "Deflroying oAngel in JEgyp ; Gen, 
12. 2j. of Angels that prefided at thedeftruc- 
tion of Sodom^ Gen. 19. i j. which was a Type 
of the future deftruftion of the World, ("Jude 
7.) 2 The\J, 1.7, 8. and of Angels that will ac- 
company our Saviour when he comes in Flames 
of Fire : Not, we fuppofe, to be Speftators 
only, but Aftors and Superintendants in this 
great Cataftrcphe. 

This miniftry of Angels may be either \n 
ordering and conducting fuch Natural Caufcs 
as we have already given an account of, or in 
adding new ones, if occafion be; I mean, in- 
creafing the quantity of Fire, or of Fiery Ma- 
terials, in and about the Earth. So as that 
Element fliall be more abundant and more 
predominant, and overbear all oppofirion that 
either Water, or any other Body, can make 
againft it. It is not material whether of thefe 
two Suppofitions we follow, provided we allow 



ConcevTiing the Conflagration. 103 

that the Conflagration is a work of Providence, 
and not a pure Natural Fatah'ty. If it be ne- 
ceffary tliat there fliould be an augmentation 
made of Fiery Matter, 'tis not hard to con- 
ceive how that may be done, either from the 
Heavens or from the Earth, l^a. 30. 26. The 
Prophets fometimes fpeak of multiplying or 
ftrengthning the Light of the Sun, and it may 
as eaiily be conceived of his Heat as of his Light ; 
as if the Vial that was to be pour'd upon it, 
Rev, 26. 8. and gave it a Tower to Scorch Men 
with Fire^ had ibmethingof a Natural fenfe as 
well as Moral. But there is another ft ream of 
Ethereal matter that Flows from the Heavens, 
and recruits the Central Fire with continual 
fupplies ; This may be encreasM and ftrength- 
ned, and its effefts conveyed throughout the 
-whole Body of the Earth. 

But if an augmentation is to be make of 
Terreftrial Fire, or of fuch terreftrial Principles 
as contain it moft, as Sulphur, Oyl, and fuch 
like, T am apt to believe, thefe will increafe of 
their own accord, upon a general drought and 
deficcauon of tlie Earth. For I am far from 
the opinion of fome Chymifts, that think thefe 
principles immutable, and incapable of diminu- 
tion or augmentation. I willingly admit that 
all fuch particles may be broken and disfigured, 
and thereby lofe their proper and fpecifick vir- 
tue, and new ones may be generated to fupply 
the Places of the former. Which fupplies, or 
new produdions being made in a lefs or greater 
meafure, according to the general difpoiicions 
of Nature j when Nature is heightned into a 

H 4 kind 

104 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

kind of Feaver and Ebullition of all her juices 
and humours, as (lie will be at that Time, we 
mud: expefl: that more Parts than ordinary, 
fhould be made inflammable, and thofe that 
are inflamM fhould become more violent. Un- 
der thefe circumftances, when all Ckufes lean 
that way, a little help from a Superiour Power 
will have a great eflFeft, and make a great 
change in the ftate of the World. And as to 
the Power of Angels, I am of opinion that it is 
very great as to the Changes and Modifications 
of Natural Bodies; that they can diffolve a 
Marble as eafily as we can crumble Earth and 
Moulds, or fix any Liquor in a moment, into 
a fubftance as hard as Cryftal That they can 
either make flames more vehement and irre- 
fifl:able to all forts of Bodies; or as harmlefs 
as Lambent Fires, and as foft as Oyl. We fee 
an inftance of this laft, in Nelucbad7iczzar\ 
fiery Furnace, Dan. 3. 28. where the three 
Children walk'd unconcernM in the midfi: of 
the Flames, under the charge and protection 
of an Angel And the fame Angel, if he had 
pleas'd, could have made the fame Furnace Se- 
ven Times hotter than the Wrath of the Ty- 
rant had miade it. 

We will therefore leave it to their minifl:ry 
to manage this great Furnace, when the Hea- 
vens and the Earth are on Fire. To conferve, 
increafe, direft, or temper the Flames, accor- 
diiig to inftruflions given them, as they are to 
h^TuteJary oxT)ejiroying. Neither let any Bo- 
dy think it a diminution of Providence to put 
Things into the Hands of Angels ; 'Tis the 

Concerning the Conflagration. 105 

true Rule and Method of it: For to imploy an 
Almighty Power is not neceffary, is 
to debafe it, and give it a task fit for lower Be- 
ings. Some think it devotion and Piety to have 
recourfe immediately to the arm of God to 
falve all Things ; This may be done fometimes 
with a good Intention, but commonly with little 
Judgment. God is as jealous of the Glory of 
his Wifdom, as of his Power ; and Wifdom 
confifts in the condufl: and fubordination of 
feveral Caufes to bring our purpofes to effeft,; 
but what is difpatched by an immediate Su- 
preme Power, leaves no Room for the exercife 
of Wifdom. To conclude this point, which I 
have touched upon more than once. We muft 
not be partial to any of God's Attributes, and 
Providence being a complexion of many, Pow- 
er, Wifdom, Jaftice, and Godnefs, when we 
give due Place and Honour to all thefe, then 
we muli Hononour DIVINE PROVI- 

C H A 

ao6 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Chap, IX. 

How the Sea will ie diminifb'^d and C0?iju77pd, 

' 'pHow the Rocks afid Mountains zvill he 

^•'' thrown down and meltedy and the whole 

exteriouY Frame of the Earth dijfolv^d into 

^''ya "Deluge of Fire. 

lo r 

WE have now taken a view of the Caufes 
of the Conflagration, both ordinary 
and extraordinary : It remains to confider the 
inanner of it ; How thefe Caufes will operate, 
and bring to pafs an effect fo great and fo pro- 
digious. We took notice before, tliat the 
grand obftruction would be from the Sea, and 
from the Mountains ; vv'^e niuft therefore take 
thefe to task in the firft Place ; and if we can 
remove them out of our way, or overcome 
what refiftance and oppofition they are capable 
to make, the reft of the Work will not be un- 
eafie to us. 

The Ocean indeed is a vaft Body of Waters ; 
and we muft ufe all our Art and Skill to dry it 
up, or confume it in a good meafure, before 
we can compafs our defign. I remember the 
advice a Philofopher gave oAmafs King of Al- 
g)F^j when he had a command fent him from 
the King of ALthiofia^ That he pwuld drink up 
the Sea. 0/4/-^*^// being very anxious and folli- 
citous what anfwer he fliould make to this 
ftrange command, the Philofopher 'Bias ad- 

Concer7ihig the Conflagration. 107 

vIsM him to make this round anfwer to thb 
King ; That he was ready to ferform his com- 
mand and to drink ti^ the Sea^ provided he 
would [top the Rivers from fi^owing into his Cup 
while he was drinking. This anfwer baffled 
the King, for he could not flop the Rivers"; 
but this we mull do, or we fhall never be atte 
to drink up the Sea, or burn up the Earth. 

Neither will this be fo impoffibie as it feenis 
at firft fight, if we reflect upon thofe prepara- 
tions we'^have made towards it, by a general 
drought all over the Earth. This we fu^ofc 
will precede the Conflagration, and by drying 
up the Fountains and Rivers, which daily feed 
the Sea, will by degrees ftarve that Monfler, or 
reduce it to fuch a degree of weaknefs, that 
it fliall not be able to make any great refiftance. 
More than half an Ocean of Water flows into 
the Sea every Day, from the Rivers of the 
Earth, if you take them all together. This 
I fpeak upon a moderate computation. eAri- 
flotle fays the Rivers carry more Water into 
the Sea, in the fpace of a Year, than would 
equal in bulk the whole Globe of the Earth. 
Nay, fome have ventured to affirm this of one 
Cngle River, the Volga^ that runs into the Caf- 
fian Sea. 'Tis a great River indeed, and hath 
Seventy Mouths ; and fo it had need have, to 
difgorge a Mafs of Water equal to the Body 
of the Earth, in a years Time. But we need 
not take fuch high meafures ; There are at 
leafl: an Hundred great Rivers that flow into 
the Sea, from feveral Farts of the Earth, Iflands 
and Continents, befides feveral Thoufands of 

■ ' " leiTer 

loS The Theory of the Earth. 

•leffer ones ; Let us fuppofe thefe, all together, 
•to pour as much Water into the Sea-channel, 
'every Day, as is equal to half the Ocean. And 
^we fhall be eafily convinced of the reafonable- 
'nefs of this fuppofition, if we do but examine 
the daily expence of one River, and by that 
make an eftimate of the reft. This \mq find 
calculated to our Hands in the River To in 
■Jtalf; a River of much what the fame bignefs 
with ouv Thames ^'dud disburthens it felf into the 
Gulph of Venice, 'Baftifta Rictioli hath com- 
puted how much Water this River dilcharges 
in an Hour, t;/^. 18000000 cubical Paces of 
Water, and confequently 472000000 in a Day; 
wliich is fcarce credible to thofe that do not 
diftinftly compute it. Suppofe then an Hun- 
dred Rivers as great as tliis or greater, to fall 
into the Sea fron^i the Land ; befides Thofands 
of leffer, that, pay their tribute at the fama 
Timie into the great Receipt of the Ocean ; 
Thefe all taken together, are capable to renev/ 
the Sea twice every Four and Twenty Hours. 
Which fuppofitions being admitted, if by a 
great and iafting drought thefe Rivers were 
dried up, or the Fountains from whence they 
Flow, what would then become of that vaft 
Ocean, that before was fo formidable to us? 

'Tis likely you will fay, Thefe great Rivers 
cannot be dry 'd up, tho' the little ones may; 
and therefore w^e muft not fuppofe fuch an Unir 
yerfal flop of Waters, or that they will all fail, 
by any drought whatfoever. But great Ri- 
vers being made up of little ones, if thefe fail^ 
thofe muft be dimiaififd, if not quite drain'd 


Concerning the CG7tflagratlon. 109 

and exhaufted. It may be all Fountains and 
Springs do not proceed from the fame Caufes, 
or the fame original ; and fome are much more 
copious than others ; for fuch diflFerences we 
will allow what is due ; but ftill the drinefs of 
the Air and of the Earth continuing, and all 
the fources and fupplies of moifture, both from 
above and from below, being leflTen'd or wholly 
difcontinued, a general decay of all Fountains 
and Rivers muft neceffarily follow, and confe- 
quently of the Sea, and of its fulnefs that de- 
pends upon them. And that's enough for our 
pre fen t purpofe. 

The firft ftep towards the Confumption of 
the Ocean will be the diminution or fufpenfion 
of the Rivers that run into it. The next will 
be an Evacuation by Subterraneous pafTages ; 
and the laft, by Eruptions of Fires in the very 
Cliannel of it, and in the midil: of the Waters. 
As for Subterraneous Evacuations, we cannot 
doubt but that the Sea hath out-lets at the 
bottom of it ; whereby it difcharges that vaft 
quantity of Water that flows into it every Day, 
and that could not be difcharg'd fo faft as it 
comes from, the wide mouths of the Rivers, by 
percolation or ftraining thorough the Sands. 
Seas alfo communicate with one another by 
thefe internal paflages ; as is manifeft from 
thofe particular Seas that have no external out- 
let or iifue, tho' they receive into them many 
great Rivers, and fometimes the influx of other 
Seas. So the Cafp/an Sea receives not only 
Volga^ which we mention'd before, but feveral 
other Rivers, and yet hath no vifible ilTue for 


tto The Theory of the E a r t h, 

Its Waters. The Mediterranean Sea, befides 
all the Rivers it receives, hath a current flow- 
ing into it, at either End, from other Seas ; 
from the oAtlantick Ocean at the flreights of 
Gibr alter ^ and from the Black Sea, above Con-- 
fiantinople ; and yet there is no paffage above- 
ground, or vifible derivation of the Mediter* 
ranean Waters out of their Channel ; which 
feeing they do not overfil, nor overflow the 
Banks, 'tis certain they mufl: have fome fecret 
conveyances into the bowels of the Earth, or 
fubterraneous communication with other Seas. 
Lafl:ly, From the Whirl-pools of the Sea that 
Fuck in Bodies that come within their reach, 
it feems plainly to appear, by that attraftioa 
and abforption, that there is a defcent of Wa- 
ters in thofe Places. 

Wherefore when the current of the Rivers- 
into the Sea is fl:opt,or in a great meafure di- 
tninifh'd ; The Sea continuing to empty k felf 
by thefe fubterraneous paffages, and having little 
or none of thofe fupplies that it usd to have 
from the Land, it mufl: needs be fenfibly lefleny 
and both contraQ- its Channel into a narrower 
compafs, and alfo have lefs depth in the Wa- 
ters that remain. And in the lafl: Place, we 
mufl: expeO: fiery eruptions in feveral Parts of 
the Sea-channel, which will help to fuck up or 
evaporate the remaining Waters. In the pre- 
fent ftate of Nature there have been feveial in- 
ftances of fuch eruptions of Fire from the bot- 
tom of the Sea ; and in that lafl; fi:ate of Nature, 
when all things are in a tendency to inflamma- 
tion, and when Earthquakes and Eruptions 


Concerning the Conflagration. iii 

will be more frequent every where, we muft 
expeft them alfb more frequently by Sea, as 
w^ell as by Land. 'Tis true neither Earth-^ 
quakes nor Eruptions can happen in the middle 
of the great Ocean, or in the deepeft Abyfs, 
becaufe there are no cavities, or mines below 
it, for the vapours and exhalations to lodge in ; 
But 'tis not much of the Sea-channel that is fo 
deep, and in other Parts, efpecially in ftreights 
and near Iflands, fuch Eruptions, like Sea-Vol- 
cano's, have frequently happened, and new 
Iflands have been made by fuch fiery matter 
thrown up from the bottom of the Sea. Thus, 
they fay, thofe Iflands in the Mediterranean 
call'd the Vulcanian Iflands, had their original ; 
being matter cafl: up from the bottom of the 
Sea, by the force of Fire ; as new Mountains 
fometimes are raised upon the Earth. Ano- 
ther Ifland in the a4rchipelago had the fame 
original, whereof Straho gives an account. 
Lib. I. The Flames^ he izys Jprung nf through 
the Waters Four T>ays together ^[o as the whole 
Sea was hot and burning ; and they rais^dhj 
degrees^ as with E7igines^ a mafs of Earthy 
which made a nevo IJland^ twelve furlongs in 
com-pajs. And in the fame e.4rchipelago^ 
Flames and Smoke have feveral Times (parti- 
cularly in the Years 1650.) rifen out of the Sea, 
and fiird the Air with fulphureous fcents and 
vapours. In like manner, in the Ifland of St. 
Michaely one of the Tercera^s^ there have been, 
of later Years, fuch eruftations of Fire and 
Flames; fo ftrong and violent, that, at the 
depth of an Hundred and Sixty Fathoms, they 


in The Theory of the Earth. 

forced their way through the midft of the Wa- 
ters, from the bottom of the Sea into the open 
Air. As has been related by thofe that were 

In thefe three ways I conceive, the great 
force of the Sea will be broken, and the 
mighty Ocean reduc'd to a ftanding Pool of 
putrid Waters, without vent and without re- 
cruits. But there will ftill remain in the midft 
of the Channel a great Mafs of troubled Li- 
quors, like dregs in the bottom of the Veffel ; 
which w^ill not be drunk up till the Earth be 
all on Fire, and torrents of melted and falphu- 
reous matter Flow from the Land, and mingle 
with this Dead Sea. But let us now leave the 
Sea in this humble pofture, and go on to attack 
the Rocks and Mountains which ftand next 
in our Way. 

See how fcornfully they look down upon us, 
and bid defiance to all the Elements. They 
have born the Thunder and Lightning of Hea- 
ven, and all the Artillery of the Skies, for 
innumerable Ages; and do not fear the crackl- 
ing of Thorns and of Shrubs that burn at their 
Feet. Let the Towns and Cities of the Earth, 
fay they be laid in Afhes ; Let the Woods 
and Forefts blaze away ; and the fat Soyl of 
the Earth fry in its own greafe ; Thefe things 
will not affefl: us ; We can ftand naked in the 
midft of a Sea of Fire, with our Roots as deep 
as the Foundations of the Earth, and our Heads 
above the Clouds of the Air. Thus they 
proudly defie Nature ; and it muft be confeft, 
that thefe, being, as it were, the Bones of the 


Concerning the Conflagration. iij 

Earth, when the Body is burning, will be the 
lall confuni''d ; And I am apt to think, if they 
could keep in the fame pofture they ftand in 
now, and preferve themfelves from fallixig, the 
Fire could never get an entire Power over them. 
But Mountains are generally hollaw, and that 
makes them fubjea: to a double cafualty ; Firft, 
Of Earth-quakes ; Secondly, Of having their 
Roots eaten away by Water or by Fire ; but by 
Fire efpecially in this Cafe : For we fuppofe 
there will be innumerable fubterraneous Fires 
fmothering under ground, before the general 
Fire breaks out ; and thefe by corroding the 
Bowels of the Earth, will make it more hollow 
and more ruinous ; and when the Earth is {b 
far dfffolv'd, that the Cavities within the Moun- 
tains are filVd with Lakes of Fire, then the 
Mountains will fink and fall into thofe boyling 
Caldrons ; which, in Time, will diffolve them 
tho' they were as hard as Adamant. 

There is another Ingin that w^ill tear the 
Earth with great violence, and rend in pieces 
whatfoever is above or about thofe Parts of it. 
And that is the Element of Water, fo gentle 
in it felfi when undifturb'd. But 'tis found by 
experience, that when Water falls into liquid 
Metals, it flies about with an incredible impe- 
tuofity, and breaks or bears down every thing 
that w^ould flop its motion and expanfion. 
This force I take to come from the fudden and 
ftrong rarefaftion of its Parts : which make a 
kind of explofion, wlien it is fudden and vehe- 
ment : And this is one of the greateft. forces 
we know in Nature. Accordingly I am apt to 

Book. Ill, I think 

1 14 The TJjeory of the E a r t h. 

think, that the marvellous force of Volcano's, 
when they throw out lunnps of Rocks, great 
fragments of the Earth, and other heavy 
Bodies, to fuch a vaft height and diftance, 
that it is done by this way of explofion : 
And that explofion made by the fudden rare- 
fadion of Sea-waters, that fall into Pans or 
receptacles of molten Ore and ardent Liquors 
within the cavities of the Mountain: and 
thereupon follow the Noifes, Roarings, and 
Eruptions of thofe Places. 'Tis obferv'd that 
Volcano's are in Mountains, and generally, if 
not always, near the Sea: And when its Waters 
by fubterraneous Paflages, are driven under 
the Mountain, either by a particular Wind, or 
by a great agitation of the Waves, they meet 
there with Metals and fiery Minerals diffolv'd, 
and are immediately, according to our fuppofi- 
tion, rarefied, and by way of explofion fly out 
at the Mouth or Funnel of the Mountain, 
bearing before them whatfoever fi:ands in 
"their way. Whether this be a true account or 
no, of the prefent Volcano's and their Erup- 
tions, 'tis manifefl: that fuch Cafes as we have 
mention'd, will happen in the Conflagration 
of the Earth, and that fuch eruptions or dif- 
ruptions of the Earth will follow thei'eupon : 
and that thefe will contribute very much to tlie 
finking of Mountains, the fplitting of Rocks, 
and the bringing of all ftrong Holds of Na- 
ture under the Power of the General Fire. 

To conclude this Point, the Mountains will 
all be brought low, in that fl:ate of Nature, 
either by Earthquakes or fubterraneous Fires ; 


Concern} ng the Conflagration. ^rj 

Every vclley fJ)aV he exalted^ a?id every Moun^ 
tainand Hill pall hemade low^ Jja.^o. 4. Which 
win be literally true at the Second coming of our 
Saviour, as it was figuratively applyM tohisfirffc 
coming, Lnke 5. 5. Now, being once levcl'd 
with the reft of the Earth, the Qiieftion will 
only be, how they fhall be difTolv'd. But there 
is no Terreftrial Body indiifolvable to Fire, if it 
have a due ftrength and continuance ;> aiid this 
laft Fire will have both, in the highefl: degrees; 
So that it cannot but be capable of diffolving 
all Elementary compofitions, how hard or fo- 
]id foever they be. 

'Tis true, thefe Mountains and Rocks, as I 
faid before, will have the priviledge to be the 
laft deftroyM. Thefe, with the deep Parts of 
the Sea, and the Polar Regions of the Earth, 
will undergo a flower Fate, and be confum'd 
more leifurely. The aftion of the laft Fire may 
be diftinguifh'd into two Times, or two af. 
faults ; The firft affault will carry off all Man- 
kind, and all the Works of the Earth that are 
eafily combuftible ; and this will be done with 
a quick and fudden motion. But the Second 
affault, being employed about the confumption 
of fuch Bodies or fuch Materials as are not fb 
eafily fubjefted to Fire, w^ill be of long con- 
tinuance, and the Work of fomc Years. And 
'tis fit it fhould be fo; that this Haming World 
may be view^M and confider'd by the neigh- 
bouring Worlds about it, as a dreadfulfpectacle, 
and monument of God's Wrath againftdifloyal 
and difobedient Creature. That by this ex- 
ample, now before their Eyes, they may think 

I 2 of 

ii6 The Theory of the Earth. 

of their own Fate, and what may befal them, 
as well as another Planet of the fame Elements 
and Compofition. 

Thus much for the Rocks and Mountains ; 
which, you fee, according to our Hypothefis, 
will be levePd, and the whole Face of the 
Earth reduc'd to plainnefs and equality ; nay, 
which is more, melted and diffolvM into a Sea 
of liquid Fire. And becaufe this may feem a 
Paradox, being more than is ufually fuppofed, 
or taken notice of, in the Doflrine of the Con- 
flagration, it will not be im, proper in this Place 
to give an account, wherein our Idea of the 
Conflagration and its effc(9:s,difftrs from the com- 
mon; opinion and the ufual reprefentation of it. 
'Tis commonly fuppos'd, that the Conflagration 
of the World is like the burning of a City, 
where . the Wails and Materials of the Houfes 
are not melted down, but fcorch'd, inflam'd, 
demolifh'd, and made unhabitable. So they 
thinli in the Burning of the World, fuch Bo- 
dies, or fiich Farts of Nature, as are fit Fewel 
for the Fire, will be inflam'd, and, it may be, 
confumM, or reducM to Smoke and Aflies ; 
But other Bodies that are not capable of In- 
flammation, will only be fcorch'd and defac'd, 
the beauty and furniture of the Earth fpoiPd, 
and by that means, fay they, it will be laid 
waft and become unhabitable. This feems to 
me a very fhort and imperfeft Idea of the 
Conflagration ; neither agreeable to Scripture, 
nor to the deduGions that may be made from 
Scripture. We therefore fuppofe that this is 
but half the Work, this deft roying of the out- 

Concernhtg the CoiiflagYatiGn. 117 

ward garniture of the Earth is but the firft on- 
fet, and that the Conflagration will end in a 
diffolution and liqucfadion of tlie Elements 
and all the exteriour region of the Earth: 
fo as to become a true Deluge of Fire, or a Sea 
of Fire overfpreading the whole Globe of the 
Earth. This ftate of the Conflagration, I 
think, may be plainly proved, partly by the 
exprefTions of Scripture concerning it, and 
partly from the Renovation of the Earth that 
is to follow upon it. St. "Veter^ who is our 
chief Guide in the Do&rine of the Confla- 
gration, fays, 2'Vet. J. 10, II. The Elements 
will he melted with fervent Heat\ befides 
burning up the Works of the Earth. Then 
adds, Seeing all thefe things fljall he dijjolv^d^ 
iffc. Thefe Terms of LiquefaHion and T)ij}0' 
lution cannot, without violence, be reftrained 
to Hmple devaluation and fuperflcial Scorching. 
Such expreffions carry the Work a great deal 
further, even to that full fenfe which we pro- 
pofe. Befides, the Prophets often fpeak of 
the melting of the Earth, or of the Hills and 
Mountains, at the prefence of the Lord, in 
the Day of his Wrath, Ifa. 54. j, 4. i^ 44. i, 
^. Nah. I. $. *P/. 97. 5. And St. "^ohn (oApoc. 
i«5. 2.) tells us of a Sea ofGlafs^ 7ningledwith 
Fire ; where the Saints flood, finging the Song 
of Mofes^ and triumphing over their Enemies, 
the Spiritual Tharaoh ^nd his hoft, that were 
fwallowed up in. it. The Sea ofGlafs muft be 
a Sea of molten Glafs ; it muft be fluid, not; 
folid, if a Sea • neither can a folid fubftance 
be faid to be mingled with Fire^ as this was. 

I 3 And 

1 18 The Theory of the Earth. 

And to this anfwers the Lake of fire and Irim- 
ft one ^ which the Beaft and falfe Prophet were 
thrown into alive, oAfoc. 1 9. 20. Thefe all re- 
fer to the End of the World and the laft Fire, 
and alfo plainly imply, or exprefs rather, that 
State of Liquefaflion which we fuppofe and 

Furthermore, TheRenovatio;; of the World, 
or the New Heavens .^nd New Earthy which 
St. Teter^ out of the Prophets, tells us fliall 
fpring out of thefe that are burnt and diffolved, 
do fuppbfe this Earth reduc'd into a fluid Cha- 
os, that it may lay a Foundation for a fecond. 
World. If you take fuch a Skeleton of an 
Earth, as your fcorching Fire would leave be- 
hind it ; where the flefh is torn from the Bones, 
and the Rocks and Mountains (tand naked and 
flaring upon you ; the Sea, half etnpty, gaping 
at the Sun, and the Cities all in Ruins and in 
Rubbifh ; How would you raife a new World 
from this ? and a World fie to be an hahitation 
for the RighteotM ; for fo St. Teter makes that 
to b(p, which is to facceed after the Conflagra- 
tion; iT^/-. J. 13. And a World ?A{o without a 
Sea; foSt.^^^/;/^ defcribcs the New Earth he faw, 
eA^oc.21.1. As thi^fe Charaftcrs do not agree 
to the Prefent Earth, fo neither would they agree 
toy our Future one ; for if that dead Lump could 
revive and become habitable again, it would 
however retain all tlie Imperfections of the 
former Earth, befides fome Scars and Deformi- 
ties of its ov^n. Wherefore, if you v/ould call 
the Earth into a new and better Mould, you 
muft iirfl: melt it down ; and the lailFjre, be- 

Concerning the Conflagration. 119 

ing as a Refiner^ sVlve^ will make an Improve- 
ment in it, both as to Matter and Form. To 
conclude, It muft be reducM into a fluid Mafs, 
in the Nature of a Chaos, as it was at fiift ; 
but this laft will be a Fiery Chaos, as that was 
Watery ; and from this State it will emerge 
again into a Paradifaical World. But this be- 
ing the Subjeft of the following Book, we will 
difcourfe no more of it in this Place. 

Chap. X. 

Concerning the 'Beginning a7td Trogrefs of the 
Conflagrattoji^ what Tart of the Earth will 
firft he 'Burnt, The Manner of the fritnre 
T^eftniSiion of Rome, according to Trofhe^ 
tidal Indications, The lafi State and Con* 
fummation of the general Fire. 

HAving remov'd the chief Obftruftions to 
our Defign, and fhow'd a Method for 
weakning the Strength of Nature, by draining 
the Trench, and beating down thofe Bulwarks, 
wherein fl:ie feems to place her greateft Confi- 
dence ; We muft now go to Work ; m.aking 
choice of the weakeft Part of Nature for our 
firft Attack, where the Fire may be the eafieft 
admitted, and the beft maintain'd and pre- 
fer vM. 

And for our better Direction, it will be of 
V^^ to coofider what we noted before, vi^^ 

I 4 Tha$ 

120 The Theory of the E a r t h. , 

That the Conflagration is not a pure Natural 
Fatality^ but a Mixt Fatality ; or a Divine 
Judgment fupported by Natural Caufes. And 
if we can find fome Part of the Earth, or of 
the Chriftian World, that hath more of thefe 
natural Difpofitions to Inflammation than the 
rell • and is alfo reprefented by Scripture as a more 
peculiar Objefl: of God's Judgments at the com- 
ing of our Saviour, we may juftly pitch upon 
that Part of the World as firft to be deflroyed. 
Nature and Providence confpiring to. make that 
the firft Sacrifice to this fiery Vengeance. 

Now as to Natural Difpofitions, in any 
Country or Region of the Earth, to be fet on 
Fire, they feem to be chiefly thefe Two, Sul- 
phureoufnefs of the Soil, and an hollow moun- 
tainous Conftruftion of the Ground. Where 
thefe two Difpofitions meet in the fame Tracl 
or Territory, (the one as, to the Qiiality of the 
Matter, and the other as to the Form) it flands 
like a Pile of fit Materials, ready fet to have 
the Fire put to it. And as to Divine Indica- 
tions where this General Fire will begin, the 
Scripture points to the Seat of Antichrift, where- 
foever that is, for the Beginning of it. The 
Scripture, I fay, points at this two Ways: Firft, 
In telling us that our Saviour at his coming //; 
flames of FirepaU con fume the wicked One^ The 
Man of fiuy the Son of perdition^ with the Sfi^ 
rit of his mouthy and JJjall deftroy him with the 
irigbtnefs of his frejpice^^ 2 Thefl', i. 7. ch.2.8. 
Secondly, Under tlie Name of Mjfiical 'Bahy^ 
lon\ which is aH(3\ all to be:.the Seat 
of Antichrift, and by Scripture always con^ 


Concerning the Conflagration. 121 

demnM to the Fire. This we find in plaia 
Words afferted by St. John m the i%th Chap 
of his Revelations {Fer/es 8, 19. j and in the 
igth (Ferfe j.) under the Name of the Great 
Whore ; which is the fame City and the fame 
Seat, according to the Interpretation of Scri- 
pture it felf, (ch.ij, 18.) And the Prophet 
T)miiel^ when he had fet the oAntient of Tiays 
upon his fiery Throne, fays, The 'Body of the 
^eaft was given to the htrning flame ^ Dan. 7. 
9, 10, II. Which I take to be the fame thing 
with what St.^f^tefays afterwards, {oApoc. 19. 
20.) The 'Bea/i and the falfe Tro^het were cafi 
alive into a Lake of fire burning with hrim^ 
ft one. By thefe Places of Scripture it feems 
manifeft, that Antichriil, and the Scat of An^ 
tichrift, will be confumed with Fire, at the^j 
coming of our Saviour. And 'tis very reafon-: 
able and decorous, that the Grand Traitor and 
Head of the Apoftafy fliould be made the firft 
Example of the Divine Vengeance. 

Thus much being allow'd from Scripture, 
let us now return to Nature again ; to feek out 
that Part of the Chriftian World, that from 
its own Conftitution is moft fubjeft to Burning; 
by the Sulphureoufnefs of its Soil, and its fiery 
Mountains and Caverns. This we fhall eafily 
find to be the Roman Territory^ or theCountri!- 
oi Italy : Which, by all Accounts, Antient an^^ 
Modern, is a Store-houfe of Fire ; as if it was 
condemned to that Fate by God and Naturq^. 
and to be an Incendiary, as it were, to the 
rell-of the World. And feeing Myfiical Bahy^ 
hn^ the Seat of Antichrift^ is the fame Rome^ 


1^2^ The Theory of the E a r t h* 

and Its Territory^ as it is underftood by moft 
Interpreters of former and later Ages ; yon 
lee both our Lines meet in this Point ; and, that 
there is a Fairnefs, on both Hands, to conclude^ 
that, at the glorious Appearance of our Saviour, 
the. Conflagration will begin at the City of 
Roine and the Roman Territory. 

Nature hath fav'd us the Pains of kindling a 
Fire in thofe Parts of the Earth ; for, firice the 
Memory of Man, there have always been fub- 
terraneous Fires in Italy. ' And the Romans 
did not preferve their Vefial Fire with more 
Conftancy, than Nature hath done her fiery 
Mountains in fomePart or other of that Ter- 
ritory. Let us then fuppofe, when the fatal 
Time draws near, all thefe Burning Moun- 
tains to be filFd and repleniRi'd with fit Ma- 
terials for fuch a Defign ; and when our Savi- 
our appears in the Clouds, with an Hpft of 
Angels, that they all begin to play, as'Fire-i 
works, at the Triumphal Entry of a Prince; 
Let Vefuvm^ Mtna^ Strongjle^ and all the 
Vulcanian Iflands, break out into Flames ; and 
by the Earthquakes, which then will rage, let 
us fuppofe new Eruptions, or new Mountains 
open'd, in the QAfennines^?inA near to Rome ; and 
to vomit out Fire in the fame Manner as the old 
Volcano's. Then let the fulphureous Ground 
take Fire ; and feeing the Soil of that Country, 
in feveral Places, is fo full of Brimftone, that 
the Steams and Smoke of it vifibly rife out of 
the Earth ; we may reafonably fuppofe, that it 
will burn openly, and be inflam'd, at that Time, 
partly, The Lightnings of the Air, and the 
'--'■ flaming 

Concerning the Conflagration. 125 

flaming Streams of the melting Skies, will min- 
gle and join with thefe Burnings of the Earths 
And thefe three Caufes meeting together, as 
they cannot but make a dreadful Scene, io they 
will'eafily deftroy and confume whatfoever lies 
within the Compafsof their Fury. 

Thus you may fuppofe the Beginning of the 
General Fire : And it will be carried on by like 
Caufes, tho' in lefler Degrees, in other^ Parts 
of the Earth. But as to Rome^ there is ftill, 
in my Opinion, a more dreadful Fate that will 
attend it ; namely, to be abforpt or fwallowed 
up in a Lake of Fire and Brimftone, after the 
manner of Sodorn and Gomorrha. This, in my 
Judgment, will be the Fate and final Conclu- 
fion of Mj/iical "Babylon J to fink as a great 
Mill-done into the Sea, and never to appear 
more. Hear what the Prophet fays, eA mighty 
e.4ngel took up a fione^ like a great Mil[io7te^ 
and cafl it into the Sea^ f^O'^'^&f ^l^^^^f ^^'^^ 
violence^ fiall that great City 'Bahjlon le 
thrown down ; and (Ijall le found 710 yrwre at 
all^ Apoc. 18. 21. Simply to be burnt, does 
not at all anfwer to this Defcription of 
its, perifliing, by finki^ig like a Milftone into 
tte Sea^ and 7iever appearing more^ nor ot^ 
not having its place ever ?nore found ; that 
is, leaving no Remains or Marks of it. A 
City that is only burnt, cannot be faid to 
fall like a Milflone irito the Sea ; or that it caTi 
nevermore he found: For after the Burning 
of a City, the Ruins ftand, and its Place is 
well known. Wherefore, in both Refpefls, 
b^fides this exteriour Burning, there muft be 


124 ^^ Theory of the U akt h. 

an Abfbrption of this Myfiical "Baijlon^ th(^ 
Seat of the Beaft; and tliereupon a total Dif- 
appearance of it. This alfo agrees with the 
Sudennefs of the Judgment, which is a re- 
peated Character of it, Chap, 18. 8, 10, 17, 19, 
Now what kind of Abforption this will be, 
into what, and in what manner, we may learn 
from what St. John fays afterwards, ch. 19. 20, 
The ISeaft and the falfe Trophets were ca/i 
alive into a Lake of fire aJid brimftone. You 
muft not imagin that they were bound Hand 
and Foot, and fo thrown Headlong into this 
Lake, but they were fwallowed up alive, they 
and theirs, as Corah and his Company. Or, 
to ufe a plainer Example, after the manner of 
Sodom and Gomorrha *, which perifhM by Fire, 
and at the fame Time funk into a Dead Sea, 
or a Lake of Brimftone. 

This was a lively Type of the Fate of 7^^/^^, 
or Myftical 'Babylon ; and 'tis fit it fliould re» 
femble Sodom^ as well in its Funifliment, as in 
its Crimes. Neither is it a hard tlnng to con- 
ceive how fuch an Abforption may come to 
pafs; that being a thing fo ufual in Earth- 
quakes, and Earthquakes being fo frequent in 
that Region. And laftly, That this fliould be, 
after the manner of Sodom^ turnM into a Lake 
of Fire, will not be at all ftrange, if we con- 
fider, that there will be many fubterraneous 
Lakes of Fire at that Time, when the Bowels 
pf the Earth begin to melt, and the Moun- 
tains fpew out Streams of liquid Fire. The 
Ground therefore being hollow and rotten in. 
fhofe Parts, when it comes to be'fliaken with 

'a mighty 

Concernhig the Conflagration. 125 

a mighty Eathquake, the Foundations will fink, 
and the whole Frame fall into an Abyfs of 
Fire below, as a Milftone into the Sea. And 
this will give Occafion to that Cry, ^ahylon 
the Great U fallen^ is fallen^ and fliall never 
more be found. 

This feems to be a probable Account, ac- 
cording to Scripture and Reafon, of the Be- 
ginning of the general Fire, and of the parti- 
cular Fate of Rome. But it may be proposM 
here as an Objeftion againft this Hypothefis, 
that the Mediterranean Sea lying all along the 
Coafl: of Italyj muft needs be a fuificient 
Guard to that Country againft the Invafion of 
Fire, or at leaft muft needs extinguifh it, be- 
fore it can do much Mifchief there, or propa- 
gate it felf into other Countries. I thought 
w^e had in a good meafure prevented this Ob* 
jeftion before, by fliewing how the Ocean 
would be diminiOfd before the Conflagration, 
and efpecially the Arms and Sinus's of the 
Ocean ; and of thefe none would be more fub- 
je£t to tliis Diminution, than the Mediterra- 
nean : For, receiving its Supplies from the 
Ocean and the Black Sea, if thefe came to fink 
in their Channels, they would not rifefo high, 
as to be capable to flow into the Mediterra- 
nean at either End. And thefe Supplies being 
cut off, it would foon empty it felf fo far, part- 
ly by Evaporation, and partly by fubterraneous 
Paffages, as to fhrink from all its Shores, and 
become only a ftanding Pool of Water m the 
Middle of the Channel. Nay, 'tis poffible, 
by Floods of Fire defcending from the many 


126 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Volcano's upon its Shores, it might it felf be 
converted into a Lake of Fire, and rather 
help than oblirufl: the progrefs of the Confla- 

It may indeed be made a Qiieftion, whether 
this fiery Vengeance upon the Seat of Anti- 
chrift, will not precede the general Conflagra- 
tion, at fome diftance of Time, as a Fore-run- 
ner and Forewarner to the World, that the 
reft of the People may have Space to Repent ; 
And particularly the Jews^ being Speflators of 
this Tragedy, and of the miraculous Appear^ 
ance of our Saviour, may fee the Hand of 
God in it, and be convinced of the Truth and 
Divine authority of the Chriftian Religion- 
I fay, this fuppofition would leave Room for 
thefeand fome other prophetick Scenes, which 
wp know not well where to Place ; But feeing 
The T)ay of the Lord is reprefented in Scrip- 
ture as one entire Thing, without inter rupt- 
tion or difcontinuation, and that it is to begixi 
with the deftruStion of Antichrift, we have 
warrant enough to purfuethe reft of the Con- 
flagration from this beginning and introduc- 

Let us then fuppofe the fame preparations 
made in the other Parts of the Earth to con- 
tinue the Fire ; for the Conflagration cf the 
World being a Work of Providence, we m.ay 
be furefuch Meafures are taken, as will eiftc-^ 
tually carry it on, when once begun. The 
Body of the Earth will belopfenM and broken 
by Earth-quakes, the more folid Parts impreg- 
nated with Sulphur, and c!ie cavirics fiird with 

un ctuos 

Concerning the Conflagration. 127 

unGuous Fumes and Exhalations ; lb as the 
whole Mafs will be but as one great funeral 
•Pile, ready built, and wanting nothing but the 
Hand of a deftroying Angel, to give it Fire. 
I will not take upon me to determine which 
Way this devouring Enemy will fteer his 
courfe from Italy^ or in what order he will 
advance and enter the feveral Regions of our 
Continent ; that would be an undertaking, as 
uncertain, as ufelefs. But we cannot doubt of 
his fuccefs, which Way foever he goes ; unlefs 
where the Channel of the Ocean may chance 
to ftop him. But as to that, we allow, that 
different Continents may have different Fires ; 
not propagated from one another, but of di* 
ftinQ: fources and originals ; and fo likewife 
in remote Iflands ; and therefore no long 
paffage or trajeftion will be required from 
Shore to Shore. And even the Ocean it felfi 
will at length be as Fiery as any Part of the 
Land ; But that, with its Rocks, like Death, 
will be the laft Thing fubdued. 

As to the Animate World, the Fire will 
over-run it with a fwitt and rapid courfe, and 
all living Creatures will be fuffocated or con- 
fumed, at the firft afHiulr. And at the fame 
Time, the beauty of the Fields and the externa! 
decorations of Nature will be defacM. Then 
the Cities and the Towns, and all the Works 
of Man's Hands, will burn like ftubble before 
the Wind. Thefe will be foon difpatch'd ; 
but the great burthen of the Work ftill re- 
mains ; which is that Liquefa^ion we men- 
tioned before, or a 7nelthig Fir^j much more 


1 28 The Theory of the E a r t h: 

ftrong and vehement than thefe tranfient Bla- 
zes, which do but fweep the fiirface of tlie 
'Earth. This Liquefaftion, I fay, we prov'd 
before out of Scripture, as the laft State of the 
fiery Deluge, ch, 9. And 'tis this, which at 
length, will make the Sea it felf a Lake of 
Fire and 'Brim ft one. When inftead of Rivers 
of Waters which ufed to flow into it from the 
Land, there come ftreams and rivulets of Sul- 
phureous Liquors, and purulent melted Matter, 
which following the traft of their natural 
gravity will fall into this great drain of the 
E^.rth Upon which mixture, the remaining 
Parts of fweet Water will foon evaporate, and 
the fait mingling with the Sulphur will make a 
Dead Sea, an oAfphaltztes^ a Lake of Sodom^ 
a Cup of the dregs of the Wine of the fierce- 
nefsof God's Wrath. 

• . We noted before two remarkable effeds of 
the ''Burning Mountains^ which would contri- 
bute to the Conflagration of the World ; and 
.gave inftanaes of both in former Eruptions of 
JEtna and Vefuvius, One was, of thofe Balls 
or Lumps of Fire, which they throw about in 
the Time of their Rage; and the other, of 
thofe Torrents of liquid Fire, which rowl down 
their fides to the next Seas or Valleys. In the 
firfl: refpeft thefe Mountains are as fo many 
Batteries, planted by Providence in feveral 
Parts of the Earth, to fling thOfe fiery Bombs 
into fuch Places, or fuch Cities, as are marked 
out for deftruftion. And in the fecond refpeft, 
they are to dry up the Waters, and the Rivers, 
and the Sea it felf, when they fall into its 


Concermng the Conflagration. 129 

C\\'?innd^r^47tnaLSic, dec. i. /. 2. c. 4. T. Fa- 
zellus^ a Sicilian^ who writ the Hiftory of 
that Idand, tells ns of fuch a River of Fire 
fupon an Eruption of Mtna^ near Twenty 
Eight Miles Long ; reaching from the Moun- 
tain to Port Longina ; and might have been 
much longer if it had not been ftopt by the 
Sea. Many fuch as thefe, and far greater, we 
ought in reafon to imagin, when all the Earth 
begins to melt, and to ripen towards a diffolu- 
tion. It will then be full of thefe Sulphureous 
juices, as Grapes with Wine ; and thefe will 
be fqueezM out of the Earth into the Sea, as 
out of a Wine-prefs into the Receiver ; to fill 
up that C//p, as we fa id before, with the Wine 
of thefiercenefs of GoiPs Wrath. 

If we may be allow'd to bring Prophetical 
pafTages of Scripture to a natural Senfe, as 
doubtlefs fome of thofe muft that refpeft the 
End of the World, thefe Phrafes which we 
have now fuggefted, of the Wine-prefs of the 
Wrath of Gody oApoc. 14. 10, ig. ch, 16. 19, 
ch. 19. 15. 'Drinking the jiercenefs of his 
wine^ l^tired^ without mixture^ into the cup 
of his indignation^ with expreffions of the 
like nature that occur fometimes in the old 
Prophets, but efpecially in the Apocalypfe : 
Thefe, I fiy, might receive a full and empha- 
tical explication from this ftate of things wiiich 
now lies before us. I would not exclude any- 
other explication of lefs force, as that of allud- 
ing to the bitter Cup or wixt potion that us'd 
to be given to malcfidors : but that methinks, 
is a low Senfe wlien applved to thefe Places 
Book III. k ia 

ijo The Theory of the Eakth. 

in the Apocalypfe. That thefe Phrafes fignifie 
God's remarkable Judgments, all allow, and 
here they plainly relate to the End of the 
World, to the laft Plagues, and the lafl: of the 
laft Plagues, chaf?. 16.19. Befides, The Angel 
that prefided over this judgment, isfaidto be 
an Angel that had Tower over Fire ; And 
thofe who are to drink this potion, are faid to 
hQ tormented with Fire and^Brimfione^ ch. 14, 
10. This prefiding Angel feems to be our Sa- 
viour himfelf (c, 19. 15.) who when he comes 
to execute Divine Vengeance upon the Earth, 
gives his orders in thefe Words, Gather the 
chfiers of the Vine of the Earthy for her graces 
are fully rife ^ch, 14. 18, 19. And thereupon 
the deftroying Angel thriifi in his fickle into the 
Earthy and gathered the Vine of the Earthy 
and cafi it into the great iVine-frefs of the 
Wrath of God. And this made a potion corn- 
founded of feveral ingredients^ lut not diluted 
with Water \ 'x'^vj:.v.^^'suAv^i'^cJ,-j\i (ch, 14. 10.) 
and was indeed a potion of Fire and Brimftone 
and all bui-ning materials mixt together. The 
fimilitude of Scripture are feldom nice and ex- 
act:, but rather bold, noble and great ; and ac- 
cording to the circumftances which we have 
obferv'd, This Vineyard feems to be the Earthy 
and this Vifitage the end of the World ; The 
preffing of the Grapes into the Cup or Veflel 
that receives them, the diftillation of burning 
Liquors from all Parts of the Earth into the 
trough of the Sea ; and that Lake of red Fire, 
the Blood of thofe Grapes fo Flowing into it. 


Concermug the Conflagration. 151 

'TIs true, This judgment of the Vintage 
and Wine-prefs, and the cffefts of it, feem to 
aim more efpecially at fome particular Region 
of the Earth, ch, 14. 20. And I am not againft 
that, provided the fubftance of the explication 
be ftill retained, and the univerfal Sea of Fire 
be that which follows in the next Chapter, 
under the Name of a Sea of Glafs^ mi?igled 
with Fire \ ch. 16. 2. This I think exprefles 
the higheft and compleat ftate of the Confla- 
gration ; when the Mountains are fled away, 
and not only fo, but the exterior region of the 
Earth quite diffolv'd, like wax before the Sun ; 
The Channel of the Sea fiU'd with a m.afs of 
fluid Fire, and the fame Fire overflowing all 
the Globe, and covering the whole Earth, as 
the Deluge, or the firfl: Abyfs. Then will the 
Triumphal Songs and Hallelujah's be fung for 
the Victories of the Lamb over all his Enemies 
and over Nature it felf, oA^oc. 1 5. j, 4. Great 
and marvellous are thy works^ Lord God aAU 
mighty : "Juft and true are thy ways^ thou Kjfig 
of Saints. JVhoJJjall not fear thee^ Lord^ and 
glorifie thy name ? for thou only art holy : for 
all nations Jl/all CG?ne and worfl^f before thee ; 
for thy judgments are made ?nanifefi. 

K 2 c H A p. xr. 

1 j2 The Theory of the E a r t nl 

Chap. XL 

oAn account of thofe extraordhtary T^hanomena 
and Wonders in Nature^ thatj according to 
Scripture J will f recede the corning of Chrift^ 
and the Conflagration of the World. 

IF we reflect upon the Hiftory of Barning 
Mountains, we cannot but obferve, that, 
before their Eruptions, there are ufually fome 
changes in the Earth or in the Air, in the Sea 
or in the Sunitfelf; as figns and forerunners 
of the enfuing Storm. We may then eafily 
conclude that when the laft ^reat Storm Is a 
comin?;, and all the Volcano's of the Earth 
ready to burft, and the Frame of the World to 
be dilTolvM, there will be previous figns, in the 
Heavens and on the Earth, to introduce this 
Tragical fate. Nature cannot come to that 
extremity, without fome fymptoms of her 
illnefs, nor 6\q filently, without pangs or 
complaint. But we are naturally heavy of 
belief as to Futurities, and can fcarce fancy any 
other Scenes, or other Hate of Nature; than 
what is prefent, and continually before our 
Eyes; we will therefore, to cure our unbelief, 
take Scripture for our guide, and keep within 
the limits of its Predictions. 

The Scripture plainly tells us of Signs of 
Prodigies that will precede the coming of our 
Saviour, and the end of the World ; both in 


Concerning the Conflagration. j^^ 

the Heavens and on the Earth. The Sun, Moon, 
and Stars, will be difliirb^l in their motion or 
afpeO: ; The Earth and the Sea will Roar and 
Tremble, and the Mountains fall at liis Pre- 
fence. Thefe things both the Prophets and 
Evangelifts have told us ; But what w^e do not 
iinderftand, w^e are flow to believe ; and there- 
fore thofe that cannot apprehend how fuch 
Changes fliould come to pafs in the Natural 
World, chufe rather to allegorize all thefe 
expreilions of Scripture, and to make them fig- 
nifie no more tlian political changes of Govern- 
ments and Empires, and the great Confufions 
that will be amongft the People and Princes of 
the Earth towards the end of the World. So 
that darhnng of the Sun^ jlmVing of the Earthy 
and fuch like Phrafes of Scripture, according to 
thefe Interpreters, are to be underftoal on) y in 
a moral Senfe. 

And they think they have a Warrant for 
this interpretation fi'om the Prophetick ftyle 
of the Old Teftament, where the deftruftion 
of Cities, and Empires, and great Princes, 
is often defcrib'd by fuch Figures, taken from 
the Natural World. So much is true indeed 
as to the Phrafe of the old Prophets in fome 
Places ; but I take the true Reafon and Defign 
of that, to be a typical Adumbration of what 
was intended fhould literally come to pafs in 
thegreat anduniverfaldeftruttion of the World ; 
whereof thefe partial Deftructions, were only 
Shadows and Prefigurations. But to determine 
this Cafe, Let us take the known and approved 
iiple for interpreting Scripture, Nat to recede 

K J from 

J 54 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

fron the literal fenfe without necefjity^ or where 
the Nature of the Subjeft will admit of a 
literal Interpretation. Now as to thofe Cafes 
in the Old Teftament, Hiftory and Matter of 
Fafl: do fhow that they did not come to pafs 
literally, therefore muft not be fo iinderftood ; 
But as for thofe that concern the End of the 
World, as they cannot be determined in that 
Way, feeing they are yQ.t future -^ So neither 
is there any Natural repugnancy or improba- 
bility that they fhould come literally to pafs : 
On the contrary, from the intuition of that 
ftate of Nature, one would rather conclude the 
Probability or NecefTity of them ; That there 
may and muft be fuch diforders in the external 
World before the general Diffolution. Befides, 
If we admit Prodigies in any Cafe, or Provi- 
dential indications of God's Judgments to come, 
there can be no Cafe fuppos'd, wherein it 
will be more reafonable or proper to admit 
them, than when they are to be the Melfen- 
gers of an univerfal Vengeance and Deftruc- 

Let us therefore confider what figns Scrip- 
ture hath taken notice of, as deftin'd co appear 
at that Time, to publifh, as it were, and pro- 
claim the approaching End of the World ; and 
how far they will admit of a natural Explica- 
tion, according to thofe Grounds we have al- 
ready given, in explaining the Caufes and 
Manner of the Conflaciration. Thefe SiMs 
are chiefly, Earth-quakes, and extraordinary 
Com.motions of the Seas. Then the Darknefs 
or bloudy Colour of the Sun and Moon ; the 


Concerning the Conflagration. i j 5 

fiiaking of the Powers of Heaven, the Fulgu- 
rations of the Air, and the Falling of Stars. 
As to Earth-quakes, we have upon feveral 
Occafions fliown, that thefe will necaflarily be 
multiplied towards the End of the World ; 
when, by an excefs of Drought and Heat, ex- 
halations will more abound within the Earth ; 
and, from the fame Caufes, their inflammation 
alfo will be more frequent, than in the ordi- 
nary ftate of Nature, And as all Bodies, when 
dry'd, become more porous and full of Vacui- 
ties ; fo the Body of the Earth will be at that 
Time : And the Mines or Cavities wherein 
the Fumes and Exhalations lodge, will accor- 
dingly be of greater extent, open into one 
another, and continued through long Trafts 
and Regions; By which Means, when an 
Earth-quake comes, as the Iliock will be more 
ftrong and violent, fo it may reach to a vaft 
Compafe of Ground, and whole Iflands or 
Continents be Hiaken at once, when thefe 
Trains have taken Fire. The eflPeCts alfo of 
fuch Concuffions, will not only affefl: Mankind, 
but all the Elements and the Inhabitants of 

I do not wonder therefore that frequent and 
great Earthquakes (liould be made a Sign of 
an approaching Conflagration ; and the high- 
eft Expreffions of the Prophets concerning the 
T>ay of the Lord^ may be underftood in a literal 
Senfe, if they be finally referrM to the general 
Deftruclion of the World, and hot terminated 
folely upon thofe particular Countries or People, 
to whom they ^re at firft direded. Hear 

K 4 what 

136 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

what Ezehel fays upon thisSubjeft, Chap. 58. 
19, 20, 22. f(5r /;/ myjealoufy and in the fire 
of my wrath have I Jfoken ; furely in that T>ay 
there fljall he a great (Imking in the Land of 
JfracL So that the Fifies of the Sea^ and the 
Fowls of the Heaven^ a?id the "Beafts of the 
Fields and all creeping things that creep upon 
the Earth ; a7id all the Men 'that are upon the 
face of the Earthy fuall flmke at my prefence ; 
and the Mountains fjudl he thrown down^ and 
the fieep places jhaU fall^ a7id every wall fmll 
fall to the ground.'- — g/^;/J I will rain an over^ 
flowing rai?i^ and great hail [iones^ fire and 
brimfione. The Prophet Ifaicis (Chaf>. 2^, iS^ 
19, 20.) defcribes thefc Judgments in Terms 
as high, and relating to the Natural World ; 
The TFindows from on high are open^ and the 
foundatioiis of the Earth do fljake. The Earth 
is utterly hroken down^ the Earth is clean dif 
folv'^dj the Earth is moved exceedingly. The 
Earth pall reel to and fiv like a dmnkardy 
and flmll he removed like a Cottage^ and the 
tranjgrejfion thereof Jludl he heavy upon ity and 
it fljall fall and not rife again. 

To reftrain all thefe things to Judea^ as their 
adequate and final ObjeQ:, is to force both the 
Words and the Senf^j. Here are manifcftAl- 
lufions and Footfteps of the Deftruftion of the 
AVorld, and the Diitolution of the Earth ; part- 
ly as it was in the Deluge, and partly as it will 
be in its laft Ruin, torn, broken, and fiiat- 
ter'd. But moil: Men have fallen into that 
Errour, To fancy both tlie Deftruclions of the 
World by Water and Fire^ quiet, noifelefs 

Things ; 

Concerning the Conflagration. ijy 

Things ; executed without any Ruins or Ru- 
ptures in Nature : 1 hat the Deluge was but a 
great Pool of ftill Waters, made by the Rains 
and Inundation of the Sea ; and the Conflagra- 
tion will be only a fuperficial Scorching of the 
Earth, with a running Fire. Thefe are falfc 
Ideas, and unfuitable to Scriptui'e : For as the 
Deluge is there reprefented a Difruption of the 
Abyfs, and confequently of the then habitable 
Earth ; fo the future Combuflion of it, accor- 
ding to the Reprefentations of Scripture, is to 
be udier'd in and accompanied with all forts 
of violent Impreffions upon Nature; and the 
chief Inftrument of thefe Violences will be 
Earthquakes. Thefe will tear the Body of the 
Earth, and fliake its Foundations ; rend the 
Rocks, and pull down the tall Mountains; 
fometimes overturn, and fometimes fwallow" 
up Towns and Cities ; difturb and diforder the 
Elements, and make a general Confufion ia 

Next to Earthquakes, we may confider the 
roarings of a troubled Sea, This is another 
Sign of a dying World. St. Luke (Chap, 21-. 
25, 26,27.) hath fet down a great many of 
them together : Let us hear his Words ; oAnd 
there (I: all he fignsin the Sun^ a?id in theMoo7t^ 
and in the Stars ; and upon the Earth dijirefs 
of Nations^ with perplexity; The Sea and the 
Waves roaring. Mens hearts failing them for 
fear^ and for looh?ig after thofe things which 
are coming on the Earth : for the powers of 
Heavens Jhall be fiahen. oAnd then Jhall they 
fee tlje Son of Man cowing in a cloudy zfviih 


I j8 The Theory of the Earth. 

fower and great glory ^ Src. As fome would 
allegorize thefe Signs, which we noted before ; 
fo others would confine them to the Deiirudion 
of Jerufalem. But 'tis plain, by this coming 
of the Son of man in the clouds^ and the re- 
demotion of the faithful^ (Verfe 28.) and at 
the fame Time the found of the laft trnmpetj 
(Matt. 24. 31.) which all relate to the End of 
the World, that fomething further is intendvd 
than the Deftrufliion of Jerufalem, And tho' 
there were Prodigies at the Deftruftion of that 
City and State, yet not of this Force, nor with 
thefe Cirtumftances. "^Tis true, thofe partial 
Deftruftiops ar.d Calamities, as we obferv^d 
before, of 'Babylon. Jerufalem^ and the Roman 
Empire, being Types of an univerfal and final 
Deftruftion of all God' Enemies, have, in the 
Pictures of them, fon:.' of the fame Strokes, 
to (hew they are all fro i the fame Hand, de- 
creed by the fame Wildom, foretold by the 
fame Spirit ; and the fame Power and Provi- 
dence that have already wrought the one, will 
alfo work the other, in due Time ; the former 
being ftill Pledges, as well as Prefigu rations, 
of the latter. 

Let us then proceed in our Explication of 
this Sign, the roaring of the Sea^ and the Waves, 
applying it to the End of the World. I do not 
look upon this ominous Noife of the Sea, as 
the EfFecl of a Tempeft, foi' then it would not 
ftrike fuch a Terror into the Inhabitants of the 
Earth, nor make them f pprehenfive of fome 
great evil coming upon the World, as this will 
do J what proceeds from vifible Caufes^ and 


Concernhig the Conflagration. 139 

fuch as may happen in a common Courfc of 
Nature, does not fo much amaze us, noraf-- 
fright us. Therefore 'tis more likely thefe 
Difturbances of the Sea proceed from below, 
partly by Sympathy and Revulfions from the 
Land ; by Earthquakes there, and exhaufting 
the fubterraneous Cavities of Waters, which 
will draw again from the Seas what Supplies 
they can : And partly by Earthquakes in the 
very Sea it felf; with Exhalations and fiery 
Eruptions from the Bottom of it. Things in- 
deed that happen at other Times, more or lefs, 
but at this Conjun£ture, all Caufes confpiring, 
they will break out with more Violence, and 
put' the whole Body of the Waters into a tu- 
multuary Motion. I do not fee any Occafion 
at this Time, for high Winds ; neither can 
think a fuperficial Agitation of the Waves 
would anfwer this Phenomenon ; but "^tis ra- 
ther from Contorfions in the Bowels of the 
Ocean, which make it roar, as it were, for 
Pain. Some Caufes impelling the Waters one 
Way, and fome another, make intcftine Strug- 
lings and contrary Motions ; from whence pro- 
ceed unufual Noifes, and fuch a troubled ftate 
of the Waters, as does not only make the Sea 
innavigable, but alfo ftrikes Terror into all 
the Maritime Inhabitants, that live within the 
View or Sound of it. 

So much for the Earth and Sea. The Face 
of the Heavens alfo will be chang'd in divers 
Kefpefts: The Sun and the Moon darkned, 
or of a bloody or pale Countenance : The Ce- 
leftial Powers fliaken, and the Star$ unfettled 


i4o The Theory of the E a r t h.' 

in their Orbs. As to the Sun and Moon, their 
Obfcuration or Change of Colour is no more 
than what happens commonly before the Eru- 
ption of a fiery Mountain ; T)io7t Caffius^ you 
fee, hath taken notice of it in that Eruption of 
jEtna which he defcribes ; and others upon the 
like Occafions in Vefuvius. And 'tis a Thing 
of eafic explication ; for according as the At- 
mofphere is more or lefs clear or turbid, the 
Luminaries are more or lefs confpicuous ; 
and according to the Nature of thole 
Fumes or Exhalations that fwim in the Air, 
the_ Face of the Sun is difcolour'd fome- 
times one Way, fometimes another. You fee, 
in an ordinary Experiment, when we look upon 
one another, through the Fumes of Sulphur, 
we appear pale I.-ke fo many Ghofts ; and in 
fome foggy Days :he Sun hangs in the Firma- 
ment as a Lump of Blood. And both the 
Sun and Moon at their rifing, when their light 
comes to us through the thi.k vapours of the 
Earth, are red and fiery. Txhefe are not Chan- 
ges wrought in the fubftance of the Lumina- 
ries, but in the Modifications of rheir light as 
it flows to us. For colours are buc light in a 
Sort of difguife ; asitPafies through Mediums 
of different qualities, it takes different forms ; 
but the Matter is ftill the fame, and returns 
to its fimplicity when it comes again into a pure 

Now the air may be changed and corrupted 
to a great degree, tho' there appear no vifible 
change to our Eve. This is manikit from in- 
feftiousAirs, anjj the Changes of the -Aii* tf^- 


Concerning the Conjlpgration. 141 

fore Storms and Rains ; which we feel com- 
monly fooner than we fee, and fome other 
Creatures perceive much fooner than we do. 
'Tis no wonder then if before this mighty Storm 
the Difpofitions of the Air be quite alter'd ; 
efpecially if we confider, what we have fo often 
noted before, that there will be a great Abun- 
dance of Fumes and Exhalations through the 
whole Atmofphere of the Earth, before the 
laft Fire breaks out ; whereby the Light of the 
Sun may be tinftur'd in feveral ways. And 
laftly, it may be fo orderM providentially, that 
the Body of the Sun may contrafl; at that Time 
fome Spots or Macule far greater than ufual, 
and by that means be really darkened ; not to 
us only, but to all the neighbouring Planets. 
And this will have a proportionable effeft upon 
the Moon too, for the diminution of her light. 
So that upon all fuppofitions thefe Phsenomena 
are very intelligible, if not neceffary forerun- 
ners of the Conflagration. 

The next Sign given us, is, that the f^i)e;^ri' 
of heaven will be (J)aken. By the Heavens 
in this Place is either underftood the Plane- 
tary Heavens, or that of the Fix\l St^rs; but 
this latter being vaftly diftantfrom the Earth, 
cannot be really affefted by the Conflagration. 
Nor the Powers of it, that is, its Motions or 
the Bodies contained in it, any Ways fhaken 
or diforder'd. But in appearance thefe celeftial 
Bodies may feem to be fliaken, and their 
Motions diforderM ; as in a Tempeft by niglit, 
when the Ship is tofs'd with contrary and un- 
certain Motions, the Heavens feem to fluduate 


142 The Theory of the E a k t hJ 

aver our Heads, and the Stars to reel to and 
fro, when tlie Motion is only in our own VeffeL 
So poffibly the uncertain Motions of the At- 
mofphere, and fometimes of the Earth it felF, 
may fo vary the Sight and Afpecl of this 
ftarry Canopy, that it may feem to fhake and 

But if we underftand this of the Tlanetary 
Heavens^ they may really be fliaken : Provi- 
dence either ordering feme great Changes in 
the other Planets previoufly to the Conflagra- 
tion of our Planet ; as 'tis probable there was 
a great Change in Venus^ at the Time of our 
T)eluge : Or the great Shakings and Concufli- 
ons of our Globe at that Time, affefting fome 
of the neighbouring Orbs, at lea ft that of the 
Moon, may caufe Anomalies and Irregularities 
in their Motions. But the Senfe that I lliould 
pitch upon chiefly for explaining this Phrafe of 
{liahng the -powers of heaven^ comprehends, in 
a good meafure, both thefe Heavens, of the 
Fix'd Stars and of the Planets : 'Tis that 
Change of Situation in the Axis of the Earth, 
which we have formerly mentioned, whereby 
the Stars will feem to change their Places, and 
the whole Univerfe to take another Pofture. 
This is fufficiently known to thofe that know 
the diflFerent Confequences of a ftrait or oblique 
Pofture of the Earth. And as the Heavens and 
the Earth were, in this Senfe, once flaaken be- 
fore, namely, at the Deluge, when they loft 
their firft Situation ; fo now they will be flia- 
ken again, and thereby return to the Pofture 
they had before that firft Concuffion. And 


Concernhig the Conflagratiojh 145 

this T take to be the true literal Senfe of the 
Prophet Hafga^j repeated by St. Tatdj (Chap. 
2. 6. and Heh. 12. 26.) Tet once more I Jhakc 
not the Earth only^ hut alfo Heaven. 

The laft Sign we fhall take notice of, is 
tliat of Falling Stars. eAnd the Stars JJmUfall 
from Heaven^ fays our Saviour, Matt. 24. 29. 
We are fure, from the Nature of the Thing, 
that this cannot be underftood either of fix'd 
Stars or Planets ; for if either of thefe fhould 
tumbles from the Skies, and reach the Earth, 
they would break it all in Pieces, or fwallow 
it up, as the Sea does a finking Ship ; and at 
the fame Time would put all the Inferiour uni- 
verfe into confufion. It is neceffary therefore 
by thefe Stars to underftand either fiery Mete- 
ors falling from the middle Region of the Air, 
or Comets and Blazing Stars. No doubt there 
will be all forts of fiery Meteors at that Time ; 
and amongfl: others, thofe that are calPd FalU 
ing Stars ; which, tho' they are not confider- 
able fingly, yet if they were multiplied in great 
Numbers, falling as the Prophet fays, Ifa. J4, 4. 
as Leafs from the Vine^ or Figs from the Fig- 
Tree^ they would make an allonifliing fight. 
But I think this Expreffion does chiefly refer 
to Comets : which are dead Stars, and may 
truly be faid to fall from Heaven, when they 
leave their Seats above, and thofe ethereal re- 
gions wherein they were fixt, and fink into 
this lower World ; where they wander about 
with a Blaze in their Tail, or a Flame about 
their Head, as if they came on purpofe to be 
the Mclfengers of fome fiery Vengeance. If 


144 The Theory of the E a n t h". 

Numbers of thefe blazing Stars fliould fall into 
our Heaven together, they would make a 
dreadful and formidable Appearance ; And I 
am apt to think that Providence hath fo con- 
trivM the Periods of their Motion, that there 
will be an unufual concourfe of them at that 
Time, within the view of the Earth, to be a 
prelude to this laft and moft Tragical Scene of 
the Sublunary World. 

I do not know any more in Scripture relating 
to the laft Fire, that, upon the Grounds laid 
down in this Difcourfe, may not receive a fa- 
tisfadory Explication. It reaches beyond the 
Signs before mentioned, to the higheft Expref- 
fions of Scripture, as Lakes of Fire a?id 'Brim^ 
ftone^ a molten Sea mingled with Fire^ the Li- 
qtiefaBion of Mountains^ and of the Earth it 
lelf. We need not now look upon thefe things 
as Hyperbolical and Poetical Strains, but as 
barefac'd Prophecies, and things that will lite- 
rally come to pafs as they arc predicted. One 
thing more will be expefted in a juft Hypothe- 
cs or Theory of the Conflagration, namely, 
that it fhould anfwer, not only all the Condi- 
tions and Charafters belonging to the laft Fire, 
but fhould alfo make Way, and lay the Foun- 
dation of another World to fucceed this, or of 
New Heavens and a New Earth : For St. "Feter 
hath taught this Dotlrine of the Renovation of 
the World, as pofitively and exprefly as that of 
its Conflagration. And therefore they that fo 
explain the DeftruQion of the prefent World, 
as to leave it afterwards in an eternal Rubbifli, 
without any hopes of Reftoration, do not an- 

Concerning the Conflagration. 145 

fwer the Chriftian DoG:rine concerning it. But 
as to our Hypothefis, we are willing to ftand 
this farther Trial, and be accountable for the 
Confequences of the Conflagration, as well as 
the Antecedents and Manner of it. And we 
have accordingly, in the following Book, from 
the Aflies of this, rais'd a New Earth ; which 
we leave to the Enjoyment of the Readers. 
In the mean time, to clofe our Difcburfe, we 
will bid farewel to the prefent World^ in a 
fliort Revkw of its laft Flames. 

Chap. XIL 

oAn imperfeH Defcriftion of the Coming of our ^ 
Saviour^ and of the World o?i Fire. 

CErtainly there is nothing in the whole 
Courfe of Nature, or of Human Affairs, 
fo great and fo extraordinary as the two lail 
Scenes of them, THE COMING OF OUR 
WORLD. If we could draw in our Minds 
the Piftures of thefe, in true and lively Colours, 
we fhuuld fcarce be able to attend to any thing 
elfe, or ever divert our Imagination from thefe 
two Objefts. For what can more affect us 
than the greatefl: Glory that ever was vifible 
upon Earth, and at the fame time the greatefl: 
Terror. A God defcending in the Head of 
Book III. L an 

14^ The Theory of the E a r t h; 

an Army of Angels, and a Burning World 
under his Feet. 

Thefe are Things truly above Expreffion ; 
and not only fo, but fo different and remote 
from our ordinary Thoughts and Conceptions, 
that he that comes neareft to a true Defcription 
of them, fhall be looked upon as the moft ex- 
travagant. 'Tis our Unhappinefs to be fo much 
ufed to little trifling Things in this Life, that 
when any thing great is reprefented to us, it 
appears phantaftical : An Idea made by fome 
contemplative or melancholy Perfon. I will 
not venture therefore, without premifing fome 
Grounds out of Scripture, to fay any thing 
concerning this glorious Appearance. As to 
the Burning of the World, I think we have 
already laid a Foundation fufficient to fupport 
the higheft Defcription that can be made of it; 
but the Coming of our Saviour being wholly 
out of the way of Natural Caufes, it is reafon- 
able we (hould take all Directions we can from 
Scripture, that we may give a more fitting and 
)ufl: Account of that facred Pomp. 

I need not mention thofe Places of Scripture 
that prove the fecond coming of our Saviour 
in general, or his Return to the Earth again at 
the End of the World, (J^Iatt. 24. 30, 31. aA^s 
I. II. and J. 20, 21. qA^oc. i. 7. Heb. 9. 28.) 
No Chriftian can doubt of this, 'tis fo often 
repeated in thofe Sacred Writings. But the 
Manner and Circumftances of this Coming, or 
of this Appearance, are the Things we now 
enquire into. And in the firft Place, we may 
obferve that Scripture tells us (i E^h. i. 7.) our 


Concerning the Conflagratmi. 147 

Saviour will come in Flammg Fire^ and with 
an Hofl of mighty oAngels ; fo lays St. Tard to 
the ThejJalonui?is, The Lord Jefus (Imll he re^ 
vealed from Heaven with mighty oAngels ; in 
flaming fire ^ taking ve?igea?iceon themt hat know 
?iot GoJj and ohty not the Gofpel of our Lord 
Jefu/s Chrift, In the fecond Place, our Saviour 
lays himfelf, {Mat.i6. 27.) The Son ofmanfiall 
come in the glory of his Father with hisaAngels^ 
From which two Places we may learn ; Firft, 
That the Appearance of our Saviour will be 
with Flames of Fire. Secondly, With anHoft 
of Angels. Thirdly, In the Glory of his Father : 
By which Glory of the Father, I think is un- 
derftood that Throne of Glory reprefented by 
"Daniel for the oAntient of "Days. For our Sa- 
viour fpeaks here to the Jews^ and probably 
in a way intelligible to them ; and the Glory 
of the Father, which they were moft likely 
to underftand, w^ould be either the Glory 
wherein God appeared at Mount Sinar^ upon 
the giving of the Law, whe.reof the Apoltle 
fpeaks largely to the Hehrews ; or that which 
"Daniel reprefents Him in at the Day of Judg- 
ment, (Chaf. 12. 18, 19, 20, 21.) And this 
latter being more proper to the Subje£l of our 
Saviour's Difcourfe, 'tis more likely this Ex- 
preffion refers to it. Giv^e me Leave therefore 
to fet down that Defcription of th'? Glory of 
the Father upon his Throne, from the Prophet 
"Daniel^ ch. 7. 9. oAnd I heheld till the Thrones 
were ^ fety and the oAntient of days did frty 

* 'Tii ill rendered in the Englilhp cjtj} dovn, 

L 2 whofe 

14S The Theory of the Earth,' 

whofe garment was white as fnow^ mid the 
hair of bis head like the fure Wooll : H'^ Thro?te 
was like the fie/y flame^ and his wheels as 
iurning fire, oA fiery fiream ijjued and came 
forth from lefore him^ thoufand thoiifands mi^ 
iiiftred unto him^ and ten thotiUind times ten 
thousand flood lefore him. With this Throne 
of the Glory of the Father, let us, if you pleafe, 
compare the Throne of the Son of God, as it 
was feen by St. John in the Apocalypfe, Chaf. 
4.2,€i?(7. ^^nd immediately I was in the Spirit : 
and heboid a Throne was fet in heaven^ and 
one [at on the Throne, oAnd he that fat^ was 
to look upon like a Jaffer^ and a Sardine Stone : 
and there was a Rainlow round alotit the 
Throne.,^ in affearance like unto an Emerald. 
oAnd out of the Throne proceeded Lightnings^ and 
Tbunderings^ and Voices^ &c. and lefore the 
Throne was a Sea of glafs like unto CryffaL 

In thefe Reprefentations you have fome 
Beams of the Glory of the Father and of the 
Son; which may be partly a DireQion to us, 
in conceiving the Luftre of our Saviour's Ap- 
pearance. Let us further obferve, ifyoupleafe, 
how external Nature will be affecled at the 
Sight of God, or of this approaching Glory. 
The Scripture often takes Notice of this, and 
in Terms very high and eloquent. The Pfal- 
mift feems to have lov'd that Subjeft above 
others ; to fet out the Greatnefs of the Day of 
the Lord;, and the Confternation of all Nature 
at that Time. He throws about his Thunder 
and Lightning, makes the Hills to melt like 
Wax at the Prefence of the Lord, and the very 


Concerning tide Conflagration. 149 

Foundations of the Earth to tremble, as you 
may fee in the \%th. Tfalm^ and the 97, and 
the ic4, andfeveral others, which are too long 
to be liere inferted. So the Prophet Hahakkuk^ 
in his Proplietick Prayer, Chaf. jr/, hath many 
Ejaculations to the like purpofe. And the Pro- 
phet Nahum fays, The mou7itai7is quake at him^ 
and the hills melt^ and the earth is burnt at his 
f re fence : jea^ the world^ and all that dwell 

But more particularly, as to the Face of Na- 
ture juft before the coming uf our Saviour, that 
may be beft collected from the Signs of his 
coming mentioned in the precedent Chapter. 
Thofe all meeting together, help to prepare and 
make ready a Theater, fit for an angry 
God to come down upon. The Countenance 
of the Heavens will be dark and gloomy ; and 
a Veil drawn over the Face of the Sun. The 
Earth in a difpofition every where to break 
into open Flames. The tops of the Mountains 
fmoaking ; the Rivers dry ; Earth-quakes in 
feveral Places ; the Sea funk and retir'd into its 
deepeft Channel, and roaring, as againft fome 
mighty Storm, Thefe Things will make the 
Day dead and melancholy, but the Night- 
Scenes will have more of horrour in thera. 
When the 'Blazing Stars appear, like fo many 
Furies, w^ith their lighted Torches, threatning 
to fet all on Fire. For I do not doubt but the 
Comets will bear a Part in this Tragedy, and 
have fomething extraordinary in them, at that 
Time ; either as to Number, or bignefs, or 
pearaefs to the Earth. Befides, the Air will 

L 3 be 

I ^0 The Theory of the E a r t h; 

be full of fla: -hg Meteors, of unufual Forms 
and magnitudes ; Balls of Fire rowling in the 
Skie, and pointed Lightnings darted againft 
the Earth; mixt with Claps of Thunder, and 
uniffual Noifes from the Clouds. The Moon 
and the Stars will be confus'd and irregular, 
both in their light and Motions ; as if the 
whole Frame of the Heavens was out of order, 
and all the laws of Nature were broken or ex- 

When all Things are in this languiO^ing or 
dyiiig pofture, and the Inhabitants of the Earth 
under the Fears of their laft End ; The Hea- 
vens will open on a fudden, and the Glory of 
Go'1 will appear. A Glory furpaffing the Sun 
in its greateft radiancy ; which, tho' we can- 
not defcribe, we may fuppofe it will bear fome 
refemblance or proportion with thofe repre- 
fentaiions that are m.ade in Scripture, of God 
u^07i bis Throne. This wonder in the Heavens, 
wh-^ffoever its Form may be, will prefently 
attraQ- the Eyes of all the Chriftian World. 
Nothing can more affefl: them than an objeft 
fo unufual and fo illuftrious ; and that, (''proba- 
bly) brings along with it their laft deftiny, and 
will put a Period to all human affairs. 

Some of the Antients have thought that this 
coming of our Saviour would be in the dead 
of the Night, and his firft glorious appearance 
in the midft of darknefs, 2 '?tt, j. 10. God 
is often defcrib'd in Scripture as Light or Fire, 
with darknefs round about him. He lowed 
the Heavens a?td came dowTiy and darknefs 
was tinder his feet. He made darknefs his fe^ 


CoHCcniing the Cotflagration, 151 

cret Tlace : TfaL 18. 9, i r, 12. His favilian 
round about him were dark Waters a?id thick 
Clouds of the Skies. oAt the Irightnefs that 
was before him^ the thick Clouds pajjed^ "Pjah 
97. And when God appear'd upon Mount 
Siuaij the Mountain burnt with Fire unto the 
midfi of Heaven with darknefs^ Clouds and 
thick darknefs : "Deut. 4. 11. Or, as the A- 
poftle exprelTes it, with blacknefs and darknefs^ 
and tem^eft^ Hebr. 12. 18. Light is never 
more glorious than when furrounded with 
darknefs ; and it may be the Sun, at that Time, 
will be fo obfcure, as to make little diftinftion 
of Day and Night. But however this Divine 
Light over-bears and diftinguifhes it felf from 
common Light, tlio' it be at Mid- Day, 'Twas 
about Noon that the Light fliin'd from Heaven 
and furrounded St. Taul^ oAff. 22. 6. And 
'twas on the Day-time that St. Stephen faw 
the Heavens opened; oAff. 7. 55, t^6. faw 
the glory of Godj a7ul Jefus fi an ding at the 
right Ha?id of God, This light, which flows 
from a more vital Source, be it Day or Night, 
will always be predominant. 

That appearance of God upon Mount Sinai^ 
which we mention'd, if we refleft upon it, 
w^ill help us a little to form an Idea of this laft 
appearance. When God had declar'd, that he 
would come dovv^n in the fight of the People ; 
The Text fays. There were thu?iders and lights 
nings^ and a thick Cloud upon the Mount ^ and 
the voice of the Trwnfet exceeding loud ; fo 
that all the people that was in the Camp trem- 
bled, (i4nd Mount Sinai was altogether on ^ 

h 4 fivoke^ 

1^2 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

fmoke^ lecaufe the Lord defce^ided u^on it in 
Fire. (And the fmoke thereof afceitded as the 
fmoke of a Furnace^ and the whole Mount quaked 
greatly. If we look upon this Mount as an 
Epitome of the Earth, this appearance gives 
us an imperfeft refemblance of that which is 
to come. Here are the feveral Parts or main 
Strokes of it; firft, the Heavens and the Earth 
in fmoke and Fire, then the appearance of a 
Divine Glory, and the found of a Trumpet in 
the Prefence of Angels. But as the fecond ^ 
coming of our Saviour is a Triumph over his 
Enemies, and an entrance into his Kingdom, 
and is a£led upon the Theater of the whole 
Earth ; fo we are to fuppofe, in proportion, 
all the Parts and Circumftances of it, more 
great.and magnificent. 

When therefore this mighty God returns 
again to that Earth, where he had once been 
ill treated, not Mount Sinai only, but all the 
Mountains of the Earth, and all the Inhabi- 
tants of* the World, wdll tremble at his pre- 
fence. At the firft opening of the Heavens, 
the brightnefs of his Perfon will fcatter the 
dark Clouds, and flicot Streams of light 
throughout all the Air. But that firft appear- 
ance, being far fi^om the Earth, will feem to 
be only a great Mafs of light, without any 
diftinQ: Form ; till, by nearer approaches, 
this bright Body fhows it felf to be an Army 
of Angels, w^ith this King of Kings for their 
Leader. Then you niay imagine hovw^ guilty 
Alankind will tremble and be aftonifli'd ; and 
while they are gazing at this heavenly Hoft, 


Qoncerning tie Conflagration. 155 

the Voice of the (Archangel is heard, the fhrill 
found of the Trumpet reaches their Ears. And 
this gives the general Alarum to all the World. 
For he cometh^ for he cometh^ they cry, to 
judoie the Earth. The crucified God is returned 
in Glory, to take Vengeance upon his Enemies : 
Not only upon thofe that pierc'd liis Sacred 
Body, with Nails and with a Spear, 'as Jerufa^ 
lem ; but thofe alfo that pierce him every Day 
by their prophanenefs and hard Speeches, con- 
cerning his Perfon and his Religion. Now 
they fee that God whom they have mo:k'd, 
or blafphem'd, laugh't at his meannefs, or at 
his vain Threats ; They fee Him, and are con^ 
founded with Hiame and fear ; and in the bit- 
ternefs of their anguifli and defpair call for the 
Mountains to fall upon them., Jfa. 2.19. Fly 
into the clefts of the Rocks ^ and into the Caves 
of the Earthy for fear of the Lor d^ Rev. 6. 16, 
1 7. and the glory of his Majefiy^ when he arifeth 
tofiake terribly the Earth, 

As it is not poffible for us to exprefs or con- 
ceive the Dread and Majefly of this appearance; 
fo neither can we, on the other Hand, exprefs 
the PaiTions and confternation of the People 
that behold it. Thefe Things exceed the mea- 
fures of humane Affairs, and of humane 
Thoughts ; we have neither Words, nor Com- 
parifons, to make them known by. The great- 
eil: Pomp and Magnificence of the Emperors 
cf the Eaft, in their Armies, in their Triumphs, 
in their Inaugurations, is but like the Spoit 
and Entertainment of Children, if ccmpar'd 
with this Solemnity. Wheu God condefcends 


1 54 The Theory of the E A r t h. 

to an external glory, with a vifible Train and 
Equipage : When, from all the Provinces of 
his vaft and boundlefs Empire, he Summons 
his Nobles, as I may fo fay : The feveral or- 
ders of Angels and Arch-Angels, to attend his 
Perfbn ; tho' we cannot tell the Form or Man- 
ner of this Appearance, we know there is no- 
thing in oiir experience, or in the whole Hiftorjf 
of this World, that can be a juft reprefentation 
of the leaft Part of it. No Armies fo nume- 
rous as the Hoft of Heaven : and m the midll: 
of thofe bright Legions, in a flaming Chariot, 
will fit the Son of Man, when he comes to be 
glorified in his Saints, and Triumph over his 
Enemies. And infl:ead of the wild Noifes of 
the Rabble, which makes a great Part of our 
worldly ftate: This bleffed company will 
breath their Hallelujahs into the open Air ; 
and repeated Acclamations of Salvation to God^ 
which fits iifofi the Throne^ a7td to the Lamby 
tt4p0C: 7. lo.NovDis come falvat ion and [trength^ 
and the kingdom of our Gody and the Tower 
of his Chrift^ and 12. 10. 

But I leave the refl: to our filent devotion 
and admiration. Only give me leave, whilft 
this obie£t is before our Eyes, to make a fliort 
Refleftion upon the wonderful Hiftory of our 
Saviour ; and the different fl:ates, which that 
Sacred Perfon,. within the compafs of our 
Knowledge, hath undergone. We now fee 
him coming in the Clouds in glory and Tri- 
umph, furrounded with innumerable Angels, 
This is the fam.e Perfon, who, fo many Hun- 
dred Years ago enterM ^erufalem^ with another 


Concerning the Conflagration. 155 

fort of Equipage ; mounted upon an Afs's Colt, 
while the little People and the Multitude cry'd, 
Hofanna to the Son of 'David. Nay, This is 
the fame Perfon, that, at his firft coming into 
this World, was laid in a Manger inftead of a 
Cradle ; a naked Babe dropt in a Crib at 'Beth- 
lebem^ {Luke 2. 12.) His poor Mother not ha- 
ving wherewithal to get her a better Lodging, 
when fhe was to be delivered of this Sacred 
Burthen. This helplefs Infant, that often 
wanted a little Milk to refrefh it, and fupport 
its Weaknefs ; that hath often cry'd for the 
Brcafi: with Hunger and Tears ; now appears 
to be the Lord of Heaven and Earth. If this 
Divine Perfon had fallen from the Clouds in a 
mortal Body, cloath'd with Flefli and Blood, 
and fpent his Life here amongfl: Sinners ; that 
alone had been an infinite Condefcenfion. But 
as if it had not been enough to take upon him 
Humane Nature, he was content, for many 
Months, to live the Life of an Animal, or of 
a Plant, in the dark Cell of a Woman's Womb. 
This is the LoriVs doings it is marvellom in 
our eyes. 

Neither is this all that is wonderful in the 
Story of our Saviour. If the manner of his 
Death be compared with his prefent Glory, we 
fhall think cither the one or the other incre- 
dible. Look up firft into the Heavens ; fee 
how they bow under him, and receive a new 
Light from the Glory of his Prefence : Then 
look down upon the Earth, and fee a naked 
Body hanging upon a curfed Tree in Golgo- 
tha: Crucified betwixt two Thieves; wound- 

1 5^ The Theory of the E a r t h.^ 

edj fpit upon, mock'd, abus'd. Is it pofTible 
to believe, that one and the fame Perfon can 
ad or fuffer fuch different Parts ? That he that 
is now Lord and Mafter of all Nature, not 
only of Death and Hell, and the Powers of 
Darknefs, but of all Principallities in heavenly- 
Places ; is the fame Infant Jefus, the fame cru- 
cified Jefus, of whofe Life and Death the 
Chriftian Records give us an Account? The 
Hiftory of this Perfon is the Wonder of this 
World ; and not of this World only, but of 
the Angels above, that defire to look into it, 
(i Tet.i. II, 12.) 

Let us now return to our SubjeQ:. We left 
the Earth in a languifliing Condition, ready 
to be made a Burnt-Offering to appeafe the 
Wrath of its offended Lord. When Sodom 
was to be deftroy'd, (Gefi, 18.) oAhraham in- 
terceded with God that he v/ould fpare it for 
the Righteous fake : And T)avid (2 Sam, 24, 
17.) interceded to fave his guiltlefs People 
from God's Judgments and the Deftroying 
Angel. But here is no Interceffor for Man- 
kind in this laft Extremity : None to interpofe 
where the Mediator of our Peace is the Party 
offended. Sliall then the righteom feriji) with 
the ZQ.)icked ? Shall 7iot the "Judge of ad the Earth 
do right ? Or, if the Righteous be tranflated 
and delivered from this Fire, What fliall be- 
come of innocent Children and Infants ? Muft 
thefe all be given up to the mercilefs Flames, 
as a Sacrifice to Moloch ? And their tender 
Flefh, like burnt Incenle, fend up Fumes to 
feed the Noftrils of evil Spirits? Can the God 


Concerning the Co7tflagrafton. 15 7 

of Ifrael fmell a fweet Savour from fuch Sa- 
crifices ? The greater half of Mankind is made 
up of Infants and Children ; and if the wicked 
be dcftroyed, jet thefe Lambs ^ what have they 
done? Are there no Bowels of Compaffion for 
fiich an harmlefs Multitude? But we leave 
them to their Guardian Angels, and to that 
Providence which watches over all Things, 
{Matt, 1%. 10.) 

It only remains therefore, to let fall that Fire 
from Heaven, which is to confume this Holo- 
cauft. Imagine all Nature now ftanding in a 
filent Expeflation to receive its laft Doom ; the 
Tutelary and Deftroying Angels to have their 
Inftruftions ; every Thing to be ready for the 
fatal Hour : And then, after a little Silence, all 
the Hoil: of Heaven to raife their Voice and 
fing aloud, LET GOD oARISE : Let his ene^ 
tnies he fcatter'^d. e,4s fmoke is driven away^ 
fo drive them away, oks wax melteth before 
the fire,, fo LET the wicked perifl^ at the fre^ 
fence of God. And upon this, as upon a Signal 
given, all the fublunary World breaks into 
Flames, and all the Treafuries of Fire are 
open'd in Heaven and in Earth. 

Thus the Conflagration begins. If one 
flioald now go about to reprefent the JVorld 
on Fire^ with all the ConfuHons that neceff^iri- 
ly mufl: be, in Nature and in Mankind, upon 
that Occafion, it would feem to moft Men a 
Romantick Scene. Yet we are fure there muft 
be fuch a Scene. The heavens will fafs away 
with a 7ioife^ and the Elements will melt with 
fervent heaty and all the works of the Earth 


1 58 The Theory of the E A r t h. 

will he lurnt up. And thefe Things cannot 
come to pafs v/ithout the greateft Diforders 
imaginable, both in the Minds of Men and in 
External Nature ; and the faddeft Spectacles 
that Eye can behold. We think it a great 
Matter to fee a fingle Perfon burnt alive : Here 
are Millions fhrieking in the Flames at once* 
'Tis frightful to us to look upon a great City 
in Flames, and to fee the Diftraflions and 
Mifery of the People : Here is an Univerfal 
Fire through all the Cities of the Earth, and 
an Univerfal Maflacre of their Inhabitants, 
Whatfoever the Prophets foretold of the Defo- 
lations of Judea, Jerufalemj or 'Bahjlon^ (Ifa. 
24. Jer. 5 !• Lament?) in the higheft Strains, 
is more than literally accomplifli'd in this laft 
and general Calamity : And thofe only that 
are Speftators of it, can make its Hiftory. 

The Diforders in Nature and the inanimate 
World will be no lefs, nor lefs ftrange and 
unaccountable, than thofe in Mankind. Every 
Element, and every Region, fo far as the 
Bounds of this Fire extend, will be in a Tu- 
mult and a Fury, and the whole habitable 
World running into Confufion. A World is 
fooner deftroyed than made; and Nature re- 
lapfes haftily into that Chaos-ftate, out of which 
file came by (low and leifurely Motions. As 
an Army advances into the Field by juft and 
regular Marches; but when it is broken and rou- 
ted,it flies with Precipitation, and onecannotdef- 
cribe itsPofture. Fire is a barbarous Enemy, it 
gives no Mercy; there is nothing but Fury, 
and Rage, and Ruin, and Deftruftion, where- 


Concerning the Conflagration. 155 

foever it prevails. A Storm or Hurricano, tho* 
it be but the Force of Air, makes a Itrange 
Havock where it comes; but devouring Flames, 
or Exhalations fet on Fire, have ftill a far greater 
Violence, and carry more Terror along with 
them. Thunder and Earthquakes are the Sons 
of Fire ; and we know nothing in all Nature 
more impetuous, or more irrefiitibly deftru- 
aive, than thefe two. And accordingly in 
this laft War of the Elements, we may be 
fure, they will bear their Parts, and do great 
Execution in the feveral Regions of the World. 
Earthquakes and Subterraneous Eruptions will 
tear the Body and Bowels of the Earth ; and 
Thunders and Convulfive Motions of the Air, 
rend the Skies. The Waters of the Sea will 
boil and ftruggle with Streams of Sulphur that* 
run into them ; which will make them fume, 
and fmoke, and roar, beyond all Storms and 
Tempefts. And thefe Noifes of the Sea will 
be anfwered again from che Land by falling 
Rocks and Mountains. This is a fmall Part 
of the Diforders of that Day. 

But 'tis not poflible, from any Station, to 
'have a full Profpefl; of this laft Scene of the 
Earth ; tor 'tis a Mixture of Fire and Dark- 
nefs. This New Tumple is filFd with Smoke, 
while it is confecrating, and none can enter 
into it. But I am apt to think, if we could 
look down upon this burning World from 
above the Clouds, and have a full View of it, 
in all its Parts, w^e fliould think it a hvely Re- 
prefentation of HeJl it felf. For, Fire and 
Parknefs are the two chief Things by which 


i6o The Theory of the Earth. 

that State, or that Place, ufes to be defcrib'd : 
And they are both here mingled together; 
with all other Ingredients that make that To-- 
phet that is preparM of old, (Ija. ^o.) Here 
are Lakes of Fire and Brimftone ; Rivers of 
melted glowing Matter; Ten Thoufand Vol- 
cano's vomiting Flames all at once; Thick 
Darknefs, and Pillars of Smoke twifted about 
with Wreaths of Flame, like fiery Snakes ; 
Mountains of Earth thrown up into the Air, 
and the Heavens dropping down in Lumps of 
Fire. Thefe things will all be literally true, 
concerning that Day, and that State of the 
Earth. And if we luppofe "Beelzebub^ and his 
Apoftate Crew, in the midft of this fiery Fur- 
nace ; (and I know not wd_iere they can be 
•elfe,) it will be hard to find any Part of the 
Univerfe, or any State of Things, that anfwxrs 
to fo many of the Properties and Characters of 
Hell^ as this which is now before us. 

But if v/e fuppofe the Storm over, and that 
the Fire hath got an entire Viftory over all 
other Bodies, and fubdued every Thing to it 
felf ; the Conflagration will end in a Deluge of 
Fire, or in a Sea of Fire, covering the whole 
Globe of the Earth. For, w^hen the exterior 
Region of the Earth is melted into a Fluor^ 
like molten Glafs, or running Metal, it will, 
according to the Nature of other Fluids, fill 
all Vacuities and Depreffions, and fall into 
a regular Surface, at an equal Diftance, every 
where, from its Center. This Sea of Fire, 
like the firft Abyfs, will cover the Face of the 
whole Earth ; make a kind of fecond Chaos ; 


Concenihig the Cofiflagration. 16 1 

and leave a Capacity for another World to rife 
from it. But chat is not our prefent Bufinefs. 
Let us only, if you pleafe, to take Leave of 
this Subjeti:, reflect upon this Occafion, on the 
Vanity and tranfient Glory of all this habita- 
ble World. How, by the Force of one Ele- 
me;it breaking loofe upon the reft, all the Va- 
rieties of Nature, all the Works of Art, all the 
Labours of Men, are reduc'd to nothing. All 
that WQ admirM and ador'd before, as great 
and magnificent, is obliterated or vanifh'd : 
And another Form and Face of Things, plain, 
funple, and every where the fame, overfpreads 
the whole Earth. Where are now the great 
Empires of the World, and their great Impe- 
rial Cities? Their Pillars, Trophies, and Mo- 
numents of Glory? Shew me where they ftood; 
Read the Infcription ; Tell me the Victor's 
Name. What Remains, what ImpreflTions, 
what Difference or Diftinftion do you fee in 
this Mafs of Fire ? Rome it felf, Eternal Rome^ 
the Great City, the Emprefs of the World, 
whofe Domination and Superftition, antient 
and modern^ make a great Part of the Hiftory 
of this Earth : What is become of her now? 
She laid her Foundations deep, and her Palaces 
were ftrong and fumptuous : She glorified her 
felf.^ and liv*d deliciottfl)' : and [aid in her hearty 
I fit a Queen^ and flmll fee no forrow. But her 
Hour is come, flie is wip'd away from the 
Face of the Earth, and buried in perpetual 
Oblivion. But 'tis not Ciiies onlv, and Works 
of Men's Hands, but the everlafting Hills, the 
Mountains and Rocks of the Earth, are melt- 
BooLIIL M ed 

1^2 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

ed as Wax before the Sun; and their place is 
710 where found. Here ftood the oAlpes^ a pro- 
digious Range of Stone, the Load of the Earth, 
that coverM many Countries, and reachM their 
Arms from the Ocean to the "Black Sea ; this 
huge Mafs of Stone is foften'd and diffolv^'d, as 
a tender Cloud into Rain. Here ftood the 
^African Mountains, and oAtlcis with his Top 
above the Clouds. There was frozen Canca- 
fm^ and Tatirm^ and Imam^ and the Moun- 
tains oioAjia. And yonder, towards the North, 
ftood the Riphaan Hills, cloathM in Ice and 
Snow. All thefe are vanilli'd, dropt away as 
tlie Snow upon their Heads ; and fwallow'd up 
in a Red Sea of Fire. (Reveh 15. ^.) Great 
and marvellous are thy worksj Lord God 
eAlmighty \ Jufi and true are thy Ways^ Thou 
Kjng ofSai7its. Hallelujah. 


IF the Conflagration of the World be a Re- 
ality, as, both by Scripture and Antiquity, 
we are aiTur'd it is ; If we be fully perfwaded 
and convinced of this : 'Tis a Thing of that 
Nature, that we cannot keep it long in our 
Thoughts, without making fome Moral re- 
flections upon it. 'Tis both great in it felf, 
and of univerfal concern to all Mankind. Who 
can look upon fuch an Objeft, qA World in 
flames^ without thinking with himfelf. Whe- 
ther fliall I be in the mid ft of thefe Flames, 
or no ? What is my fecurity that I fl:iall not 


Concernhtg the Co^iflagration. i6^ 

fall under this fiery vengeance, which is the 
Wrath of an angry God ? St. Teter^ when he 
had delivered the Doctrine of the Conflagration, 
makes this pious refle£lion upon it : 2 £/?//?. j. 
II. Ste/z/g then that all t.hefe Thhigs fhall le 
dij]olv\l^ what manner of Terfo7ts orghi you to 
be^ in holy converjation and godlinefs ? The 
ftrengthof his argument depends chiefly upoa 
what he had faid before in the ']th, Veife, where 
he told us, that the frefent Heave7is and Earth 
were reftrv^d unto Fire^ againft the 'Day of 
"Judgment^ and the "Perdition of irreligious 
Men. We mufl: avoid the Crime then, if we 
would efcape the Punifliment. But this ex- 
preilion of irrelegious or ungodly Men^ is ftill 
very genera!. St. Tanl^ when he fpeaks of 
this fiery indignation, and the Perfons it is to 
fall upon, is more diftinO: in their characters. 
He feems to mark out for this deftruftion, 
three forts of Men chiefly, The oAtheiftsj Infi- 
delsy and the Tribe of oAntichrifi. Thefe are 
his Words: 2 The(j: i. 7, 8. JVhen the Lordjefus 
fiall he revealed from Heaven^ with his mighty 
cAngels^ inflanmigFire^ taking ve7tgea7ice on them 
that know not God: and that obey 7iot the Gofpel 
of our Lord.Jefus Chrifi. Then as for Antichrifl: 
and his Adherents, he fays in the 2d. Chapt. 
and Sth Verfe, The Lord fiall co7i\'ume that 
Wicked 07ie with the Spirit of his Mouthy and 
fhall deftroy him with the hrightnefs of his com- 
i?ig^ or of his Prefence. Thefe, you fee, all 
refer to the fame Time with St. Teter : Name- 
ly, to the coming of our Saviour, at the Con- 
flagration ; and three forts of Perfons are 
M 2 charaderiz'd 

1 6 4- The Theory of the E a r t hJ 

cliaraclerizM as his Enemies, and fet out (or 
deftruclion at that Time. Firft, thofe that 
know not God : that is, that acknowledge not 
God, that will not own the Deity. Secondly, 
thofe that hearken not to the Gofpel ; that is, 
that rejeQ: the Gofpel and Chriftian Religion, 
when they are preachM and made known to 
them : For you muft not think that it is the 
poor barbarous and ignorant Heathens, that 
fcarce ever heard of God, or the Gofpel, that 
are threatened with this fiery vengeance. No, 
'tis the Heathens, that live amongtl Chriftians ; 
thofe that are Infidels, as to the exigence of 
God, or the Truth of Chriftian Religion, tho' 
thay have had a full manifeftation of both. 
Thefe are properly the Adverfaries of God and 
Chrift. And fuch adverfaries, St. Taul fays 
in another Place, oA fearful judgmeut^ and fiery 
indignation fjaU devour : \_Hel\ lo. 27. ] which 
ftill refers to the fame Time, and the fame Perfons 
we are fpeaking of Then as to the Third fort of 
Men, Antichrift and his Follow^ers, befides 
this Text of St. Taul to the Theffalonia^ts^ 'tis 
plain to me in the Apocalypfe, that Myjiical 
Babylon is to be confum'd by Fire : and the 
'Sea/l and Falfe Trophet to be thrown into the 
Lake that lur^is ' with Fire and 'BrimPcone : 
"Which Lake is nowhere to be found till the 

You fee them for whom Tophet is prepared 
of old. For Atheifts, Infidels, and Antichri- 
ftian perfecutors. And they will have for their 
Companions, the Devil and his Angels, the 
Heads of the Apoftafie. Thefe are all in open 


Concerning the Conflagration. 165 

rebellion againft God and Chrift, and at de- 
fiance, as it were, with Heaven. Excepting 
Antichrift, who is rather in a fecret Confpira- 
cy, than an open Rebellion. For, under a 
pretended Commiffion from Jefus Chrift, He 
perfccutes his Servants, Didionours his Perfon, 
corrupts his Laws and his Government, and 
makes War againft his Saints. And this is a 
greater Affront and Provocation, if poffible, 
than a bare facM oppofition w^ould be. 

There are other Men, befides thefe, that 
arc unacceptable to God : All forts of Sinners 
and wicked Perfons : but they are not fo pro- 
perly tiie Enemies of God, as thefe we have 
mentioned. An intemperate Man is an Enemy 
to himfelf, and an unjuft Man is an Enemy to 
his Neighbour : But thofe that deny God, or 
Chrift, or perfecute their Servants, are direGly 
and immediately Enemies to God. And tliere- 
fore when the Lord comes in Flames of Fire 
to triumph over, his Enemies : To take ven- 
geance upon all that are Rebels or Confpirators- 
againft him and his Chrift ; thefe Monftersof 
Men will be the firft and moft exemplary Ob- 
jeQs of the divine Wrath and Indignation. 

To undertake to fpeak to thefe three Orders 
of Men, and convince them of their errour, 
and the Danger of it, would be too much for 
the Conclufion of a fljort Treatife. And as 
for tlie third Sort the Subjects of Antichrift, 
none but the Learned amongft them are al- 
lowed to be inquifitive, or to read fuch Things 
as condemn their Church, or the Governours 
of it. Therefore I do not expect that this En- 

M J glilh 

1 66 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

glifh Tranflation fhould fall Into many of their 
Hands. But thofe of them, that are pleasM 
to look into the Latin^ will find, in the Conclu- 
fion of it, a Full and Fair warning to come out 
of 'Bahjlon : which is there prov'd to be the 
Church of Rome. Then as to thofe that are 
Atheiftically inclined, which I am willing to 
believe are not many, I defire them to confider, 
How mean a Thing it is, to have hopes only 
in this Life : and how uneafie a Thing, to have 
nothing but Fears as to the Future. Thofe, 
fure, muft be little narrow Souls, that can make 
themfelves a Portion and a Sufficiency out of 
what they enjoy here : That think of no more, 
that defire no more. For what is this Life, 
but a circulation of little mean Adions ? We 
lie down and rife again : drefs and undrefs : 
feed and Wax hungry : Work, or Play, and 
are weary : and then we lie dov.m again, and 
the Circle returns. We fpend the Day in trifles, 
and when the Night comes, we throw our 
felves into the Bed of folly, amongft Dreams 
and broken Thought, and wild imaginations. 
Our Reafon lies afleep by us ; and we are, for 
the Time, as arrant Brutes, as thofe that fleep 
in the Stalls, or in the Field. Are not the Ca- 
pacities of Man higher than thefe ? and ought 
not his ambition and expectations to be greater? 
Let us be Adventurers for another World : 
'Tis, at leafi:, a fair and noble Chance: and 
there is nothing in this, worth our Thoughts 
or our Paffions. If we fiiould be disappointed, 
we are 0:111 no worfc than the reft of our fellow- 
Mortals : 

Concerning the Co/iflagratlon. 167 

• Mortals : and if we fucceed in our expectations, 
we are eternally happy. 

For my Part, I cannot be perfwaded, that 
any Man of Atheiftical inclinations can have 
a great and generous Soul. For there is nothing 
great in the World, if you take God out of it. 
Therefore fuch a Perlba can have no great 
thought, can have no great Aims, or expecta- 
tions, or defigns : for all muft lie within the 
compafs of this Life, and of this dull Body. 
Neither can he have any great inrtinds or 
noble Paffions : For if he had, they would 
naturally excite in him greater Ideas, infpire 
him with higher Notions, and open the Scenes 
of the Intellectual World. Laftly, He cannot 
. have any great fenfe of Order, Wifdom, Good- 
nefs. Providence, or any of the Divine Perfec- 
tions. And thefe are tlie greateft Things that 
can enter into the thoughts of Man, and that 
do mod: enlarge and ennoble his Mind. And 
therefore I fay again. That, He that is naturally 
inclined to Atheifm, being alfo naturally de- 
ftitute of all thefc, muft have a little and nar- 
row Soul. 

But you'l fay, it may be. This is to expoftu- 
late rather than to prove : or to upbraid us 
with our make and Temper, rather than to 
convince us of an error in fpeculation. 'Tis 
an error it may be in Practi:e, or in point of 
Prudence ; but we feek Truth, whether it 
make for us or againli us : convince us there- 
fore by juft reafbning and direft arguments, 
That there is a God, and then we'l endeavour 
to corr^ft thefe defeGs In our natural com^ 

M 4 plexioa. 

i68 The Theory of tie Earth. 

plexion. You fay well ; and therefore I have • 
endeavourM to do this before, in another Part 
of this Theory, in the Second "Boo]?.^ ch, ii. 
Concerning the oAuthor of Nature : where 
you may fee, that the Powers of Nature, or 
of the Material World, cannot anfwer all the 
P^.:^^omena of the Univerfe, which are there 
reprefented. This you may confult at 
l-i^ure. But, in the mean Time, 'tis a good 
perfwafive why we fiiould noteafily gire our 
fclves up to fuch Inclinations or Opinions, as 
ha ve neither gcnerofitv, nor Prudence on their 
fide. And it cannot be amifs, that thcfe Per- 
fons fliouid often take into their thoughts, this 
laft fcene of Thin.ns, The Conflagratioji of the 
World. Seeing if there be a God, they will 
certainly be found in the Number of his Ene- 
mies, and of thofethat will have their Portion 
in the Lake that burns with Fire and Brim- 

The Third fort of P^rfons that we are to 
fpeak to, are the Incredulous, or fuch as do not 
believe the Truth of Chriftian Religio7ij tho^ 
they believe there is a God. Thefe are com- 
monly Men of Wit and Pleafure, that have 
not patience enough to confider, ccolely and in 
due order, the Grounds upon which it appears 
that Chriftian Religion is from Heaven, and 
of Divine Authority. 'I'hey ought, in 
the firft Place, to examin matter of Fati^ and 
the Hiftory of our Saviour : That there was 
fuch a Perfon, in the Reigns oi oAim^flus and 
Tiuerius^ that wrought fuch and fuch Miracles 
in Judea \ taught fuch a Do£lrine : was Cru- 

Concerning the Conflagration, 169 

cified at '^erufalem : rife from the Dead the 
Third Day, and vifibly afcended into Heaven. 
If thefe Matters of Fact be denied, then the 
controverfie turns only toanHilloricalqueftion, 
Whether the Evangelical Hiftory be a Fabulous, 
or true Hiftory : which it would not be proper 
to examin in this Place. But if Matter of 
Faft recorded there, and in the A&s of the 
Apoftles, and the firft Ages of Chriftianitjr, 
be acknowledged, as I fuppofe it is, then the 
Queflion that remains is this, Whether fuch 
matter of FaCt does not fufficiently prove the 
divine Authority of Jefus Chrift and of his 
Doflrine. We fuppofe it poffible, for a Perfon 
to have fuch Teftimonials of Divine Authority, 
as may be fufficientto convince Mankind, or 
tlie more reafonable Pait of Mankind ; And 
if that be pofFible, what, pray, is a-wanting 
in the Teftimonies of Jefus Chrift ? The Pro- 
phecies of the Old Teftament bear witnefs to 
him : His Birth was a Miracle, and his Life 
a train of Miracles : not wrought out of levity 
and vain oftentation, but for ufeful and chari- 
table Purpofes. His Do9"rine and Morality 
not only blamelefs, but Noble: defigned to re- 
move out of the World the imperfed Religion 
of the Jew^^ and the falfe Religion of the Gen- 
tiles: All Idolatry and Superftition : and there- 
to by improve Mankind, undera better and more 
perfefl: Difpenfation. He gave an example of 
a fpotlefs innocency in all his Converfation, free 
from Vice or any evil ; and liv'd in a negleft 
of all the Pomp or Pleafures of this Life^ re- 

iyo The Theory of the E a r t h, 

ferring his happinefs wholly to another World 
He Prophefied concerning his own Death, and 
his Refurreftion : and concerning the deftruc- 
tion of Jerufalem : Which all came to pafs in 
a fignal Manner. He alfo Prophefied of the 
Succefs of his Gofpel : which, after his Death, 
immediately took Root, and fpread it felf every 
Way throughout the World ; maugre all op- 
pofition or perfecution, from Jewsov Heathens, 
It was not fupported by any temporal Powder 
for above Three Hundred Years : nor were any 
arts us'd, or meafures taken, according to hu- 
mane prudence, for the confervation of it. But, 
toomit other Things, that grand Article of his 
Rifing from the Dead, Afcending vifibly into 
Heaven, and pouring down the miraculous 
Gifts of the Holy Ghoft, f according as he had 
promised) upon his Apoftles and their followers: 
This alone is to me a Demonftration of his Di- 
vine Authority. To conquer Death : To 
mount, like an Eagle, into the Skies , and to 
infpire his followers with inimitable Gifts and 
Faculties, are Things, without controverfie, 
beyond all humane Powder: and may and 
ought to be efteemed fure Credentials of a 
Perfon fent from Heaven. 

From thefe Matters of FaQ: we have all 
pofTible Affurance, that Jefus Chrift was no 
Impoftor or deluded Perion : f'one of which 
two Charaflers all. unbelievers muil: fix upon 
him) but CommiffionM by Heaven to intro- 
duce a New Religion : to reform the World, 
to remove Judaifm and Idolatry ; The beloved 
Son -of God, the great Prophet of the later Ages, 
the true Meffiah that was to come. It 

Conce-nihig tie Conflagration. lyi 

It may be, you will confcfs, that thefe are 
great Arguments that the Author of our Reli- 
gion was a Divine Perfon, and had fuper- 
natural Powers : but withal, tliat there are 
fo many difficulties in Chriftian Religion, and 
fo many things unintelligible, that a rational 
Man knows not how to believe it, tho' he be 
inclinM to admire the Perfon Oi Jefus Chrift. 
I anfw^er. If they be fuch difficulties as arc 
made only by the Schools and difputacious 
Doftors, you are not to trouble your felf about 
them, for they are of no Authority. B^t if 
they be in the very Words of Scripture, then 
'tis either in Things practical, or in Things 
meerly fpeculative. As to the Rules of Prac- 
tice in Chriftian Religion, I do not know any 
Thing in Scripture, obfcure or unintelligible. 
And as to Speculations, great difcretion and 
moderation is to be us'd in the conduQ: of 
tliem. If thefe matters of Fafl:, which we 
have alledg'd, prove the Divinity of the Re- 
velation, keep clofe to the Words of that Re- 
velation, afierting no more than it ailerts, and 
you cannot err. But if you will expatiate, and 
determine Modes, and Forms, and confequen- 
ces ; you may eafily be puzled by your own 
forwardnefs. For befides fome Things that are 
in their own Nature, Infinite and Incompre- 
hcnfible, there are many other Things in Chri- 
ftian Religion that are incompleatly reveal'd ; 
the full knowledge whereof, it haspleafed Gocl 
to referve to another Life, and to give us only 
a fummary account of them at prefent. We 
have fo much deference for any Government, 
as not to expect that all their Councels and 


127 ^^^ Theory of the Earth.' 

Secrets fhould be made known to us, nor to 
cenfure every aftion whofe Reafons we do not 
fully comprehend ; much more in the Provi- 
dential adminiftrationof a World, we mull be 
content to know fo much of the Councels of 
Heaven and of fupcrnatural Truths, as God 
has thought fit to reveal to us. And if thefe 
Truths be no otherwife than in a general man- 
ner^ fummarily and incompleatly revealed in 
this Life, as commonly they are, wemuft not 
therefore throw oflP the Government, or rejefl 
the whole difpenfation : of whofe Divine Au- 
thority we have otherways full Proof and fatis- 
faftory evidence. For this would be, To 
lofe the Subltance in catching at a Shadow. 

But Men that live continuallv in the noife of 
the World, amidft bufinefs and Pleafnres, their 
Time is commonly fiiarM betwixt thofe Tv/o. 
So that little or nothing is left for Meditation ; 
at leaft, not enough for fuch Meditations as 
require length, juftnefs, and order. They 
ihould retire from the crowd for one Month 
or two, to ftudy the Truth of Chriftian Reli- 
gion, if they have any doubt of ir. They re- 
tire fometimes to cure a Gout, or other Dileafes, 
and diet them.felves according to Rule : but 
tht7 will not be at that Pains, to care a difeafe 
of the Mind, which is of far greater and more 
fatal confequence. ^ If they perifh by their own 
negligence or obftinacy, the Phyfician is not to 
blame. Burning is the laft Remedy in fome 
diftempers : and they woiild do well to re- 
member, that the V/orld will flame about their 
Heads one of thefe Days : and v/hether they 


Concerning the Conflagration. 17} 

be amongfl: the Living, or amongft the Dead, 
at that Time, the Apoftle makes them a Part 
of the Fcwel, which that fiery vengeance will 
prey upon. Our Saviour hath been true to his 
Word hitherto : whether in his Promifes, or in 
his Tlircatnings ; He promised the Apoffles to 
fend down the Holy Ghoft upon them after his 
Afcenfion, and that was fully accomplifli'd. 
He foretold and threatened the deftruclion of 
'^ernfalem : and that came to pafs accordingly, 
foon after he had left the World. And he 
hath told us alfo, that he will come again in 
the Clouds of Heaven^ Matt. 24. 50. with 
Tower and great glory \iS 25. 32, iyc. and 
that will be to judge the World. When the 
Son of Manfiall come in his glory ^ and all the 
holy Q,4ngels with hiniy then Jl) all he fit ufon 
the Throne of his glory. oAnd lefore hitnfmll 
le gather"^ d all Nations^ and he w^ill feparate the 
good from the bad ; and to the wricked and 
unbelievers he will fay, ^>r. 41. 'Depart frotn 
me je cur fed into everlajling Fire^ prepared for 
the 'Vevil and his oAngels. This is the fame 
coming, and the fame Fire, with that which 
we mentioned before out of St. Taul. 2 Thej]] i. 
7,8, 9. As you will plainly fee, if you com- 
pare St. Matthew\ words witli St. TauPsy 
which are thefe, JVhen the Lord Jefus J};all he 
revealed from Heaven^ with his mighty oAn- 
gels : In flaming Fire^ taking vengeance 07i 
them that know not God^ and that hearken 7iot 
to the Gofpel of our Lord "Jefus Chrift. Who 
fjall he punifljed with everlajling defiruHion^ 
from, or hy the prcfence of the Lord^ a7id the 


^74 ^^<^ Theory of the E a k t h. 

, gloij of his Tower This, metliinks, fliouM 
be an awakening thought, that there is fuch a 
threatning upon record, (by one who never 
yet faiPd in his Word) againd: thofe that do 
not believe his TePdmony. Thofe that rejeft 
him now as a Dupe, or an Impolior, run a 
Hazard of feeing him heareafter coming m 
the Clouds to be their Judge. And it will 
be too late then to correQ: theit errour, when 
the bright Armies of Angels fill the Air, and 
the Eardi begins to melt at the Prefcnce of the 

Thus much concerning thofe three Ranks of 
Men, whom the Apoftle St. Tatd feems to 
point at principally, and condemn to the 
Flames. But, as I faid before, the reft of 
Sinners and vitious Perfons amongfl: the Pro- 
feifors of Chrillianity, tho' they are not fo di- 
redly the Enemies of God, as thefe are; yet 
being trangreflbrs of his Law, they muftexpeft 
to be brought to Juftice. In every well-go- 
vern'd State, not only Traitors and Rebels, 
that offend more immediately againft the Per- 
fon of the Prince, but all others, that noto- 
rioufly violate the Laws, are brought to con- 
dign punifl^ment, according to the Nature 
and degree of their Crime. So in this Cafe^ 
The FirejImU try every MarPs JVork^ of zajhat 
fort it is. 'Tis therefore the concern of every 
Man to refleO: often upon that Day, and to 
confider what his Fate and Sentence is likely 
to be, at that lali Trial. The "Jews have a 
Tradition tliat Eli^.s fits in Heaven, and keeps 
a Regifter of all Mens adions, good or bad. 


Concerning the Conflagration. 175 

He hath his under Secretaries for the feveral 
Nations of the World, that take Minutes of 
all that paffes : and fo hath the Hiftory of every 
, Man's Life before him, ready to be produc'd 
at the Day of Judgment. I will not vouch for 
the literal Truth of this, but it is true m effeOr. 
Every Man's fate fhall be determin'd that Day, 
according to the Hiftory of his Life ; according 
to the Works done in the Flefli, whether good 
or bad. And therefore it ought to have as 
much influence upon us, as if every fingle 
aftion was formally regifter'd in Heaven. 

If Men would learn to contemn this World, 
It would cure a great many Vices at once. 
And, methinks, St. Teter'^s argument, from 
the approaching ditfolution of all Things, fliould 
put us out of conceit with fuch perifliing va- 
nities. Luft and Ambition are the two reign- 
ing Vices of great Men : and thofe little Fires 
might be foon extinguidi'd, if they would fre- 
quently and ferioudy meditate on this laft and 
Univerfal Fire : wjiich will put an end to all 
Paflions and all Contentions. As to Ambi- 
tion, the Heathens themfelves made ufe of 
this Argument, to abate and rcprefs the vain 
affeftation of glory and greatnefs in this 
World. I told you before the lelTon tliat was 
given to Scipio e.4frkan:is^ by his Uncle's 
Ghoft, upon this SubjeS:. And upon a like 
Occafion and Confideration, Cajar hath a 
lefTon given him by Lr/can^ after the Battle 
of Tbarfalia ; where Towpeji loft the Day, 
and Rome its Liberty. The Poet fays, C^far 
took pleafure in looking upon the dead Bodies, 


176 The The or) of the E a r t h. 

and would not fuffer them to be buried, or, 
which was their manner of burying, to be 
burnt. Whereupon he fpeaks to him in thefe 
Words : 

HoSj Cxf^r J pofulos Jt nunc non ufferit IgniSy 
IJret cum Terris^ uret cum gurgitc Ponti. 
Coynmunis mundo fufcrcfl RoguSj Ojfibus afira 
Mifturus. Quocunque Tuam Fortuna vocabity 
H& quoque eunt Anim<z , non altius ibis in aurasy 
Non meliore loco Styglafuh nocte jacebis' 
Libera fortuna Mors eft : Capit omnia Tellus 
Oudigenuit 'j Cdo tegitur Qui non habet urn am, 


Jfnow thefe Bodies want their Vile and Vrn^ 

At lasf-^ with the whole Globe^ they're fwe to hurn» 

The World expetls one qeneral Fire : and Thou 

Musi go where thefe poor Souls are wand' ring now* 

Thou'll reach no higher y in tW ethereal Plain y 

JSfor ^mongsi the Shades a better Place obtain* 

Death levels all : And He that has not Room 

To make a Grave ^ Heavens V^ault fmllbe his Tomb' 

Thefe are mortifying thoughts to ambitious 
Spirits. And furely our own Mortality, and 
the Mortality of the World it felf, may be 
enough to convince all confidering Men, That, 
Vamty of Vanities all is vanity under the Sun : 
any otherwife than as they relate to a better 







Containing an Account of the 

Original of the Earth, 

And of all the 


Whicli it hath already under- 
gone, or is to undergo, till the 
Consummation of all things. 

■I — 1 1 1 ■ ■ 11 t 11 ^ 

The FourthBook^ 

Concerning the New Heavens and New Earth, 


Concernifig The Confummation of all things. 

Printed for J. H o o k ^ in Fleet-Street. 
Book IV. N 





YOU fee it is ft ill my lotj to travel into 
7iew Worlds : having never found any 
great Satisfatiion in this. qAs an atiive TeO" 
fie leaves their habitations in a harren Soil^ 
to try if they can make their Fortune better 
elfewhere. I firft looFd backwards^ and wa- 
ded through the "Deluge^ i?ito the Vrimxval 
World : to fee how they lived there^ and how 
Nature flood in that original Confiitution. 
Nozk) I am going forwards^ to view the New 
Heavens a7id New Earth, that will he after 
the Conflagration. "But^ Gentle Reader, let 
me not take you any further .^ if you he weary. 
I do not love a querulous Co?npanion. U?ilefs 
your Genius therefore p'efs you forwards^ chufe 
rather to reft here^ and he conteiit with that 
■fart of the Theory which you have feen already. 
Is it not fair^ to have followed Nature fo far 
as to have feen her twice in her Ruins f Why 

N 2 fliould 


^jould we fllll pirfue her^ even after T)eatb 
and T>ijjhhthnj into dark and remote luturi^ 
ties f To whom therefore ftich 'Difpiifitions 
feem needlefs^ or over-curious^ let them reft 
here ; and leave the remainder of this Work, 
which is a ki?id of PROPHECY concerning 
- the STATE of things after the Conflagration, 
to thofe that are of a "Dif^ofition fuited to fuch 
Studies and Enquiries, 

Not that an)' fart of this Theory requires 
much Learni7tg^ o^Art^ or Scienve^ to he Mafter 
&fit ) hut a Love and Thirft after Truth ^ Iree^ 
doni of "Judgment y and a Refignation of our 
Underfiandings to dear Evide?ice^ let it carry 
US which way it zk^ill, oAn honeft Englifb 
Reader that looh o?ily at the Senfe as it lies 
hefore him^ and 7ieither confiders ?wr cares whe- 
ther it he New or Old, fo it he true^ may he a 
more competent Judge than a great Scholar full 
of his own Notioits^ and 'puffed u^ with the 
Opnion of his mighty Kjiowledge ; for fuch 
Men think they cannot in Honour own any thing 
to he tru€^ z^ohich they did 7iot know hefore. 
To he taught any 7iew Kjiowledge^ is to confefs 
their former Jg7wra7ice ; and that lejjens 
them in their own Ol^inion^ andy as they thinky 
in the Op7iion of the World ; which are hoth 
uneafe Reflexions to the?n : Neither mufi z^e 
defend ufonoAge only for foundnefs cfjudg- 
me7it. Me7i in difcovering and ow7ii7ig Truth 
feldom change their Opnions after Threefcore : 
effecially if they he leading Opnions, It is 
then too late^ we think^ to hegin the World 
again \ and as we grow old^ the Heart con- 



fraFlsy and cannot o^en wide enough to tale in 
a great Thought, 

The Spheres of Mens Under/landings are as 
dijferent^ as ProfpeHs ufon the Earth, Some 
[land u^on a Rock or a Mountain^ a7id fee far 
round about ; Others ^e in an hollow^ or in a 
Cave^ and have no frofj^^eH at all. Some Men 
conjider nothing hut what is frefent to their 
Senfes : Others extend their Thoughts both to 
what is faft and what is future : oAnd yet 
the fairef; Troffect in this Life is not to he 
com^ar'^d to the Te aft we f)all have in another. 
Our clearefi "Day here is mifty and ha-zy : IVe 
Jee not far^ and what we do fee is in a had 
Light, 'But z^hen we have got hetter 'Bodies 
in the fir ft Refurrei'iioii^ whereof we are going 
to Treat \ hetter Se?ifes and a hetter Under- 
fianding^ a clearer Light and an higher Station^ 
our Horizonwill he e?ilarged every way^ hot has 
to the Natural IVorld^andas to the IntelleHuaL 

Two of the greateft Speculations that we 
are capable of in this Life^ are^ in my Opinion^ 
REVOLUTION OF SOULS; one for the Ma- 
terial Worldy and the other for the IntelUHual. 
Toz^ard the former of thefe our Theory is an 
Ejjay : and in this our '?lanet, (which I hoj^e to 
conduH into a fixed Star, before I have done 
imth it) we give an Inftance of what may be 
in other Tlanets, ^Tis true, we took our Rife 
710 higher than the Chaos, hecaufe that was a 
known Trincifle, and we were not willing to 
amufe the Reader with too many firange Sto^ 
ri^s : ^s that, I am fure,. would have heen 
N 3 thought 


thought one^ TO HqAFE brought this Earth 
from a Fixed Star^ and then carried it up again 
ifito the fame Sphere : Which yet^ I helieve^ is 
the true Circle of Natural Trovi deuce. 

cAs to the Revolution^f Souls, the Footftefs 
of that Speculation are mtore ohfcure than of 
the former : For though we are ajjur'^d hy Scri^ 
fture^ that all good Souls will at length have 
Celeflial "Bodies ; yet^ that this is a returning 
to a Trimitive State^ or to what they had at 
their firft Creation^ that^ Scripture has not ac» 
quaint ed us with. It tells us indeed^ that oAn^ 
gels fell from their Trimitive Celeflial Glory ; 
and confequently we might he capable of a 
Laffe as well as they^ if we had been in that 
high Cojidition with them. ""But that we ever 
were there, is iiot declared to us by any Reve^ 
I at ion. Reafon and Moral at y would indeed 
fuggefl to us., that an innocent Soul^freJI) and pure 
from the Hands of its Maker, could not be im^ 
mediately cafl into Trifon, before it had., by aity 
cAH of its own Will, or any ufe of its own Un- 
derftanding, cofnmitted either Error or Sin. I 
call this "Body a Trifoji, both because it is a Con* 
finement and Refiraint ufon our heft Faculties 
a7td Capacities, and is alfo the Seat ofT)ifeafes 
and Loathfomnefs ; and, as Trifons ufe to do, 
commonly tends more to debauch Mens Natures^ 
than to improve them, 

"But though we cannot certainly tell under 
what Circumftances human Souls were flac'^d 
at firft, yet all Q.4ntiquity agrees. Oriental and 
Occidental, co7icer?iirig their "Fre-exiflefice in 
generaly in refpeH of thefe mortal 'Bodies. 



Q,ind our Saviour never reproaches or cor^ 
reds the Jews, vvhe^i they fpeak uj^oii^ that 
Supfojition^ Luke 9. iS, 19. John 9. 2. S^- 
fides^ it feems to me heyond ail controverjie^ 
that the Soul of the Mefjiah did exift he fore the 
Incarnation^ and voluntarily defcended froiyi 
Heaven to take upon it a Mortal "Body. oAnd 
though it does not af-pear that all humane Souls 
were atfirfl 'placed in Glory ^ yet^ from the Ex- 
ample of our Saviour^ we fee fomething greater 
in them ; tiamelf^ a Capacity to he united to 
the Godhead^ John 5. 15. & 6. 38. & 62. 
&■ 17. 5. oAnd what is poffiUe to one^ is 
pojfible to more, ^But theje Thoughts are too 
high for us : while we find our felves united to 
nothings hit . difeafed 'Bodies and Houfes of 

The greateft Fault we can commit in fuch 
Speculations^ is to le over-pofitive and T^og- 
maticah To le inquifttive into the ways of 
"Providence and the Works of Godj is fo far 
from heiriga Faulty that it is our greateft Ter^ 
feHion ; JVe cultivate the highefi Principles 
and hefi Inclinations of our Nature^ while we 
are thus employ"* d: and "'tis Littlenefs or Secu^ 
larity of Spirit^ that is the greateft Enemy 
to Contemplation. Thofe that would have a 
true Contempt of this JVorld^ muft fufer the 
Soul to le fometimes upon the lVi?ig^ atii 
to raife her [elf above the fight of this little 
dark Point ^ which we now inhabit. Give her 
a large aiid free Profpeci of the hiwienftty of 
God'^s IVorks^ and of his inexhaujted IVffdom 

N 4 aiid 


^and Qoodnefs^ if you would make her Greats 
and Good. eAs the warm Thilofofher faysy 

Give me a Soul fo great, fo high, 
Let her Dimenfionsftretch the Skie: 
That comprehends within a thought, 
The whole Extent 'twixt God and Nought. 
And from the World's firft Birth and Date, 
Its Life and Death can Calculate : 
With all th' Adventures that fhall pafs, 
To evVy Atome of the Mafs. 

But let her be as GOOD as G R E A T^ 

Her higheft Throne a Mercy- Seat. 

Soft and diflblving like a Cloud, 

Lofing her felf in doing Good., 

A Cloud that leaves its place Above, 

Rather than dry, and ufelefs move : 

Falls in a Shower upon the Earth, 

And gives ten thoufand Seeds a birth. 

Hangs on the Flow'rs, and infant Plants, 

Sucks not their Sweets, butfeeds their Wants. 

So let this mighty Mind diffufe 

All that's her ov/n to others Ufe ; 

And free from private Ends, retain 

Nothing of S E L F;, but a bare Name, 




O F T H E 


Book IV. 

Concerning the new Heavens and new Earth, 


Concerning the Confummation of all things. 

(g® ^aS^ e)!^ ^g)S) «® ig® ®S« ®9 ®S^ ^2^ 
Chap. I. 

The IntroducHon ; That the World will not le 
annihilated in the la/I Fire. That we are to 
expeH^ accordi?ig to Scripture and the Chri- 
ftian ^DoHrine^ New Heavens and a New 
Earthy when thefe are dijjolv\l or hurnt tip 

E are now fo far advanced in the 
Theory of tlie Earth, as to have 
feen the End of Two Worlds : 
One dellroy'd by Water, and an- 
other by Fire. It remains only to 
confider, whether we be yet come to the final 


1 85 The Theory of the E a r t hJ 

Period of Nature : The laft Scene of all things, 
and confequently the iitmofl: Bound of our En- 
quiries : Or, whether Providence, which is 
inexhaufted in Wifdomand Goodnefs, will raife 
up, from this dead Mafs, New Heavens and 
a New Earth. Another habitable World, 
■ better and more perfefl than that which 
was deftroyed. That, as the firfl: World be- 
gan with a Paradife, and a ftate of Innocency, 
fo the laft may be a kind of Renovation of that 
happy State \ whofe Inhabitants fliall not die, 
but be tranflated to a blelTed Immortality. 

I know tis the Opinion of fom.e, that this 
World will be annihilated, or reducM to no- 
thing, at the Conflagration : and that would 
put an end to all further Enquiries. But 
whence do they learn this ? from Scripture or 
Reafon, or their own' Imagination ? What 
Inftance or Example can they give us of this 
they call oAnnihllation ^ Or what place of Scri- 
pture can they produce, that fays, the World, 
in the laft Fire, fliall be reducM to nothing ? 
If they have neither Inftance nor Proof of 
what they affirm, 'tis an empty Imagination 
of their own ; neither agreeable to Phiiofophy, 
nor Divinity. Fire does not confume any 
Subftance ; it changes the Form and Qtialities 
of it, but the Matter remains. And if the 
befign had been (Annihilation^ the employ- 
ing of Fire would have been of no Ufe or 
EffeQ: : For Smoak and Aflies are at as great 
a diftance from Nothings as the Bodies them- 
felves out of which they are made. ' But thefe 
Authors feem. to have but a iinall tincture of 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. i S7 

Philofophv, and therefore it will be more prOi 
per to confute tlieir Opinion from the Words 
of Scripture; which hath left us fujfficient Evi- 
dence, that another World will fucceed after 
the Conflagration of that we now inhabit. 

The Prophets, both of the Old and New 
Teftament, have left us their PrediQions con- 
cerning New Heavens and a new Earth. So 
fays the Prophet Ifaiah,ch. 6^. 17. "Behold I 
create New Heavens and a New Earthy and 
the former pall not he remenihred^ or come into 
mind. As not worthy our Thouglits, m com- 
parifon of thofe that will arife when thefe pafs 
away. So the Prophet St. "^ohi^ in his aAfw- 
calypfe^ when he was come to the end of this 
World, fays, Q,4ndl Jaw anew Heaven and a 
7iew Earth : for the firft Heaven and the firfl 
Earth were f^ajjed away^ and there was no 
more Sea^ Apoc. 21. i. Where he does not 
only give us an account of a New Heaven and 
a New Earth, in general; but alio gives a 
diftinftive Characler of the A^ew Earthy That 
it fhall have no Sea. And in the 5th l^erfe^ 
he that fate upon the Throne fays, "Behold I 
make all things N'ew ; which, confider'd with 
the Antecedents and Confequents, cannot be 
otherwife underftood than of a New World. 

But fome Men make Evafions here as to the 
Words of the Prophets, and fay, they are to 
be underftood in a Figurate and Allegorical 
Senfe : and to be apply'd to the Times of the 
Gofpcl, either at firft or towards the latter 
end of tlie World. So as this Aftje' Heaven and 
New Earth fignifie only a great Change in the 


1 88 The Theory of the E a v. r h. 

moral World. But how can that be, feeing 
St. Joh^ places them after the end of the 
World ? And the Prophet Ifaiah conneGs fucli 
things with his New Heavens and New Earth, 
as are not competible to the prefent ftate of 
Nature, Ch,6^. However, to avoid all Shuf- 
fling and Tergiverfation in this Point, let us 
appeal to St. Teter^ who ufes a plain hteral 
Style, and difcourfes down-right concerning 
the Natural World. In his 2d E^z/L and 3d 
Chap, when he had foretold and explained the 
Future Conflagration, he adds, But we expeO: 
/Vew Heavens and a New Earthy according to 
his Tromijes. Thefe Promifes were made by 
the Prophets : and this gives us full Authoricy 
to interpret their New Heavens and New 
Earth to be after the Conflagration, St. Teter, 
when he had defcrib'd the Diffokition of the 
World in the lafl: Fire, in full and emphatical 
Terms, as the faffing avoay tJye Heavens with 
a Noife : the melting of the Elefnejits^ and 
turning up all the Works of the Earth : he fub- 
joins Neverthelefsj notwitbftanding this total 
Diffokition of the prefent World, JVe^ accords 
ing to his Tromifes^ look for new Heavens and 
a new Earth : wherein dwelleth Pxighteoufmfs, 
As if the Apoftl.e fliould have faid, Notwitli^ 
fl:anding this ftrange and violent DiiToIutioa 
of the prefent Heavens and Earth, which I 
have defcrib'd to you, we do not at all diilrufl: 
God^s Promifes concerning New Heavens and 
a New Earth, that are to fucceed chefc;, and 
to be the Seat of the Pvigliteous, 


Concerning the New Heavens^ ^q. 189 

Here's no room for Allegories or Allegori- 
cal Expofitions : unlefs you will make the 
Conflagration of the World an Allegory. For, 
as Heavens and Earth were deftroyed, fo 
Heavens and Earth are reftored : and if in 
the firft place you underfland the natural 
material World, you muft alfo underftand it 
in the (econd place : They are both Allegories, 
or neither. But to make the Conflagration 
an Allegory, is not only to contradict St. P^/-^r, 
but all Antiquity, Sacred or Prophane. And 
I defire no more AfTiirance that we fhall have 
New Heavens and a new Earth, in a literal 
Senfe, than we have that the prefent Heavens 
and Earth fliall be deftroyed in a literal Senfe, 
and by material Fire. Let it therefore reft up- 
on that I flue as to the firft Evidence and Ar- 
gument from Scripture. 

Sotne will fancy, it may be, that we fhall 
have New Heavens and Earth, and yet that 
thefe fliall be anniliilated : They would have 
Thefe firft reduc'd to nothing, and then others 
created, fpick and fpan New, out of nothing. 
But why fo, pray, what's the Humour of 
that ? Left Omnipotency fhould want Employ- 
ment, you would have it to do, and undo, 
and do again. As if new-made Matter, like 
new Clothes, or new Furniture, had a bet- 
ter Glofs, and was more creditable. Matter 
never wears: as fine GoJd, melt it down ne- 
ver fo often, it lofes nothing of its Quantity. 
l>ie Subftance of the World is the fame, burnt 
or unburnt, and is of the fame Value and Vir- 
tue, New cr Old ; and we muft not multiply 


190 The Theory of the Earth. 

the Aftions of Omnipotency without Neceflity. 
God does not make, or unmake things, to 
try Experiments : He knows before-hand the 
utmoft Capacities of every thing, and does no 
vain or fuperfluous Work. Such Imaginations 
as thefe proceed only from want of true Philo- 
fophy, or the true Knowledge of the Nature 
of God and of his Workr- ; which fliould al- 
ways be carefully attended to, in fucli Specu- 
lations as concern the Natural World. But to 
proceed in our Subjefl:. 

If they fuppofe part of the World to be an- 
nihilated, and to continue fo, they Philofo- 
phize ftill worfe and worfe. How high fliall 
the Annihilation reach ? Shall the Sun, Moon, 
and Stars be reducM to nothing? But what 
have They done, that they fl^ould undergo fo 
hard a Fate? Muft they be turn'd out of Be- 
ing for our Faults ? The wdiole material Uni- 
verfe will not be Annihilated at this bout, for 
we are to have Bodies after the Refurreftion, 
and to live in Heaven. How much of the 
Univerfe then v/ill you leave ftanding ; or how 
iliall it fubfift with this great Vacuum in the 
heart of it ? This fhell of a World is but the 
Fiction of an empty Brain : For God and Na- 
ture in their Works, never admit of fuch ga- 
ping Vacuities and Emptineffes. 

If we confult Scripture again, we fl:jall find 
that that makes mention of a Refiitution and 
Revivifcency of all things ; at the End of the 
World, or' at the Coming of our Saviour. 
?^t,Teter^ whofe Doftrine we have hitherto 
follow^'d, in his Sermon to the Jews^ after our 


Concerning the New Heave?is^ 8rc. 191 

Saviour's Afcenfion, tells them, that He will 
come again, and that there will be then a 
Reftittition of all things ; fuchas was promifed 
by the Prophets. The Heavens^ fays he, muft 
receive him until the time of Refiitution of all 
things : which God hath f^oken hy the mouth 
of his holy Trophets^ fince the World hegan^ 
Afts ^.21. If we compare this PafTage of 
St. Teter^s, with that which we alledged be- 
fore out of his fecond Epiftle, it can fcarce be 
doubted but that he refers to the fame Promi- 
fes in both Places : and what he there calls a 
New Heaven and a New Earthy he calls here 
a Reftitution of all things. For the Heavens 
and the Earth comprehend all, and both thefe 
are but different Phrafes for the Renovation 
of the World. This gives us alfo light how 
to underftand what our Saviour calls the Rege- 
iteration or Revivifce7icy^ when he fliall fit 
upon his Throne of Glory, and will reward 
his Followers an Hundred-fold, for all their 
Loffes in this World ; befides Everlafting Life, 
as the Crown of all. Mat. 19. 28, 29. I know, 
in our E?/gliJh Tranflation, we feparate the 
Regeneration from fitting upon his Thro?ie : but 
without any warrant from the Original. And 
feeing our Saviour fpeaks here of Bodily Goods, 
and ieems to diftinguifli them from Everlafting 
Life^ which is to be the final Reward of his 
Followers, This Regeneration feems to belong 
to his Second Coming, when the World fliall 
be renewM or regenerated : and the Righteous 
fhall poffefs the Earth. 


192 T^^^ Theory of the E A r t h.' 

Other Places of Scripture that foretel the 
Fate of this Material World, reprefent it al- 
ways as a Change^ not as an Annihilation. 
St. *P^^/fays, The Figure of this World faffeth 
giway^ I Cor. 7. ^r. The Form, Fafhion and 
Difpofition of its Parts : But the Subftance ftill 
remains. As a Body that is melted down and 
diffolv'd, the Form periflies, but the Matter 
15 not deftroyed. And the Pfalmift fays, The 
Heavens and the Earth (hall be changd^ TfaL 
102. 26. Which anfwers to this Transforma- 
tion we fpeak of The fame Apoftle, in the 
Eighth Chapter to the Romans^ ver. 21, 22, 
2 J, 24. fliows alfb, that this Change (hM be, 
and fliall be for the better : and calls it a De- 
liver ance of the Creation from Vanity and Cor- 
ruption : and a Participation of the glorious 
Liberty of the Children of God. Being a fort 
oi Redemptions as they have a Redemption of 
their "Bodies. 

But feeing the Renovation of the World is 
a Doflirine generally receiv'd, both by antient 
and modern Authors, as we fhall have occa- 
Hon to fl'iOw hereafter, we need add no more, 
in this Place, for Confirmation of it. Some 
Men are willing to throw all things into a 
ftate of Nothing at the Conflagration, and 
bury them th^re, that they may not be obliged 
to give an Account of that State of things, 
that is to fucceed it. Thofe w^ho think them- 
felves bound in Honour to know every thing 
in Theology that is knowable ; and find it un- 
eafie to anfwer fuch Queftions and Speculations, 
as would arife upon their admitting a New 


Concernhig the New Heavens^ S^c. 193 

World, think it more advifeable to ftifle it in 
the birth, and fo to bound all Knowledge at 
the Conflagration. But furely, fo far as Rea- 
fon or Scripture lead us, we may and ought 
to follow : otherwife we fliould be ungrateful 
to Providence, that fent us thofe Guides. Pro- 
vided, we be always duly fenfible of our own 
Weaknefs : and, according to the difficulty of 
the SubjeG:, and the meafure of Light that falls 
upon it, proceed with that Modefl:y and In- 
genuity, that becomes fuch fallible Enquirers 
after Truth, as we are. And this Rule I de- 
fire to prefcribe to my felf, as in all other Wri- 
tings, fo efpecially in this : where, tho' I look 
upon the principal Conclufions as fully prov'd, 
there are feveral Particulars, that are rather 
proposed to Examination, than pofitively af- 



The "Birth of the 7iew Heavens and the new 
Earthy from the feconi Chaos^ or the remains 
of the old World. The Torm^ Order^ and 
fMialities of the new Earthy according to 
Reafon and Scripture. 

HAvingprovM from Scripture, that we are 
to expect New Heavens^ and a A^ezv 
Earthy after the Conflagration ; it would be 
fome Pleafure and Sacisfadion to fee how this 

O new 

194 The Theory of the Earth. 

new Frame will arife \ and what Foundation 
there is in Nature for the accomplifhment of 
thefe Promifes. For, tho' the Divine Power 
be not bound to all the Laws of Nature, but 
may difpence with them when there is a Ne- 
cefTity ; yet it is an eafe to us in our Belief, 
when we fee them both confpire in the fame 
effeflr. And in order to this, we mufl: coafider 
in what Pofture we left the demolillfd World : 
what Hopes there is of a Rcftauration, And 
we are not to be dif:ourag^d, becaufe we fee 
things at prefent wrapt up in a confus'd Mafs : 
for, according to the Methods of Nature and 
Providence, in that dark Womb uiually are 
the Seeds and Rudiments of an Embryo- 

Neither is there, poffibly, fo great a Con- 
fufion in this Mafs, as we imagine. The 
Heart an interior Body of the Earth is ftill en- 
tire : and that part of it that is confum'd by 
the Fire, will be divided, of its own accord, 
into two Regions. What is diiTolv'd and 
melted, being the heavielt, will difcend as low 
as it can, and cover and inclofe the Kernel of 
the Earth round about, as a molten Sea or 
Abyfs : according as is explain'd and fet down 
in the precedent Book. But what is more 
light and v^olatile, will float in the Air ; as 
Fumes, Smoak, Exhalations, Vapours of Wa- 
ter, and whatfoever terreftrial Parts can be 
elevated and f pported by the ilrength of Fire. 
Thefe all min^l/d together, of ditferent Sizes, 
Figures, and Motions, will conftitute an opike 
Cloud, or thick Region of Darknefs rouid the 

Earth : 

V£rl.2. ^. tg^. 

IBdak . 4 

Concerning the New Heavens^ Src. 195 

Earth ; So as the Globe of the Earth,^ with its 
Atmofphere, after the ConHagration is finifh- 
ed, will ftand much what in the Form repre- 
fented in this Scheme. 

Now as to the lower of thefe two Region^ 
the Region of melted Matter, A. A. we fhall 
have little occafion to take notice of it ; feeincr 
it will contribute nothing to the Forma ion of 
the new World. But the upper Region, or 
all above that Orb of Fire, is the true Draught 
of a Chaos ; or a Mixture and Confufion of all 
the Elements, without Order or Diftinclion. 
Here are Particles of E J rth, and of Air, and of 
Water, all promifcuoudy jumbled together, by 
the Force and Agitation of the Fire. But 
when that Force ceafes, and every one is left 
to its own Inclination, they will, according 
to their dilTcreriL degrees of Gravity, feparate 
and fort themfelves after this Manner ; Firft, 
the heaviell: and groflcfl: Parts of the Earth will 
fubfide ; then the watery Parts will follow ; 
then a lighter fort of Earth, which will ftop 
and reft upon the Surface of the Water, and 
compofe tliere a thin Film or Membrane. This 
Membrane or tender Orb is the firft Rudiment . 
or Foundation of a new habitable Earth .- For, 
according as Terreftrial Parts fall upon it, from 
all the Regions and Heighths of the Atmo- 
fphere, or of the Chaos, this Orb will grow 
more firm, ftrong, and immoveable, able to 
fupport it felf and Inhabitants too. And ha- 
ving in it all the Principles of a fruitful Soil, 
whether for the Produftion of Plants or of 
Animals, it will want no Property orCharafter 

O 2 of 

1 g6 The Theory of the Earth. 

of an habitable Earth. And particularly, will 
become fuch an Earth, and of fuch a Fornij 
as the firfl: Paradifiacal Earth was, which hath 
been fully defcrib'd in the firft and fecond 
Books of this Theory. 

There is -no occa'fion of examining more 
accurately the formation of this Second Earth, 
feeing it is fo much the fame with that of the 
Firft ; which is fet down fully and diltinclly 
in the Fifth Chapter of the firft Book of this 
Theory. Nature here repeats the fame Work, 
and in the fame Method ; only the Materials 
are now a little more refinM and purg'd by 
the Fire. They both rife out of a Chaos, and 
That, in effeO:, the fame in both Cafes; For 
though in forming the firft Earth, I fuppos'd 
the Chaos or confusM Mafs to reach down to 
the Center, I did that only for the Eafe of our 
imagination ; that fo the whole Mafs might 
appear more fimple and Uniform. But in 
reality, that Chaos had a folid kernel of Earth • 
widiin, as this hath ; and that Matter which 
fluctuated above in the Regions of the Air, 
w^as the true Chaos, whofe Farts, when they 
came to a Separation, made the feveral Ele- 
ments, and the Form of an habitable Earth 
betwixt the Air and Water. This Chaos 
upon feparation, will fall into the fame Form 
and Elements : and fo in like manner create 
or conftitute a fecond Paradifiacal World. 

I fay a Taradifiacal World : for it appears 
plainly, that this new form'd Earth muft agree 
with that Primigenial Earth, in the two prin- 
cipal and fundamental Properties. Firft, It 


Concerning the New Heavens^ S^cT 197 

is of an even, entire, uniform and regular Sur- 
face, without Mountains or Sea. Secondly, That 
it hath a ftraight and regular fituation to the 
Sun, and the oAxis of the EcUpthkj From the 
Manner of its Formation, it appears manifeftly, 
that it muft be of an even and regular Sur- 
face. For the Orb of liquid Fire, upon which 
the firft defcent was made, being Smooth and 
uniform every where, the Matter 'that fell 
upon it would take the fame Form and Mould. 
And fo the Second or Third Region, that 
were fuperinduc'd, would ftijl imitate the 
Fafliion of the Firft : there being no Caufe or 
Occafion of any inequality. Then as to the 
Situation of its (pAv/j-, this uniformity of figure 
would determine the Center of its gravity to 
be exaQly in the middle, and confequently 
there would be no inclination of one Pole more 
than another to the general center of its Mo- 
tion : Butj upon a free Libration in the liquid 
Air, its Q.4xis w^ould lie parallel with the e,4xis 
of the Ecliptick where it moves. But thefe 
Things having been deduct more fully in the 
Second Book about Taradife and the Trhnu 
genial Earthy they need no further explication 
in this Place. 

If Scripture had left us feveral diftind Cha- 
rafters of the New Heavens^ and the New 
Earthy we might, by comparing with thofe, 
have made a Vull Proof of our Hypothefis. 
One indeed St. "^john hath left us in Very ex* 
prefs Terms, There was no Sea there^ He lays. 
His Words are thefe ; (A?id I jaw a New Hea^ 
yen^ and a New Earth : for the firfi Heave u 

J ^nd 

198 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

and the fir ft Earth were fajjed away ; oANT) 
rafter is very particular, and you fee it exactly 
Anfwers to our Hypothefis: for in the New- 
form'd Earth, the Sea is coverM and incon- 
fpicuous : being an Abyfs, not a Sea; and 
wholly lodged in the Womb of the Earth. And 
this one Charafter, being inexpli:able upon 
any other fuppofition, and very different from 
the prefent Earth, makes it a ftrong prefump- 
tion that we have hit upon the true Model of 
the New Heavens and New Earth which St. 
John faw. 

To this fight of the New Heavens and New 
Earth, St. John immediately Subjoyns the 
Sight of the New Jerujalem^ ver, 2. as being 
contemporary, and in fome refpefts the fame 
Thing. 'Tis true, the Charafters of the New 
Jenfalem in thefe two laft Chapters of the 
eApocalyffe^ are very hard to be underftood : 
fome of them being incompetible to a 7>r- 
reftrial ftate, and fome of them to a Celeftial ; 
fo as it feems to me very reafonable to fuppofe, 
that the New Jen/falem fpokenof by St. John^ 
is twofold : That which he faw himfelf, ver, 
2. and that which the Angel fhev/ed him after- 
wards, ver. 9. For I do not fee what need there 
was of an oAngel^ and of taking him up into 
a great and high Mountain^ only to fhew him 
that which he had feen before, at the Foot of 
the Mountain. But however that be, we are 
to confider in this Place the Terreftrial New 
Jerufalem only, or that which is in the New 
Heavens and New Earth. And as St. John 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. 199 

hath joyned thefe two together, fo the Prophet 
Ifaiah had done tlie iame Thing before : Ch, 
65.17, 18. when he had promill'd New Hea- 
vens and a New Earthy he calls them, under 
another Name, Jervfalem : and they both ufe 
the ft media rafter in effect, in the defcription 
of their J.'ri/falefn. Ver, 19. Ijaiah fays, Q,4?id 
I will^ei.yycein Jerufalem^ and joy in rny Teoj^ie: 
and the Voice of weeding (Jmll le no more heard 
in her^ nor the Voice of crying, eAfoc. 21. j, 
4, St. [foO'i fays alfo in his Jerufalem, Godflall 
dwdl with thtm^ a?td the} fj?a]l he his Teople : 
Q,ina he (j)nU wipe away aWT ears from their Eyes : 
and t here jhall be no more 'Death^ neither for row^ 
nor crying^ ?ieitker (Jjal! there he any moreTain. 
Now in both thefe Prophets, when they treat 
upon this Subjcfl:, v/e find chey make frequent 
ailufionstoParadifeaxidaParadifiacalftate; foas 
that may bejuftly taken as aScripture-Cliarafter 
of the A^ew Heavens and the New Earth. T!ie 
Prophet l\aiah fecms plainly to point at a Pa- 
radiiiacal fete, throughout that Chapter, by an 
univerfalinnocency,and harmlefnefsof animals ; 
and Peace, plenty, health, longasvity orimmor- 
tah'cy of the Inhabitants, St. fobn alfo hath 
feveral allufions to Paradife, m thofe two Chap- 
ters where he defcribes the New Jerufalem. 
ilh. 21, i3 ch. 22. And in his difcourfe to the 
feven Churches, in one Place (ch. 2. 7.) To 
him that overcometh is prornifed to eat of the 
Tree of Life^ which is in the mnift of the Tar a- 
dife of God. And in another Place (ch. j. 12.) 
to him that overcometh is promifed, to have 
fhe Name of the New Jerufalem writ upon him, 

O 4 Thefe 

loo The Theory of the Earth. 

Thefe I take to be the fame Thing, and the 
fame reward of Chriftian Viflors, The New 
'^e-mfalem or the New Heavens and New' 
Earth and the Taradife of God. Now this 
being the general Charaflier of the New 
Earth, That it is Taradifiacal\ and the particu- 
lar Charafler, that it hath no Sea ; and both 
thefe agreeing with our Hypothefis, as appa- 
rently deducible from thofe principles and that 
manner of its formation which we have fet 
down ; A^i^e cannot but allow, that the Holy 
Scriptures and the Natural Theory agree in 
their Teftimony, as to the Conditions and Pro- 
perties of the New Heavens and New Earth. 

From what hath been fiid in this and the 
precedent Chapter, it will not be hard to in- 
terpret wdiat St. Taul meant by his Hahi table 

Earth to come ; Ih r /ubAacrety. OTtrwp ffk 

(dt^o'/lB- di^yoi^ Ifa, 9. 6. which is to be fubjefted 
to our Saviour, and not to the Angels. In 
the fecond Chapter to the Helrewsy ver. 5. he 
fays For tinto the oAngels hath he ?iot fut in 
fiibjeaion the IVORUD TO COME ; So we 
read it, but, according to the ftricteft and 
plainer!: Tranflation, it fliould be The habita- 
ble Earth to cofne. Now what Earth is this, 
where our Saviour is abfolute Sovereign : and 
where the Government is neither Humane, 
nor Angelical, but peculiarly Theocratical ? 
In the firft Place, this cannot be the prefent 
World or the prefent Earth, becaufe the 
Apoftle calls it Fut7ire^ or the Earth to come. 
Nor can it be underftood of the Days of the 
Gofpel; feeing the Apoftle acknowledges, ver,%. 


Concerning the New Heavens^ he, loi 

That this fubjeaion, whereof he fpeaks, Is 
not yet made. And feeing Antichrift will not 
finally be deftroy'd till tlie appearance of our 
Saviour, {2Thej]\ i. 8.) nor Satan bound, while 
Antichriil is in Power : during the Reign of 
thefe two, (who are tlie Rulers of the darkneft 
of the World) our Saviour cannot properly be 
faid to begin his reign hQvcEphef.6. i2."'Tis true. 
He exercifes his Providence over his Church, 
and fecures it from being deftroy'd : He can, 
by a Power paramount, flop the rage either of 
Satan or Antichrift; Hitherto fl)aU)'OH go and 
710 further. As fometimes when he was upon 
Earth, he exerted a Divine Power, which 
yet did not deftroy his ftate of Humiliation ; 
lb he interpofes now when he thinks fit, but 
he does not finally take the Power out of the 
Hands of his Enemies, nor out of the Hands 
of the Kings of the Earth. The JQngdom Is 
7iot deliver'* d up to him^ and all dominion and 
Tower ; Ch. 7. ij, 25, 26. That ^iU To7tgues 
and Nations (l)ould ferve hijn. For St. Taul 
can mean no lefs in this Place than that King- 
dom in T)aniel : Hehr. 2. 8. Seeing he calls it 
flitting all things in [ubjeHion nnder his feet^ 
and fays that it is not yet done. Upon this 
account alfo, as well as others, our Saviour 
might truly {diytoTilate (Joh,iS.:^6,)my K/ng- 
dom is not of this World, And to his Difciples^ 
the Son of Man came not to he miniftred u7ito,, 
h:t to minifier^ Matt. 20. 28. When he 
comes to receive his Kingdom, he comes iu 
the Clouds of Heaven (^Dan. 7. 15, 14.) not 
in the Womb of a Viigin. He comes with 


2oii The Theory of the E a R t h.^ 

the equipage of a Kingr^nd Conqueror; witli 
Thoufands and ten Thoufands of Angels ; 
not in the Form of a Servant, or of a weak 
Infant ; as he did at his firft coming. 

I allow the Phrafe Mv /^i^x&)I/, or in the He^ 
Irew ^^Dn r:2b'^'S^ The World to come^ is fome- 
tinres usM in a large fenfe, as comprehending 
all the Days of the MeflTiah, whether at his 
Firft or Second coming, (for thefe two comings 
are often undiftingiiidiM in Scripture) and 
refpefl: the Moral World as well as the Natu- 
ral. But the Word o'lKdfxm^ Orhis halitahilis, 
which St. Taul here ufes, does primarily fignifie 
the Natural World, or the Habitahle Earth, 
in the proper ufe of the Word amongft the 
Greeks^ and frequently in Scripture, Ltike 4. 5. 
and 21. 26. Rom. lo. 18. Heh. 1.6. oA-poc,:^. 
10. Neither do we here exclude the Moral 
World, or the Inhabitants of the Earth, but 
rather neceffarily include them. Both the 
Natural and Moral World to come^ will be 
the Seat and Subjedof our Saviour's Kingdom 
and Empire, in a peculiar Manner. . But when 
you underftand nothing by this Phrafe but the 
-prefent 7noral Worlds it neither anfweis the 
proper fignification of />i^^>J^ nor of oUwXm^ of 
the firft or fecond Part of the expreffion ; And 
tho' fuch like Phrafes may be us'd for the Dif- 
penfation of the Meffiah in oppofition to that 
of the Law, yet the height of that diftinftion 
or oppofition, and the fulfilling of the expref- 
fion, depends upon the fecond coming of our 
Saviour ; and upon the Future Earth or habi-. 
table World, where he fliall P^eign, and 


Concerning the New Heavens^ Sec. 205 

which docs peculiarly belong to Him and His 

Neither can this World to come^ or this 
Earth to come^ be underftood of the Kingdom 
of Heaven. For the Greek word will not bear 
that fenfe, nor is it ever us'd in Scripture for 
Heaveft. Bcfides, the Kingdom of Heaven^ 
when fpoken of as future^ is not properly till 
the laft refurreftion and final judgment. 
Whereas This World to come^ which our Sa- 
viour is to govern, mufi: be before that Time, 
and will then expire. For all his Government, 
as to this World, expires at the Day of Judi^- 
ment, i Cor. 15. 24, gjfc. and he will then de- 
liver up the kingdom into the hands of his- Fa- 
ther ; that he may he all in all. Having reign- 
ed firfl: himfelf, and pit down all rule and all 
authority and power. So that St. Taul^ in 
thefe two Places of his Epiftles, refers plainly 
to the fame time and the fame reign of Chrift; 
which muft be in a future Worlds and before 
the lafi day of Judgment^ and therefore accord- 
ing to our deduftions, in the New Heavens 
and the New Earth. 


I ©4 The Theory of the E a r t h." 

Chap. III. 

Concerning the Inhalitants of the New Earth, 
That Natural Reafon cannot determine this 
foint. That according to Scripture \ The 
Sons of the fir ft Refurrection^ or the Heirs 
of the Millennium, are to be the Inhabit 
tants of the New Earth, The Tefiimojty 
of the Thilofo;pherSy and of the Chrifiian 
Fathers^ for the Renovation of the Worlds 
The fir ft Tro^ojition laid down, 

THUS we have fetled the true Notion, 
according to Reafon and Scripture, of 
the New Heavens and New Earth. But where 
are the Inhabitants, you'l fay ? You have taken 
the pains to make us a New World, and now, 
that it is made, it mud: ftand empty. When 
the firft World was deftroyed, there were 
Eight Perfons preferv'd, with a Set of Living 
Creatures of every kind, as a Seminary ou 
Foundation of another World ; But the Fire,, 
it feems, is more mercilefs than the Water ; 
for in this deftruftion of the World, it does 
• not appear that there is one living Soul left, of 
any fort, upon the Face of the Earth. Nq 
hopes of pofterity, nor of any continuation 
pf Mankind, in the ufual Way of propagation. 
And Fire is a barren Element, that breeds no 
living Creatures in it, nor hath any nourifli-; 
ment proper for their food or fuftenance. 

Concerning the New Heavens^ Src. loS 

We are perfectly at a lofs therefore, fo far 
as I fee, for a new Race of Mankind, or how 
to People this new-form'd World. The In- 
habitants, if ever there be any, muft either 
come from Heaven, or fpring from the Earth: 
There are but thefe two Ways. But natural 
Reafon can determine neither of thefe, fees 
no traO: to follow in thefe unbeaten Paths, nor 
can advance one ftep further. Farewel then, 
dear Friend, I muft take another Guide, and 
leave you here, as Mofes upon Mount Tifgahy 
only to look into that Land, which you cannot 
enter. I acknowledge the good fervice you 
have done, and wh^t a faithful Companion 
you have been, in a long journey ; from the 
beginning of the World to this hour, in atra(3: 
of Time of fix tlioufand Years. We have 
travePd together through the dark Regions 
of a firft and fecond Chaos ; feen the World 
twice fliipwrackt. Neither Water, nor Fire, 
could feparate us. But now you muft give 
Place to other Guides. 

Welcome, Holy Scriftures^ The Oracles of 
God, a Light fliining in darknefs, a Treafury 
of hidden Knowledge, and where Htimaiie 
Faculties cannot reach, a feafonable help and 
fupply to their defefts. We are now come to 
the utmoft bounds of their dominion : They 
have made us a New World, but, how it fliall 
be inhabited, they cannot tell ; know nothing 
of the Hiftory or Affairs of it. This we muft 
learn from other Mafters, infpir'd with the 
knowledge of Things to come. And fuch 
Mafters we know none, but the holy Prophets 


;'2c6 The Theory of the V. k^t h. 

and Apoflles. We muft therefore now put 
our felves wholly under their Conduft and 
Inftruction, and from them only receive our 
information concerning the moral ftate of the 
future habitable Earth. 

In the firft place therefore, The Prophet 
Ifaiah tells us, as a Preparation to our further 
Enquiries, The Lord God created the Heavens j 
God himfelf that formed the Earthy He created 
it not in vahi^ he formed it to he inhabited^ 
Ifa. 45. 18. This is true, both of the prefent 
Earth and the Future^ and of every habitable 
World whatfoever. For to what purpofe is it 
made habitable, if not to be inhabited ? That 
would be, as if a Man fliould manure, and 
and plough, and every way prepare his Ground 
for Seed, but never fow it. We do not build 
Houfes that they fliould ftand empty, but look 
out for Tenants as fall: as we can ; as foon as 
they are made ready, and become Tenantable. 
But if Man could do things in vain and with- 
out Ufe or Defign, yet God and Nature never 
do any thing /;/ vain ; much lefs fo great a 
Work as the making of a World ; which if 
it were in vain, would comprehend ten thou- 
fand Vanities or ufelefs Preparations in it. 
We may therefore in the firft place, fafely con- 
clude, That the New Earth will he inhabited. 

But hy 'whom wili it he inhabited? This 
makes the Second Enquiry. St. Teter anfwers 
this Queftion for us, and with a particular Ap- 
plication to this very SubjeQ: of the New Hea- 
vens and New Earth. They fhall be inha« 
bited, he fays, by the Ju/l or the Righteous. 


Concerning the New Heavens^ Sec. 207 

His Words which we cited before, are thefe. 
When he had defcrib'd the Conflagration of the 
a New Earth, WHEREIN T)f4^ELLETH 
R IGHTEOUSNESS. By Righteoujnefs 
here, it is generally agreed, mufl: be underftood 
Righteous Perfons : For Righteoufnefs cannot 
be without righteous Perfons. It cannot hang 
upon Trees, or grow out of the Ground ; 'Tis 
the Endowment of reafonable Creatures. And 
thefe Righteous Perfons are eminently fuch, and 
therefore c^allM Righteoufnefs in the Abftraft, 
or purely Righteous without mixture of Vice. 
So we have found Inhabitants for the New 
Earth, Perfons of an high and noble Chara- 
fter. Like tho,fe defcribM by St. Teter^ 
(i Eph. 2. 9.) qA chofen generation^ a Royal 
^riefthood^ an Hoh Nation, a feculiar Teople, 
As it into that World, as into St. John'^s New 
Jerujalem, nothing impure or unrighteous was 
to be admitted, oApoc, 21 27. Thefe being 
then the happy and holy Inhabitants; The 
next Enquiry is. Whence do they come ^ From 
what Off-fpring, or from what Original ? We 
noted before, that there was no Remnant of 
Mankind left at the Conflagration, as there 
was at the Deluge ; nor any hopes of a Refl:au- 
ration that way. Shall we then imagine that 
thefe New Inhabitants are a Colony wafted 
over from feme neighbouring World ; as from 
the Moon, or Mercury, or ibme of the higher 
Planets. You may imagine what you pleafe, 
but that feems to me not imaginary only, but 
impradicable : And that the Inhabitants of 


io6 The Theory of the Earth* 

thofe Planets are Perfons of to great Accom- 
pliHiments, is more than I know ; but I am 
fure they are not the Perfons here underftood ; 
for thefe nnufl: be fuch as inhabited this Earth 
before. \V E look for New Heavens and 
New Earth, fays the Apoflle : Surely to have 
fome Share and Intereft in them ; otherwife 
there would be no Comfort in that ExpeQa- 
tion. And the Prophet Jfaiah faid before, I 
create New Heavens and a New Earth, and 
the former fliall come no more into Remem- 
brance : But be TO U glad and \e]oyce for 
ever in that which I create. The Truth is, 
none can have fo good Pretenfions to this Spot 
of Ground we call the Earth, as the Sons of 
Men, feeing they once poffefs'd it : And if it 
be reftor'd again, 'tis their Propriety and Inhe- 
ritance. But 'tis not Mankind in general that 
muft poflefs this New World, but the Jfrael of 
Godj according to the Prophet Jfaiah ; or the 
jF///?, according to St. Teter ; and efpecially 
thofe that have fuffer'd for the fake of their 
Religion. For this is that Tali?igenefia^ as 
we noted before, that Re7iovation^ or Rege7ie- 
ration of all things, w^here our Saviour fays, 
Thofe that fuffer Lofs for his fake, fliall be 
recompenced. Matt, 19. 28, 29. 

But they muft then be raifed from the Dead. 
For all Mankind was deftroyed at the Con- 
flagration ; and there is no Refource for 
them anv other way, than by a Refurre* 
aion. 'Tis true : and St. John ' ( oAfoc. 20. ) 
gives us a fiiir Occafion to make this Suppofi- 
tion, That there will be fome raifed from the 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. 1209 

Dead, before the General Day of Judgm-ar. 
For he plainly diftinguifheth of a Firft and o^'- 
cond RefurreSion, and makes the Firft to i)e 
a Thoufand Years before the Second, and be- 
fore the General Day of Judgment. Now, if 
there be truly and really a two-fold Refurre- 
Gion, as St. "John tells us ; and that a Thou- 
fand Years diftance from one another ; It may 
be very rationally prefum'd. That thofe that 
are raifed in the firft RefurreStion, are thofe 
Jitfi that will inhabit the New Heavens and 
New Earth \ or whom our Saviour promised 
to reward in the Renovation of the World. 

For otherwife, who are thofe Juft that fhall 
inhabit the New Earthy and whence do they 
come ? Or when is that Reftauration which 
our Saviour fpeaks of, wherein thofe that fuf. 
fer'd for the fake of the Gofpel fhall be reward- 
ed ? St. John iays, the' Martyrs^ at this firft 
Refurreftion, fhall live again and reign with 
Chrift. Which feems to be the Reward pro- 
mised by our Saviour, to thofe that fuffer'd for 
his fake : and the fame Perfons in both Places. 
Q^ind I faw the Souls of them (fays St. Johfi) 
that were beheaded for the witnefs of ^efus^ 
and for the Word of God : and which had not 
worfln^^ed the "Beaft^ &c. a?id They lived a?id 
reigned with Chrift a thoufaudycars^ Apoc. 20. 
4. Thefe, I fay, feem to be the fame Perfons 
to whom Chrift had before promised and ap- 
propriated a particular Reward. And this 
Reward of theirs, or this Reign of theirs, is 
upon Earth ; upon fome Earth, new or old, 
not in Heaven. For, befides that, we read 

Book IV. P no- 

12 10 The Theory of the E a r t n. 

nothing; of their Afcenfion into Heaven after 
their Refurredion : There are feveral Marks 
that fhew, it mufl: neceffarily be underftood of 
a State upon Earth. For Gog and Magog 
came from the Four Quarters of the Earthy 
and befieged the Cam^ of the Saints^ and the 
beloved Citx^Wtw (). That Camp and that 
City therefore were upon the Earth. And 
fire came down from Heaven a7id devoured 
them. If it came down from Heaven, it came 
upon the E-^rth. Furthermore, thofe Perfons 
that are rais'd from the 'Dead^ are faid to be 
7riefis of God and of Chrifi., and to reign with 
him a thonfand years^ Ver. 6. Now thefe 
mu1:bethe fame Perfons with the Triefis and 
Kjngs^ mentioned in the Fifth Chapter, ver. lo. 
which are there faid exprefiy to reign u^on 
Earthy or that they fhould reign upon Earth. 
It remains therefore only to determine, What 
Earth this is, where the ^ons of the fir fl Re^ 
furreHion will live and reign. It cannot be 
the prefent Earth, in the fame State, and un- 
der the fime Circumftances it is now. For 
what Happinefs or Privilege would that 
be, to be call'd back into a Mortal Life, 
under the Neceffitics and Inconveniencies of 
fickly Bodies, and an incommodious World ? 
fuch as the prefent ftate of Mortality is, and 
muft continue to be, till fome Change be made 
in Nature. We may be fure therefore, that a 
Change v/ill be made in Nature, befo-e that 
Time, and that the State they are rais'd into, 
and the Earth they are to inhabit, will be, at 
leaft, ^aradijlacal : And confequently can be 


Concerning the New Heavens ^ Src. 2u 

no other tha n the New Heavens and New Earthy 
which weare to cxpeQ: after the Conflagration. 
Fro:n thefc Confiderations, there is a great 
Fairnefs to conclude, both as to the Charaflers 
of the Perfons, and of the Place or State, that 
t\\dit the Sons of the firfi Refurrettiou, will be 
Inhabitants of the New Earthy and reign 
there with Chrift a Thoufand Years. But 
feeing this is one of the principal and peculiar 
Conclufions of this Difcourfe, and bears a great 
Part in this laft Book of the Theory of the 
Earth, it will defer v^e a more full Explication, 
and a more ample Proof, to make it out. We 
mull: therefore take a greater compafs in our 
Difcourfe, and give a full Account of that 
State which is ufually caird the Mille?inimn : 
The Reign of the Saints a Thoufand Years, 
or the Kingdom of Chrift upon Earth. But 
before we enter upon this new Subjefl, give 
me leave to ciofe our prefent Argument, about 
the Renovation of the World^ with fome Te- 
ftimonies of the Ancient Philofophers, to that 
purpofe. 'Tis plain to me, that there were 
among the Antients feveral Traditions, or tra- 
ditionary Conclufions, which they did not 
raife themfelves, by Reafon and Obferva- 
tion, but received them from an unknown 
Antiquity. An Inftance of this is the Con- 
flagration of the World: A Doftrine, as 
ancient, for any thing I know, as the World 
it feif ; at leaft as ancient as we have any Re- 
cords : And yet none of thofe Ancients that 
tell us of it, give any Argument to prove 
it. Neither is it any wonder, for they did not 

P 2. invent 

212 The Theory of the E a r t h; 

invent it themfelves, but receiv'd it from others 
without Proof, by the fole Authority of Tra- 
dition. In like manner" the Renovation of the 
Worlds which we are now fpeaking of, is an 
ancient Doftrine, both amongft the Greeks 
and Eafiern Philofophers : But they fliew us 
no Method how the World may be review' d^ 
nor make any Proof of its future Renovation ; 
for it was not a Difcovery which they firfl: 
made, but receiv'd it with an implicit Faith, 
from their Mafters and Anceflors. And thefe 
Traditionary Doftrines were all Fore-runners 
of that Light that was to fliine more clearly 
at the opening of the Chriftian Difpenfation ; 
to give a more full Account of the Fate and 
Revolutions of the Natural World, as well as 
of the Moral. 

The 5"t^^j, 'tis well known, held the Re- 
novation of the World, and a Salbath after 
Six Thoufand Years; according to the Pro« 
phecy that was current among them ; 
whereof we have given a larger Acccount in 
in the precedent Book, Ch. 5. And that fu- 
ture State they call'd, ^?D^ CD^Piy^ Olam Hava^ 
or the World to come^ which is the very fame 
with St. TauPs Habitable Earth to come^ 
V o))t>.iJiivi} V //iM^ff-it, Heb. 2. 6. Neither can I 
eafily believe, that thofe Conftitutionsof M^^/Z^j- 
that proceed fo much upon a Septatiary^ or 
the number Seven^^nd have no Grounder Rea- 
fon, in the Nature of the Thing, for that par- 
ticular Number. I cannot eafily believe, I 
fay, that they are either accidental or humour- 
feme, without Defign or Signification. But 


Concerning the Nevo Heavens^ 8cc. 2 1 5 

riiat they are typical, or reprefentativeof Tome 
Seftenary State, that does eminently deferve 
and bear that Charaflier. Mofes^ in the Hi- 
ftory of the Creation, makes Six Days Work, 
and then a Sabbath. Then, after Six Years, 
he makes a Sabbath-year ; and after a Sabbath 
of Years, a Year of Jubilee, Levit. 25. All 
thefe leiTer Revolutions fecm to me to point at 
the grand Revolution, the great Sabbath or 
Jubilee^ after fix Millenaries ; which, as it 
anfwers the Type in point of Time, lb IiJ<e- 
wife in the Nature and Contents of it ; being 
a State of Reft from all Labour, and Trouble, 
and Servitude ; a State of Jov and Triumph ; 
and a State oi Renovo^tion^ when things are to 
return to their firft Condition and priftine 
Order. So much for the Jews, 

The Heathen Philofophers, both Greeks and 
*Barbarians^ had the fame DoQ:rine of the 
Renovation of the Worlds current amongft 
them, and that under feveral Names and 
Phrafes ; as of the Great Tear^ the Refiaiira^ 
tion^ the Mundarie Teriods^ and fuch-like. 
They fupposM ftated and fix'd Periods of Time, 
upon expiration w^hereof there would always 
follow fome great Revolution of the World, 
and the Face of Nature would be renew'd. 
Particularly after theConflagration, th^Stoicks 
always fupposM a new World to fucceed, or 
another Frame of Nature to be erected in the 
room of that which was deftroyed. And they 
ufe the fame Words and Phrafes upon this 
Occafion that Scripture ufeth. Chrjfiffus calls 
it oAl^ocaiafia/iSy {LattX 7. c. 23.) as St, Teter 

P 3 does, 

214 The Theory of the Earth. 

does, qAU. j. 21. Marcus eAnto/iii^^^ in his 
Meditations^ feveral times calls it Talinge^ 
nefia^ as our Saviour does, Mat, 19. 28. And 
Niimenius hath two Scripture- Words, Re fur - 
rettion and Reftitutio7t^ \_Eufeb, fr^ef, Eu. 1. 7. 
c. 2:^.] to exprefs this Renovation of the 
World, Then as to the Tlatonicks^ that Re- 
volution of all things hath commonly been 
call'd the "Platonick Year, as if Tlato had been 
the firll Author of that Opinion: But that's a 
great Miftake ; he receivM it from the "Barha- 
rick Philofophei*s, and particularly from the 
jEgjftia^/ Priefts, amongll whom he livd fe- 
veral Years, to be inftrufted in their Learn- 
ing. But I do not take Tlato rieither to be 
the firfl: that brought this Doctrine into Greece : 
For befides that, the Sihylls^ whofe Antiquity 
we do not well know, fung this Song of old, 
as we fee it copy'd from them by Virgil in his 
Fourth Eclogue. Tythagor^is taught it before 
Tlato : and Orpheus before them both. And 
that's as high as the Greek Philofophy reaches. 
The 'Barharick Philofophers were more an- 
cient ; namely, the Mgyftians^ Terfta?is^ ChaU 
deansy Indian 'Brackmans^ and other Eaftern 
Nations. Their Monuments indeed are in 
a great meafure loft ; yet from the remains of 
them which the Greeks have tranfcrib'd, and 
fo preferv'd, in their Writings, we fee plainly 
they all had this DoQrine of the Fntrire Reno- 
vation, And to this day the Pofierity of the 
'Brackmansin the Eafi- Indies^ retain the fame 
Notion, That the World will be renewed after 
the laft Fire. You may fee the Citations, if 


Concerning the New Heavens^ S^c. 21^ 
you pleafe, for all thefe Nations, in the Latin 
Treatifc, Ch. 5. which I thought would be 
too dry and tedious to berender'd into EngUffy. 
TothefeTeftimoniesof thePhilofophersof all 
Ages, for the Future Renovation of the World, 
we might add the Teftimonies of the Chri- 
ftian Fathers; Gr^^^' and Latin^ ancient and 
modern. I will only give you a bare Lift of 
them, and refer you to the Latin Treatife 
(Chap. 9.) for the Words or the Places. A- 
mongft the Greek Fathers, "Jt^flin Martyr, 
Iren^iis^ Orig€n\ The Fathers of the Cotmcil 
of IS! ice ^ Erfeliii^^ "bafil\ The two C)rils, o£ 
Jerr^fakm and oAlexandria-, The two Gre- 
forjSj A^azianzen and Ahjjen ; St. Chy-yfojfom^ 
Z^ichariiis Mitykjienfis ; and of later date, 
^Daniafcen^ Oecitmenim^ Eiith)mim^ and others. 
Thefe have all fet their Hands and Seals to this 
DoQrine. Of the Latin Fathers, Tertullian, 
Lattantiu/s^ St. Hilary^ St. oAmhrofe^ St. e4?/- 
fiin^ St 'Jerome ; and many later Ecclefiaftical 
Authors. Thefe, with the Philoibphers be- 
fore-mention'd, I count good Authority, Sa- 
cred and Prophane ; which I place here as an 
Out-guard upon Scripture, where our principal 
Force lies. Thefe three united and afting in 
Con)unaion,will be fufficient tofecure this firffc 
Poft, and to prove our firft Propofition, which 
is this ; That after the Co?ifIagrfition of this 
World, there will le New Heavens and a 
New Earth ; a7id that Earth will he inha- 
lited, (^Propof. I) 


2i6 The Theory of the E a r t h; 

Chap. IV. 

The "Proof of a Millennium, or of a "Elefed 
eAge to come^ from Scripture, cA View of 
the Apocalypfe, a?id of the Trophecies of 
Daniel, in reference to this Kj^gdom of 
Chrifi and of his Saints. 

WE have given fair Prefumptions, if not 
Proofs, in the precedent Chapter, That 
the bons of the firft Refurreftion will be the 
Perfons that fliall inhabit the New Earthy or 
the World to come. But to make that Proof 
compleat and unexceptionable, I told you, it 
would be neceflary to take a larger compafs in 
our Difcourfe, and to examine what is meant 
by Tbat Reign with Chrift a thotifand years ^ 
which is promis'd to the Sons of the fir[t Re^ 
furreaion ; by St. John m the oAfocalyffe ; 
and in other places of Scripture is ufually calPd 
the Kingdom ofLhrifi^ and the Reign of the 
Saints.^ And by Ecclefiallical Authors, in 
imitation of St. Jobn^ it is commonly ftyled, 
the Millennium. We fliall indifferently ufe 
any of thefe Words or Phrafes ; and examine, 
Firft, the Truth of the Notion and Opinion ; 
whether, in Scripture, there be any fuch an 
happy State promifed to the Saints under the 
ConduQ: of Chrift. And then we will pro- 
ceed to examine the Nature, Charafters, Place 
and Time of it. And I am in hopes^ when 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. 217 

thefe things are duly difcufs'd and ftated, you 
will be fatisfied that we have found out the 
true Inhabitants of the New Heavens and New 
Earth : and the true Myftery of that State 
which is called the Milkimium^ or the Reign 
of Chrift and of his Saints. 

We begin with St. ^ohn ; whofe Words, in 
the 20th Chapter of the oAfocaljffe^v^w i, 2, 
4, 5, 6, are exprefs, both as to the firfl: Re- 
furreQion, and as to the Reign of thofe Saints 
that rife with Chrift for a Thoufand Years: 
Satan in the mean time being bound, or diia- 
bled from doing Mifchief, and feducing Man- 
kind. The Words of the Prophet are thefe, 
eAnd I faw an oAngel come doum from Hea^ 
ven^ having the key of the lottomlefs fit, a?id 
a great chain in his hand, eAnd he laid hold 
on the T)ragon, that old Ser-pent, which is the 
TDevil and Sata7i ; ajid hound him a thoufand 
years, eAnd I faw Thrones, and they fat upon 
them, and judgment was give^i unto them : and 
I Jaw the Souls of them that were beheaded 
for the witnefs of Jefus, and for the word of 
God, and which had not worjlnffed the heafi^ 
neither his image, neither had received his 
mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands ; 
mid they lived and reigned with Chrift a thou- 
fand years. 'But the reft of the dead lived not 
again until the thoufand years were fjiif}}ed. 
This is thefirft Refurretiion. "Blejfed and holy 
is he that hath part in the fir ft Refurretiion : 
on fuch the jeco?id death hath no power, hut 
they fmllhe priefts of God, and of Chrift, and 
fmll reign with him a thoufa?id years. Thefe 


21 8 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Words do fullv exprefs a Refurreftion, and a 
Reign wirh Chrifi: a Thouiand Years. As for 
that parr.i:ular fpace of Time, of a thoufand 
years^ it is not much material to our prefent 
purpofe : but the Refurreftion here fpoken oi^ 
and the Reign with Chrift, make the fuhftance 
of the Coxitroverfy, and in effect pro^e all 
that we enquire after at prefent. This Re- 
furreCtion, you fee, is callM the Fir ft Rtfiir- 
rection^ by way of DiftinQion from the fecond 
and general RefurreQion ; which is to be placM 
a Thoufand Years after the Firft. And both 
thisFirft RefurreSion, and the Reign of Chrift, 
feem to be appropriated to the Martyrs in this 
Place. For the Prophet fays. The Souls ofthofe 
that were beheaded for thewitnefs ofjefus^ 8^c. 
They lived and reigned with Cbrijt a thou\and 
years. From which Words, if you pleafe, we 
will raife this Doctrine : That, thofe that have 
fufer^d for the fake of Chrifi and a good Con* 
fcience^ fjyall he ratfedfrom the dead a thoujand 
years before the general Reftirrectio/t^ and reign 
with Cbrift in an happy ftate. This Propofi- 
tion feems to be plainly included in the Words 
of St. John^ and to be the intended Senfe of 
this Vifion ; but you muft have patience a lit- 
tle as to your enquiry into Particulars, till, in 
the progrefsofour Difcourfe, we have brought 
all the pares of this Conclufion into a fuller light. 
In the meantime there is but one way, that 
I know of, to evade the Force of thefe Words, 
and of the Conclufion drawn from them ; and 
that is, by fuppofing that the Firfi Rejurre5iion 
here mentioned, is not to be underftood in a 


Concerning the A^ew Heavens^ S^c. 219 

literal Cenfe^ but is allegorical and myftical, 
fignifying only a Refarreftion from Sin to a 
Spiritual Life. As we are faid to be dead in 
fm^ and to htrifen i^-ith Cbriji^ by Faith and 
Regeneration. This is a manner of Speecli 
which St,Taul does fometimes ufe : as Eph. 2.6. 
and 5. 14. and Col. 5. i. But how can this 
be apply'd to the prefent Cafe ? Were the 
Marryrs dead in Sin ? 'Tis they that are here 
raised from the Dead. Or, after they were 
beheaded for the witnefs of Jefus, natu- 
rally dead and laid in their Graves, were 
tliey then regenerate by Faith ? There is no 
Congruity in Allegories fo applyM. Befides, 
Why fhould they be faid to be regenerate a 
Thoufand Years before the Day of Judgment? 
cr to reign with Chriii, after this Spiritual 
Reilirreftion, fuch a limited Time, a Thou- 
fand Years? Why not to Eternity? For in 
this allegorical fenfe ofrifing^nd reigning^ they 
will reign with him for everlalling. Then, 
after a Thoufand Years, muft all the Wicked 
be regenerate, and rife into a Spiritual Life? 
'Tis faid here, The reft of the Dead lived not 
a gain ^ until the thoufand years 's.'ere finifhed^ 
ver, 5. That implies, that at the end of thefe 
Thoufand Years, the reft of the Dead did live 
again ; wliich, according to the Allegory, 
muft be, that, after a Thoufand Years, all the 
Wicked will be regenerate, and raised into a 
Spiritual Life. Thefe Abfurdities arife upon 
an allegorical Expofition of this Refurreftion, 
ifapply'd to fingle Pcrfons. 


220 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

But Dr. Hammond^ a Learned and worthy 
Divine, (but one that loves to contraQ: and 
cramp the Senfe of Prophecies) making this 
Firft Refurrefllion allegorical, applies it not to 
fingle Perfons, but to the ftate of the Church 
in general ; The Chriftian Church, he fays, 
fhall have a Refurreftion for a Thoufand 
Years : that is, fbiall rife out of Perfecution, be 
in a profperous Condition, and an undifturb'd 
Profeflion of the true Religion, for fo long a 
Time. But this agrees with the Prophecy as 
little as the former ; If it be a State of the 
Church in general, and of the Church then in 
being, why is this Refurreftion apply'd to the 
Martyrs ? Why are they faid to rife ? feeing 
the ftate they liv'd in, was a troublefome ftate 
of the Church, and it would be no Happinefs 
to have that revived again. Then as to the 
Time of this Refurredion of the Church, 
where will you fix it ? The Prophet T>a?nel 
places this Reign of Chrift, at, or after the 
Diflblution of the Fourth Monarchy : and 
St. John places it a Thoufand Years before the 
laft Day of Judgment. How will you adjuft 
the Allegorical Refurrection of the Church to 
thefe Limits ? Or if, in point of Time, you 
was free, as to Prophecy, yet how would you 
ad|uft it to Hiftory ? Where will you take 
thefe Thoufand Years of Happinefs and Pro- 
Iperity to the Church? Thefe Authors fuppofe 
them paft, and therefore muft begin them ei- 
ther from the firft times of the Gofpel, or from 
the time of Conftantine, Under the firft Ages 
of the Gofpel, were, you know, the great Per- 


Concerning the New Heavens^ %cc. 221 

fecutions by the Heathen Emperors : Could 
thole be calFd the Reign of Chrift and of his 
Saints ? Was Satan then bound ? or was this 
Epocha but a Thoufand Years before the Day 
of Judgment? And if you begin this Refur- 
redion of the Church from the days of Con-- 
ftantine^ when the Empire became Chriftian, 
how will you reckon a Thoufand Years from 
that time, for the continuance of the Church 
in T^eace and Turity ? For the Reign of Chrift 
and of his Saints muft neceflarily imply both 
thofe Characters. Befides, w^ho are the refi 
of the T)ead^ (ver. 5.) that livM after the expi- 
ration of thofe thoufand Years, if they began at 
Confiantine ? And why is not the Second Re- 
furreftion and the Day of Judgment yet come ? 
Laftly, You ought to be tender ot interpreting 
the Firft Refurreftion in an Allegorical Senfe, 
left you expofe the Second Refurreftion to be 
made an Allegory alfo. 

To conclude. The Words of the Text are 
plain and exprefs for a literal Refurreftion, 
as to the Firft, as well as the Second ; and 
there is no Allegorical Interpretation that I 
know oi-^ that will hold through all the Par- 
ticulars of the Text, confiftently with it felf 
and with Hiftory. And when we fliall have 
provM this future Kingdom of Chrift from 
other places of the oApocal/pfey and of Holy 
Writ, you will the more eafily admit the li- 
teral Senfe of this Place ; which, you know, 
according to the received Rule of Interpreters, 
is never to be quitted or forfaken, without 
Necellity. But when I fpeak of confirming 


222 The Tbeorj of the E a r t h. 

this Dodrlne from other paffages of Scripture, 
I do not mean as to that definite time of a 
thovSandyears^ for that is no where el fe men- 
tioned in the Apocalypfe or in Scripture, thac 
I know of; and feems to be mention^ here, 
in this clofe of all things, to mind us of that 
type that wms propos'd in the beginning of all 
things, Of Six days and a Salhath. Wliere- 
of each Day comprehends a thoaland years, 
and the Sablath^ wdiich is the Millennial ftatey 
hath its thoufand. According to the know^a 
Prophecy of Elias^'Eook ^. ch. 5. which, as I 
told vou before, was not only receivM amongft 
the Jezm^ but alfo ownM by very many of the 
Chriftian Fathers. 

To proceed therefore to other part^^ of St. 
^ohn^s Prophecies, that fet forth this Kingdom 
of Chrift : The Vifion of the Seven Trumpets 
is one of the mod: remarkable in the Apoca- 
lypfe ; and the Seventh Trumpet, which plainly 
reaches to the End of the World, and the Re- 
furreftion of the Dead, opens the Scene to the 
Millemtitm, Hear the found of it. Ch, i r. 
15, T 6, 17, 18. The fevejith a/lngel founded^ and 
there were great voices in heaven^ l^y^^'^g-) The 
kingdoms of this World are lecome the kingdoms 
of our Lordj and of his Chrift^ and he jljaJl 
reign for ever and ever. Q,4nd the Four and 
Twenty Elders^ which [at before God on their 
SeatSj fell upon their Fa^es^ and worfnffed 
God: Sa)i7ig^ We give thee thanks^ Lord 
God oAlniigbty^ which art^ and waft^ and art to 
come \ lecaufe thou hafi taken to thee thy great 
^ower and hajl reigJied. oAnd the Nations 


Concerning the New Heavens^ Src. 225 

voere angr)\ and thy wrath is come^ and the 
time of the 'T>ead^ that they Jljould he judged^ 
and that thov (ioonldeft give reward unto thy 
fervants the TrophetSj and to the Saints^ and 
them that Fear thy Name^ [mall and great ^ and 
P)ouldeft deftroy them that deftroy the Earthy 
&c. This is m^nifeiHy the Kingdom of Chrift ; 
and with this is joyn'd the Refurreflrion of the 
Dead, and the rewarding of the fuffering Pro- 
phets and Saints ; as in the 20th. Chafer. 
This is that inyfterj of God that was to ie fi- 
nifl^'^din the days of the voice of the feventh 
eAngel^^s is faid in the 20th. Chap. ver. 7. eAs 
he hath declared to his fervants the Trofhets. 
Namely, the Myftery of this Kingdom, which 
was foretold by the Prophets of the Old Tefta- 
ment, and more efpecially by "Daniel^ as we 
fliall fee hereafter. 

Tlie New Jerufalem^ (^as it is let down, 
oAl'oc, 21.2, 5, 4, 5, 6, 7.) is another inftance or 
image of this Kingdom of Chrift. And th'e 
TaJm-learingCo?97pa7iy^ Chap. 7. 9, &c.arefome 
of the Martyrs that fhall enjoy it. They are 
plainly defcrib'd there as Chriftian Martyrs : 
fver. 14) And their reward, or the ftate of 
happinefs they are to enjoy, fver. 15, 16, 17.) 
is the fame with that of the Inhabitants of the 
New Jerr/Jalem : Ch. 21. 2, j, 4, &c. as, upon 
comparing thofe two Places, will eafily appear. 
Furthermore, at the opening of the Sealsy 
Chap. 5. which is another principal Vifion, 
and reaches to the end of the World, there is 
a profpcft given us of this Kingdom of Chrift, 
and of that reward of his Saints. For when 


224 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

they fing the new Song to the Lamb^ (ver. 9, 
10.) they fay. Thou art worthy to take the 
"Book J and to open the Seals thereof : For thou 
waft jlain and haH redeemed us to God^ ly thy 
'Blood. e.4nd has! made us unto our God Kjngs 
and Triefts : and we flrnU reign on the Earth. 
This niuft be the fame ftate, and the fame 
thoufand-y ears-reign mentioned in the 20th. 
Chapter Where 'tis faid, {zer. 6.) the par- 
takers of it fljall le Triefis of Gody and of 
Chrifty and Jhall reign with him a thoufand 

Another completory Vifion, that extends 
it felf to the end of the World, is that of the 
fevenVialsy Ch. 15, 1^ 16. And as at the 
opening of the Seals, fo at the pouring out of 
the Vials, a triumphal Song is fung, and 'tis 
caird the So7tg of Mofes and of the Lamhj ch. 1 5. 
5. 'Tis plainly a Song ofThankfgiving for aDe^ 
liverance:butl donot look upon this Deliverance 
as already wrought, before the pouring out of 
the Vials, though it be placM before them ; as 
often the grand defign and ilTue of a Vifion is 
placM at the beginning. It is wrought by the 
Vials themfelves, and by their effufion, and 
therefore upon the pouring out of the laft Vial, 
The Voice came out of the Temple of Hea- 
ven, from the Throne, faying, Confummatum 
eft : It is do7ie. ch. 1 6. 1 7. Now the Deh verance 
is wrought, now the Work is at an end, or, 
The myftery of God is finifFd^ as the Phrafe was 
before, concerning the qth Trumpet: Ch. 10. j. 
You fee therfore this terminates upon the fame 
Time^ and confequently npon the fame ftate, 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. 22^ 

of the Mi]le7i7iium, And that they are the 
fame Perfons that Triumph here, and reign 
there, Ch. 20. You may fee by the fame Cha- 
rafters given to both of them, ch. 1 5. 2. Here, 
thofe that triumph, are faid to have gotten the 
vitiory over the Bead:, and over his Image, 
a?id over his mark^ and over the tiumltr of his 
name^ ch. 20.4. And there, Thofe that reign 
with Chriit, are faid to be thofe that haa not 
worfloiffedtbe'Beaft^neitherhis image^ neither 
had received his mark u^on their foreheads^ 
or in their hands, Thefe are the flime Perfons 
therefore, triumphing over the fame Enemies, 
and enjoying the fame reward. 

And you fhall feldom find any T)oxologyox: 
Hallelujah in the Apocalypfe, but 'tis in prof- 
peel of the Kingdom of Chrift, and the il//7- 
lennial ftate. That is ftill the burthen of the 
Sacred Song, The complement of every grand 
Vifion, and the Life and ftrength of the whole 
Syftem of Prophecies in that Book. Even 
thofe Hallelujah'^ sth^t2ivc{ung^t the deftruftion 
of 'Bahylonj in the igth Chapter, ver. 6^ 7. 
are rais'd upon the fucceeding ftate, the Reign 
of Chri/L For the Text fays, oAnd I heard as 
it were a voice of a great imdtitude^ and as the 
Voice of ma?iy Waters^ and as the Voice of 
mighty thunders^ faying^ Hallelujah. FOR THE 
ETH. Let us he t^lad and re]o\ce and^ive 
honour to him: FOR THE MARRIAGE 
DY. This appears plainly to be the New Je^ 

Book IV. Q, rujalem 

126 The Theory of the E a r t h* 

rtifalem^ if you confult the 2\ft. ch. ver, 2. 
eAnd I Johu faw the Holy City^ Nevo Jerufa- 
lem^ coming down from God out of Heaven^ 
FOR HER HUSBAND. 'Tis, no doubt, 
the fame Bride and Bridegroom, in both Pla- 
ces ; the fame Marriage or preparations for 
Marriage ; which are compleated in the Mil- 
lennial blifs, in the Kingdom of Chrift and of 
his Saints. 

I mufl: flill beg your patience a little longer, 
in purfuing this argument throughout the Apo- 
calypfe. As towards the latter end of St. JohfPs 
Revelation this Kingdom of Chrift fliines out 
in a more full glory, fo there are the dawnings 
of it in the very beginning and entrance into 
his Prophecies. As at the beginning of a Poem, 
we have commonly in a few Words the defign 
of the Work, in like manner <;/?. i. 5, 6. St. 
John makes this Preface to his Prophecies, From 
Jefus Chrift^ who is the faithful JVitnefs^ the 
ftrfi legotten of the dead^ and vhe Trince of the 
Kjngs of the Earth : unto him that loved //x, 
and wafbed us from our fins in his ovon hlood : 
eAnd hath made us Kjngs and Triefis unto God 
and his Father \to him he glory and dominion for 
ever and ever^ Q,4men. 'Behold, he comet h in 
the Clouds, &c. In this Prologue the grand 
argument is pointed at, and that happy Ca- 
taftrophe and laft Scene which is to crown the 
Work: The Reign of Chrift and of his Saints 
at his fecond coming. He hath made us KJfigs 
and Triefts unto God : This is always the Cha- 
raderiftick of thofe that are to. enjoy the Mil- 

Concerning the New Heavens^ Src. 227 

lennial Happinefs, as you may fee at the open- 
ing of the Seals, ch. 5. 10. and in the Sons 
of the Fir ft Re furred ion, ch. 20. 6. And this 
being joyned to the coming of our Saviour, 
puts it /till more out of doubt. That exprefflon 
alfo, of being w^y7;f from our fins in his llood^ 
is repeated again both at the opening of the 
Seals, Qha^, 5. 9. and in the 'V aim-bearing 
Company, Cha-p. 7, 14. both which Places 
we have cited before as referring to the Millen- 
nial State. 

Give me leave to add further, that as in this 
general Preface, fo alfoin the Introduftory vi- 
fions of the Seven Churches^ there are, covert- 
ly or expredy, in the conclufion of each, glances 
upon the Millennium^ As in the firft to Ephe/usy 
the Prophet concludes, ch, 1. 7. He that hath an 
ear^ let him hear, what the Sprit fays to the 
This is the Millennial happinefs which is pro- 
mifed to the Conqueror ; as we noted before 
concerning that Phrafe. In like manner in the 
fecondto Smyrna^ He concludes : ch. 2. i r. He 
that overcometh, (ball ?iot be hurt of the Second 
""Death. This implies, he fhall be partaker of 
the firfl RefurreBion^ for that's the Thing 
underftood ; as you may fee plainly by their 
being joyn'd in the loth ch. ver. 6. 'Blejfed 
arid holy is he that hath fart in the firft Refur- 
retiion: on fuch the fecond death hath no fow- 
er : but they fiall be Triefts of God and of 

Q, 2 Chrifl^ 

228 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Chrift^ and ffmll reign with him a thoufand years. 
In the -^d to Tergamns^ the promise is, ch. 2. 7. 
to eat of the hidden Manna^ to have a white 
ftone^ and a nevo name written in it. Bat fee- 
ing the Prophet adds, wbicld no man \noweth 
paving he that receiveth it^ we will not pre fume 
to interpret that new ftate, what foe ver it is. 
ch. 2. 16, 27. In Tbjatira^ the reward is. To 
have Tower over the Nations^ and to have the 
Morning Star. Which is to reign wirh Chrift, 
who is the Morning Star, in his Millennial 
Empire: both thefe Phrafes being usM in that 
fenfein the Clofe of this Book. ch. ^. 5. In Sar^ 
dis the promife is, To he clothed in white rat- 
menty and not to he hlotted out of the "hook of 
Lif^. And you fee afterwards the Taim-hearing 
Company are clothe. d in ivhite rohes ; cb, 7. 9, 
1:4. and thofe that are admitted into the Mijy 
Jerufalem^ ch. 5. 12. are fuch as are writteji 
in the Lamh'^s hook of Life^ Ch. 21. 27. Then 
as to TIjiladelphiaj the reward prom.ifed there 
does openly mark the Millennial ftate, by the 
City of God, New 'Jerusalem which cometh 
down Ota of Heaven from God: comparM with 
Chap. 21. z. Laftly, to the Church of L^<5^/- 
cea is (siidj ch. 3. 21. To him that over cometh 
will I grant to jit with me in my Throne. And 
that is the ufual phrafe to exprefs t!ie dignity of 
thofe that reign with Chrift, in his Millennial 
Kingdom : as you may fee, oApoc. 2c. 4. Mat. 
19. 28. 'Dan.-] 9, 15, 14. So all thefe promiies 
to the Churches aim at one and the fame Thing, 
and terminate upon the fame point ; 'Tis 
the fame reward exprefs'd m different Ways ; 


' Concerning the New Heavens^ Sfc. 229 
and feeing 'tis ftill fixt upon a viflory, and 
appropriated to thofe that overcome, it does the 
more eaflly carry our thoughts to the MUleu^ 
ni74?n^ wliich is the proper reward of Vitlors, 
that is, of Martyrs and ConfefTors. 

Thus you fee how this notion and myftery 
of the Millennial Kingdom of Chrift, does both 
begin and end che oApocalypfe^ and run tho- 
rough all i^s Parrs : As the' Soul of that Body 
of P'ophecics : A Spirit or ferment that actu- 
ates the whole mats. And if we could tho- 
rough'y underftand that illuftrious Scene at the 
opening of this Apocalyptical Theatre in the 
^h ard f^th Chap. I do not doubt but we 
fho'-^ld find it a Reprefentation of the M^i- fty 
of our Saviour in rhe G^ory of his future King- 
dom. But I dare not venture upon the expli- 
cation of it, there are \o many things of dijfli- 
cult and dubious irterpretation, coucht under 
thofe Schemes, Wherefore having made rhefe 
obfervntions upon the Prophecies of St. John^ 
we will now add to them fome reflcftions upon 
the Prophecies of 'Vanid. That by the a- 
greement and concurrence of thefe two great 
Witnefles, the Conclufion we pretend to prove, 
may be fully eftablillicd. 

In the Prophecies of T)aniel there are two 
grand Vifions, that 'of the Statute or Image, 
Chap. 2. and that of the four Beafts, Chap, 7. 
And both thefe Vifions terminate upon the 
Millennium^ or the Kingdom of Chrift. In 
the Vifion of the Statute, reprefenting to us 
the four great Monarchies, of the Worl \ fuc- 
ceffively, (whereof, bv the general confent of 

Q, J Inter- 

sjo The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Interpreters, The Roman is the fourth and 
laft) after the DifTolution of thelaft of them, 
a fifth Monarchy, the Kingdom of Chrift, is 
openly introduced, in thefe Words ; oAnd in 
the days of thefe kt7Jgdoms^ flmll the God of 
heaven fet wp a kingdom j which jhall 7tever le 
defiroyed^ and the kingdom (hall not he left to other 
feofje^ hut it (hall Ireak in fieces^ and confume 
all thofe kingdoms^ and it fhall ft and for ever^ 
Chap, 2. ver. 44. This may be verified, in fome 
meafure, by the firft coming of our Saviour 
in the days of the fourth Kingdom ; when his 
Religion from fmall beginnings, in a fliort time 
over-fpread the greateft part of the known 
"World. As thQ /lone cut out without hands ^ 
became a great mountain and filled the whole 
'Earthy ver. ^4, 55. But the full and final ac- 
complifhment of this Pi'ophecy cannot be till 
the fecond coming of our Saviour. For not till 
then will he, 7;fr. 35. hreak infieces afid confume 
all thofe kingdoms ; and that in fuch a man?ier^ 
that they fhall hecome like the chaff of the Sum- 
mer thre(l}ing' -floor ^ carried awayhy the wind : 
fo as no flace Jhall he found for them. This, I 
fay, will not be done, nor an everlafting King* 
dom erected in their place, over all the Na- 
tions of the Earth, till his Second Coming, and 
his Millennial Reign. 

But this Reign is declared more exprefly, 
in the Vifion of the four Beafts, Ch. 7. ver, i j. 
For after the Deftruftion of the Fourth Beaft, 
the Prophet fays, / faw in the nighty Vifions^ 
and hehold one like the Son of man^ came with 
the clouds of he ave'd^ and came to the oAncient 


Concerning the New Heavens y &c. 2ji 

of days y and they brought him near lefore him : 
oAni there no as given him dotymtion^ andglorj^ 
and a kingdom^ that all people, nations and 
languages (Ijordd ferue him : His dominion is 
an everlafting dominion, which Jhall not fafs 
away : and his kingdom that which fl^all not 
he defiroyed, Accoi'dingly, he fays, ver. 21,22. 
The laft 'Beaft and the little Horn made war 
againft the faints, mitil the oAncient of days 
came, and judgment was given to the Saints of 
the moft High ; and the the time came that the 
Saints pofejjed the kingdom. - ' And lallly, in 
purlliit ftill of the fame Argument, he con- 
cludes to the fame eftedin fuller Words, ver. 26. 
27. 'But the Judgment pall fit, and they fl;aU 
take away his dominion, to confume a7id to de^ 
flroy it unto the end. oAnd the kingdom and 
doininion, and the greatnefs of the kingdom un^ 
der the whole heaven, fmll he given to the feo- 
fie of the Saints of the moft High : whofe king- 
dom is an everlafting kingdo?ii, and all dotni^ 
nions fhallferve and obey hi?;i. 

Here is the end of the ^natter, fays the 
Prophet, Ch. 7. ver. 28. Ch. 12. ver. ij. 
Here is the upfliot and refult of all : Here 
terminate both the Prophecies of T)a?iiel and 
St. John, and all the Affairs of the Terre- 
ftrial World. 'Daniel brings in this King- 
dom of Chrift, in the conclufion of two or 
three Vifions ; but St. John hath interwoven 
ic every where with his Prophecies, from tirft 
to laft. And you may as well open a Lock 
without a Key, as interpret the oApocalypfe 
without the Millennium. But after thefe two 

Q. 4 S^-eat 

2J2 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

great Witneffes, the one for the Old Teftament, 
the other for the New, we muft look inio the 
reft of the Sacred Writers ; for tho' every fin- 
gle Author there is an Oracle, yet the Con- 
currence of Oracles is ftill a further Demon- 
ftration, and takes away all remains of Douhir 
or Incredulity, 

r- Ch A p . V. 

nA View of other -places of Scripture C07tcer7itng 
the Mtilenmum or future Kjngdorn of Chrift. 
In what Senfe all the Tropbets have lorne 

■ Tefcimony concerning it. 

fTn H E Wife of Zsledee came to our Sa. 
' j^ viour, and begg'd of him, like a fond 
Mother, that her two Sons might fit, one at 
his Right Hand, the other at his Left, when 
he came into his Kingdom, Mat. 20. 21. Our 
Saviour does not deny the Suppofition, or ge- 
neral Ground of her Requeft, that (6^ was to 
have a Kjngdom \ but tells her, The Honours 
of that Kingdom were not then in his DifpofaL 
He had not drunk his Cup, nor been baptized 
with his laft Baptifm : which were Conditions, 
both to him and others, of entring into that 
Kingdom. Yet, in another place, (JAat. 19, 
28.) our Saviour is fo well affar'd of his Intereft 
and Authority there^ by the Good-will of his 


Concerning the New Heavens^ 8rc.' 2 jj 

Father, that he promifes to his Difciples and 
Followers, that for the Loffes they fliould 
fuftain here, upon his account, and for the fake 
of his Gofpel, they flioulci receive there an 
hundred-fold ; and fit upon Thrones with him, 
judging the Tribes oHiraeL The Words are 
thefe; oAnd Jefus faid rinto them^ verily I jay 
unto you^ that ye which have followed me^ in 
the Regeneration or Renovation, wheji the 
Son of man fl) ail fit in the Throne of his Glory ^ 
ye alfo (Jmll fit ti^on twelve Thrones^ i^^g^^g 
the twelve Tribes of Ifrael Thefe Thrones, 
in all reafon, muft be underftood to be the 
fame with thofe which we mentioned in the 
foregoing Chapter out of T)aniel 7. 9. and 
eAfocal. 20. 4. and therefore mark the fame 
Time and the fame State. And feeing, in 
thofe Places, they plainly fignifiedthe Millennial 
State, or the Kingdom of Chrift and of his 
Saints, they muft here fignifie the fame, in 
this Promife of our Saviour to his fuffering Fol- 
lowers. And as to the Word Talinge?iefia^ 
which is here tranflated Regeneration^ 'tis 
very well known, that, both the Greek Phi- 
lofophers, and Greek Fathers, ufe that very 
Word for the Renovation of the World : which 
is to be, as we (hall hereafter make appear, 
at or before the Millennial State. 

Our Saviour alfo, in his Divine Sermon up- 
on the Mount, makes this one of his "Beati- 
tudes^ 'Blejfed are the Meek, for they Jhall in^ 
herit the Earth. But how^ I pray, or where^ 
or wben^ do the Meek inherit the Earth ? nei- 
ther at prefent, I am fure, nor in any part 


!^ J4 1"^^ Theory of the E a r t h." 

Ages. 'Tis the Great Ones of the World, am- 
bitious Princes and Tyrants, that flice the 
Earth amongft them : and thofe that can flatter 
them beft, or ferve them in their Interefts or 
Pleafures, have the next beft Shares. But a 
meek, modeft and humble Spirit, is the mod 
unquaUfied Perfon that can be for a Court, or 
a Camp ; to fcramble for Preferment, or Plun- 
der. Both He, and his felf-denying Notions, 
are ridicurd, as things of no Ufe, and pro- 
ceeding from Meannefs and Poornefs of Spirit, 
T)avidj who was a Perfon of an admirable De- 
votion, but of an unequal Spirit ; fubjefl: to 
great Dejeftions, as well as Elevations of Mind ; 
was fo much affected with the Profperity of 
the Wicked in this World, that he could fcarce 
forbear charging Providence with Injuftice. 
You may fee feveral touches of a repining Spi- 
rit in his Pfalms : and in the 73d Tjalm, cortl^ 
posM upon that Subjeft, you have both the 
Wound and the Cure. Now this Beatitude 
pronouncM here by our Saviour, was fpoken 
before by David^ Tfal. 57. 11. The fame 
*David th^it was always fo fenfible of the hard 
Ufage of the Juft in this Life. Oar Saviour 
alfo, and his Apoftles, preach'd the Doftrine 
of the Crofs every where, and foretel the Suf- 
ferings that fhall attend the Righteous in this 
World. Therefore neither David^ nor our 
Saviour, could underftand this biberitance of 
the Earthy otherwife than of fome future State, 
or of a State yet to come. But as it muft be 
a future State, fo it muft be a Terreftrial State; 
for it could not be call'd the Uheritance of the 


Concerning the New Heavens^ S^c. 2^5 

Earthy if it was not fo. And 'tis to be a State 
of Teace^ as well as Tlenty^ according to the 
Words of the Tfalmift^ But the meek (haU in- 
herit the Earthy and fludl delight themfelves 
in the alundance of feace. It follows there- 
fore from thefe PremilTes, that, both our Sa- 
viour, and David^ mull: underftand fome fu- 
ture State of the Earth, wherein the Meek will 
enjoy both Peace and Plenty. And this will 
appear to be the future Kingdom of Chrift, 
when, upon a fuller Defcription, we fhall have 
given you the Marks and Charaders of it. 

In the mean time, why fhould we not fup- 
pofe this Earth, which the Meek are to inhe- 
rit, to be that habitable Earth to come^ which 
St. "Paul mentions (Hebr, 2. 6.) and reprefents 
as fubjecl to our Saviour in a peculiar Manner, 
at his Difpofal and under his Government, as 
his Kingdom ? Why fliould not that Earth be 
the fabieO: of this Beatitude, the promised 
Land, the Lot of the Righteous ? This I am 
fure of, that both this Text and the former 
deferve our ferious Thoughts ; and tho' they 
do not exprefly, and in Terms, prove the fu- 
ture Kingdom of our Saviour, yet upon the 
faireft Interpretations they imply fuch a State, 
And it will be very uneafie to give a fatistafto- 
ry Account, either of the Rege^ieration or Re^ 
novation^ when our Saviour and his Difciples 
fhall fit upon Thrones: Or of that Earth 
which the Meek Jhall inherit : Or, laftly, of 
that Habitable Worlds which is peculiarly fub- 
jed to the Dominion of Jefus Chrifl:, without 
fuppofing, on this fide Heaven, fome other 


'i^^ The Theory of the E a r t u. 

Reign of Chrill: and his Saints, than what we 
fee, or what they e- joy, at prefent. 

But to proceed in this Argument ; It will be 
necsiTary, as I toM you, to fet down fbme 
Notes and Characters of this Reign of Chrift 
and of his Saints, whereby it may be diftin- 
guifhM from the prefent State and prefent 
Kingdoms of the World. And thefe Chara- 
cters are chiefly three, Juftke^ Teace, and 
T)ivine Trefeuce or ConduQ:, which ufes to 
be called Toeocra/le. By thefe Characters it 
is fuSiciently diftinguidi'd from the Kingdoms 
of this World ; which are generally unjnft in 
their Titles or Exercife,fl:ainM with Blood ; and 
fo far from being under a particular Divine 
Conduft, that humane Paffions and humane 
Vices, are the Springs that commonly give mo- 
tion to their greateft Defigns. But more par- 
ticularly and rertrainedly, the Government of 
Chrift, is opposM to the Kingdom and Govern- 
ment of Antirhrift, whofe Characters are dia- 
metrically oppofite to thefe, being I/ijuflke^ 
Cruelty^ and otimane or diabolical ^Artifices, 

Upon this fliort View of the Kingdom of 
Chrilt, let us make enquiry after it amongil 
the Prophets of the Old Teftament. And we 
fhall find, upon Examination, that there is 
fcarce any of them, greater or leffer, but take 
notice of this myfl:ical Kingdom ; either ex- 
prefly, or under the Types oilfrael^ Sioji^ Je^ 
rujalem^ and fiach-like. And therefore I am 
apt to think, that when St. Teter^ in his Ser- 
mon to the "Jeujos, otitis 3. fays, All the holy 
Prophets fpoke of 77?^ Reftitution of all things^ 
he does not mean the Renovation of the World 


Concerning the New Heavens^ Src 237 

fep^rately from the Kingdom of Chrift, but 
complexly, as it may imply both. For there 
are not many of the old Prophets that have 
fpoken of the Renovation of the Natural 
World but a great many have fpoken of the 
Renovation of the Moral, in the Kingdom of 
Chrift. Thefe are St. Teter's Words, oAH. j. 
19, 20, 21. Repent ye therefore and he con-- 
verted, that your fins may le blotted out, when 
the times of refrejhing (Imll come from the -pre- 
fence of the Lord. oAnd he fimll fend "Jefus 
Chrift which before was f reached unto ye : 
whom the heavens muft receive until the times 
The Apoftle here mentions three Things, The 
Times of refrefhing, The Second Coming of 
our Saviour, And the Times of Reftitution of 
all things. And to the laft of thefe he imme- 
diately fubjoins, which God hath fpoken by the 
mouth of all his holy Trophets, fince the world 
legan. This Reftitution of all things, I fay, 
muft not be underftood abftraflly from the 
Reign of Chrift, but as in conjunfliion with it ; 
and in that fenfe, and no other, it is the gene- 
ral SubjeQ: of the Prophets. 

To enter therefore into the Schools of the 
Prophets, and enquire their Senfe concerning 
this Myftery, let us firft addrefs our felves to 
the Prophet IJaiah, and the Royal Prophet 
"David \ who feem to have had many noble 
Thoughts or Infpirations, upon this Subjeft. 
IJaiah, in the 65th Chapter, from the 17th 
Verfe to the end, treats upon this Argument ; 
and joins together the Renovation of the Na- 

228 The Theory of the Earth; 

tural and Moral World ; as St. Teter^ in the 
place fore-mention'd, feems to do. And ac- 
cordingly the Prophet, having fet down feve- 
ral natural Cha rafters of that State, as Indo- 
lency and Joy, Longevity, Eafe, and Plenty, 
from ver. i8. to the 24th. He there begins 
the moral Charafters of Divine Favour, and 
fuch a particular Proteftion, that they are 
heard and anfwer'd before they pray. And 
Jaftly, He reprefents it as a State of univerfai 
Peace and Innocency, ver, 2j. The Wolf and 
the Lamb (I)all feed together^ &c. 

This laft CharaQier, which comprehends 
Teace,, Jufiice and Innocency^ is more fully 
difplayM by the fame Prophet, in the nth 
Chapter, where he treats alfo of the Kingdom 
of Chrift-. Give me leave to fet down his 
Words, vcr. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. "But ^jcith Righ* 
teoujnefs flmll be judge the poor^ and refrove 
with equity for the meek of the Earth : and 
he JJmll [mite the Earth with the rod of his 
mouthy and with the breath of his lips /hall he 
flay the wicked, <kAnd righteoufnejs fljall be 
the girdle of his Lions^ and Faitbfulnefs the gir- 
dle of his Reins, The Wolf alfo flmll dwell with 
the Lamb,, and the Leopard pall lye down with 
the Kjd: and the Calf and the young Lion,, and 
thefatling together^ and a little child fl) all lead 
them. oAnd the Cow and the "Bear jhall feed,, 
their young ones jhall lye down together : a?id 
the Lyon Jlmll eat fir aw like the Ox. oAnd the 
fucking child fludl play in the hole of the oAfpy 
and the weaned child fpall fut his hand on the 
Cockatrice-den. The) JJmll not hurt,, nor de-^ 
ftro) in all my holj mountain : for the Earth 


Concerning the New Heavens^ S^c. 259 

fljall he full of the knowledge of the Lord^ as 
the Waters cover the Sea. Thus far the Pro- 
phet. Now if we join this to what we noted 
before, from his 65th Chapter, concerning the 
fame State, 'twill be impoffible to underftand 
it of any Order of things, that is now, or hath 
been hitherto in the World. And confequent- 
ly it mufl: be the Idea of fome State to come, 
and particularly of that which we call the Fu- 
ture Kingdom of Chrift. 

The fame pacifick Temper, Innocency and 
Juftice, are celebrated by this Prophet when 
the Mountain of the Lord fijall be efiabUJhed in 
the to-p of the Mountains^ Chap. 2. 2, 4. oAnd 
he flmll judge amongfl the nations^ andjijall re* 
huke many -people ; and they jhall heat their 
[words into flow-(Jmres^ and their [pars ijita 
fruning'hooh. Nation {hall not lift tif fwori 
againft Nation^ neither fJ;aU they learn war any 
more. And as to Righteoufnefs, he fays, in 
the 2 5d Chapter, "Behold a KJngfl?all reign in. 
righteoufnefs^ and Trinces f})aU rule in ^]udg^ 
me?it^ &c. Thefe Places, I know, ufually are 
apply'd to the firft coming of our Saviour ; the 
Peaccablenefs of his Doftrine, and the Propa- 
gation of it through all the World. I willing- 
ly allow this to "be a true Senfe, fo far as it 
will go. But 'tis one thing to be a true Senfe 
to fuch a degree, and another thing to be the 
final Senfe and Accomplifliment of a Prophe- 
cy. ^ The Affairs of the firft and fecond 
coming of our Saviour are often mingled 
together in the Prophecies of the Old Te- 
ftament ; but in that Mixture there are 


240 The. Theor) of the E a r t hJ 

fome Chara£lers whereby you may diMn-.- 
guifh what belongs to his fir'ft, and what ta 
his fecond coming ; what to the Time when 
he came to fuffer, and what to the Time when 
he fliall come to reign. For inftance, In thefe 
Prophecies recited, tho' there are many things 
very applicable to his firft coming, yet that 
Regality which is often fpoken o^ and that 
imiverfal Peace and Innocency that will accom- 
pany it, cannot be verified of his coming in 
the Flefli ; feeing it is plain, that in his State 
of Humiliation he did not come as a King, to 
rule over the Nations of the Earth, {Mat, 10. 
21. Liike^T^. 42.) And he fays himfelf exprefly, 
That hi: Kjngdo7n is not of this Worlds Job. 18. 
36 And the Prayer of Salome,, and of the 
good Thief upon the Crofs, fuppofeit not then 
prefent, but to come. Then as to the Efta- 
blifhment Q^'Veace in his Kingdom, it does 
not at all appear to me that there is more Peace 
in the World now than there was before our 
Saviour came into it ; or that the Chriftian 
parts of the World are more peaceable than 
the unchriftian. Therefore thefe great Promi- 
fes of a Tacifick Kingdom,, which are exprefs'd 
in Terms as high and emphatical as can be 
imagined, muft belong to fome other Days, 
and fome other Ages, than what we have feen 

You'l fay, it may be, 'tis not the fault of the 
Gofpel that the World is not peaceable, but of 
thofe that profels it, and do not praftife it. 
This is true, but it does not anfwer the Pro- 
phecy J for that makes no Exception. And by 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. 241 

fucli a Referve as this, you may elude any 
Prophecy. So the "^ews fay, Tneir Mefjlah 
defers his coming beyond the Time appointed 
by Prophecy, becaufe of their Sins : but we 
do not allow this for a good Reafon. The 
Ifraelites had their promifed Ca7iaa?t^ tho' they 
had render'd themfelves unworthy of it ; and 
by this Method of interpreting Prophecies, all 
the Happinefs and glory promifed in the Mil- 
lennial Kingdom of Chrift may come to no- 
thing, upon a pretended Forfeiture. Threat- 
nings indeed may have a tacit Condition; 
God may be better than his Word, and, upon 
Repentance, divert his Judgments; but he 
cannot be worfe than his Word, or fail of 
Performance, when, without any Condition 
exprefs'd, he promifes or prophecies good 
things to come. This w^ould deftroy all AC- 
furance of Hope or Faitli, Laftly, This Pro- 
phecy concerning Pacifick Times or a Ta- 
cifick Jsjngdom^ is in the 65th Chapter oUfaiah^ 
fubjoin'd to the Renovatio/i of the Heavens and 
the Earthy and feveral marks of a Change in 
the Natural World; which things wc know 
did not come to pafs at the firft coming of our 
Saviour: there was no change of Nature then, 
nor has been ever fince. And therefore this 
happy Change, both in the Natural and Mo- 
ral World, is yet to com.e. 

But, as we laid before, we do not fpeak this 
exclufively of the firft coming of our Saviour, 
as to other parts of thefe Prophecies ; for no 
doubt that was one great Defign of them. 
And in the Prophecies of the Okf Teftament, 

Book IV. R there 

z42 Th^ Theory of the E a r t h. 

there are often three Gradations, or gradual 
Accomplifliments ; The firft, in fome King of 
Ifrael^ or fome Perfon or Atfair relating to 
Jfrael^ as National only ; The fecond, in the 
MefTiah at his firll coming ; And the lall, in 
the Meffiah, and his Kingdom at his fecond 
coming. And that which we affirm, and con- 
tend for, is, that the Prophecies fore- mention'd 
have not a final and total Accomplifhment, ei- 
ther in the Nation of the "Jews^ or at the firft 
^coming of oar Saviour. And this we 'bide by. 
The" next Prophet that we n^.ention'd as a 
Witnefs of the future Kingdom of Chrift, is 
T)avid: Who, in his Pfalms, feemsto be pleas'd 
with this Subject above all others ; and when 
he is moft exalted in his Thoughts and Pro- 
phetical Raptures, the Spirit carries him into 
the Kingdom of the Meffiah, to contemplate 
its Glory, to fing Praifss to its King, and tri- 
umph over his Enemies : Tjal. 68. Let God 
arifej let his enemies he fcattered : Let them 
alfo that hate him flie before him. oAs Smoak 
is driven away^ fo drive them away ; as wax 
melteth hefore the fire^ fo let the ztoicked ferijh 
at the -^re fence of God. "But let the Righteous 
lie glad^ &:c. The plain ground he goes upon 
in this Tfahuj is the Deliverance out oi Aigyft^ 
and bringing the Ifraelites into the Land of 
Canaan ; but when he is once upon the wing, 
he foars to an higher pitch (ver. i8.) fiom 
the Type to the Antitype: To the days of 
the MeiTiah, the Afcenfion of our Savi- 
our; and, at length, to his Kingdom and 
Dominion over all the Earth, ver. 52, i^c. 


Concerning the New Heave7ts^ 8r'c. 245 

The4'^th'P/-if/^;/ is an Epthalamhm to Chrift 
and the Church, or to the Lamb and his 
Spotije. And when that will be, and in what 
State, we may learn from St. Jobn^ eApoc. 19. 
7,8. and ch. 21. 2, 9 Namely, aRerthe De* 
ftriiftion of "Bahloji^ in the New Je-^ufalem 
Glory. The Words and Matter of the tw^o 
Prophets anfwer to one another. Here, in 
this Tfalm^ there is a Fight and Vifto-y cele- 
brated as well as a Marriage : and fo there is 
in that 19th (Jhapter of St. John. Here the 
Prophet fays, Gird thy fzmrd ufon thy thigh^ 
moft Mighty^ with thy glory mtdthy Majefiy. 
oAnd in thy Majefty ride frojferotffly becauje of 
truth and meeknefs and righteovf?iefs : and thy 
right handfJ^all teach thee terrille things. Thy 
Thro?ie^ God^ is for ever and ever ; The 
Scefter of thy Kjngdom is a right Scepter^ 8fC. 
Tfal. 4';. 5, 4, 6. There St. John fays, having 
defcrib'd a Conqueror on a white Horfe, Out 
of his mouth goeth ajharp Sword, that with it 
he jhould [mite the Nations : a?id he pall rule 
them zmth a rod of Iron : and he treadeth the 
Wine-frefs of the fierce7ie{s and vorath of qAU 
viight^ God. oAnd he hath on his veflnre, and 
on his thigh a Name fVritten^ K^ING of 
KJNGS, and LO R'D of LO R'DS, Apoc. i(). 
15, 16. This is the fame glorious Conqueror 
and Bridegroom in both Places : and this Vi- 
ctory is not gained, nor thefe Nuptials com- 
pleated till the fecond coming of our Saviour. 

In many otlier Pfalms, there are Reflexi- 
ons upon this happy Kingdom, and the Tri- 
umph of Chrift over his Enemies : as PJal. 2, 
R 2 Tf.^. 

244 ^^^ Theory of the Earth* 

Tf. g.Tf, 21. and 24. and 47. and 85. and no 
and others. In thefe, and fuch-likePfalms, there 
are Lineaments and Colours of a fairer State, 
than any we have yet feen upon Earth. Not 
but that in their firftlnftancesand Grounds they 
may fometimesrefpeftthe State oUfrael^ or the 
Evangeh'cal State : but the Eye of the Prophet 
goes further, this does not terminate his Siglit : 
His Divine Enthufiafm reaches into another 
World : A World of Teace^ and Juftice^ and 
Holinels ) of Joy, and Victory, and Triumph 
over all the Wicked : and . confequently fuch 
a World, as neither we, nor our Fathers, have 
yet feen. 

This is an Account of Two Prophets, David 
and I/aiah ; and of what they Iiave more openly 
declarM concerning the Future Kingdom of 
Chrili But to verify St. Teter's Words, in 
■that fore-mention'd Place, oAff. ^. 21. viz. 
That all the Holj> Trophets fmce the World 
tegmi^ have fpoken of the Rertauration of all 
things at the fecond coming of Chrift. I fay, 
to verify this AiTertion of St. T^/^^r's, we muft 
fuppofe, that, where the Prophets fpeak of the 
Reftauration and future Glory of "^jtidah and 
'Jerufale?}}^ they do, under thofe Types, repre- 
sent to us the Glory and Happinefs of the 
Church in the Future Kingdom of Chrift. 
And moft of the Prophets, in this Senfe, and 
, under thefe Forms, have fpoken of this King- 
dom : In foretelling the Reftauration of Jeru- 
falem and Sto?i ; and happy Days, Peace, Plen- 
tj^, and Profperity to the People of Ijrael 


Concerning the New Heavens^ Sec. 245 

Moft of the Prophets, I fay, from Mofes to 

Malachy^ have fpokcn of this Reflauration. 

Mofes^ in the 30th oi'Detit.vQW 4, 5, 9. T^avid^ 

in many of thofe Pfalms we have cited. Ifaiah^ 

befides the Places foremention'd, treats amply 

of this Subjeft, ChafK 51. and in feveral other 

Places ^. So likewife the Prophets Ezekiely 

T)amel^ Hojea^ JoeJ^ Q,4mos^ Oladiah^ Mi- 

cah, Zsfha7iy^ Haggai^ "Z^charj^ Malachy. 

AW thefe have, either exprefly, or under the 

Types of Jemfalem and Sio7i^ foretold happy 

Days, and a glorious Triumph to the Church 

of God. And feeing in the New Teftament, 

and in the Prophecies of St. "^oJm^ the Chri- 

ftian Church is ll:ill reprefented, as under Per- 

fecution and Diftrefs, till the Fall of Anti- 

chrift, and the Millennial Kingdom ; Tis 

then, and not till then, that we muft expedl 

the full Accomplifliment of thefe Prophecies ; 

the Reftauration that St. "^eter fays was fpo- 

ken of, by all the 'Prophets : and the Myftery^ 

which St. J^/j;^ fays, (oApoc. 10. j.) was de- 

dared hy his Servaiits the Trophets^ and 

would be finifh'd under the Seventh Trumpet^ 

w^hich ufhers in the Kingdom of Chrifi:. 

It would be too long to examine all thefe 
Places in the Prophets, which you may confult 
at leifure. However, it cannot feem ftrange 
that Jerufakm fhould be us'd in a typical or al- 

^ ■ I » m I - , 

* liaiah, ch. 11.LK43. <^^' ^9' ^5 ^^' '^^'' ^^' Ezeicid, cA. 2^, 
cb.7,7, Hofca, Cb. 3. & (.i?. ,14. Joel, 3. 18. Amos, ch. p. 
i)nad. ver. 17, &c. Mich. Ck. 4. cb. 5. Zcph. 3. 14, &c. 
Hagg.ii, ch. 2. Zach. 2. 10, dec. 3c cb. 9.9, &c. & cb, i^, Mai, 
ph. {. ch. 4. 

R 3 legoricaj 

^&fi TJ)e Theory of the E a r t h. 

legorical Senfe, feeing we often find fuch Ap- 
plications of it in the New Teftament : as 
Gal. 4. 26. Hel. 12. 21. oAvoc. 5.12. And 
'tis very natural that Jerufalem reftor'^d^ fhould 
fignifie the fame thing as New Jertijalem ; 
and therefore that St. John^ by his New Jeru- 
jalem^ intended the fame thing or the fame 
State, that the ancient Prophets did by their 
Reftauration ofjerufah?^. And if neither can 
be underftood in a literal fenfe, which, I be- 
lieve, you will not contend for, they muft 
borh be interpreted of the future Happinefs 
and Glory of the Church in the Kingdom of 

But to conclude this Point wholly as to 
Scripture ; If we make refle6lion upon all the 
PafTages alledg'd in this and the foregoing 
Chapter, whether out of the Old or New Te- 
ftament, we muft at leaft acknowledge thus 
much ; That there are happy Days, at one 
time or other : Days of Peace and Righteouf- 
nefs : of Joy and Triumph, of external Prof- 
perity and internal Sanftity : when Vertue 
and Innocency fliall be in the Throne, and 
Vice and vidous Men out of Power or credit. 
That there are fuch happy days Prophefiedof 
in Scripture, and promifed to the Church of 
God. Whether you call this the Re^gn of 
Corifi and of his Saints, or by any other 
Name, it is not material at prefent to deter- 
mine ; let the Title be what you will, as to 
the Subflance it cannot be denied to be a gene* 
ral Do&rine of Prophetical Scripture. And 
we mult not imagine, that the Prophets writ 


Concerning the New Heavens^ 8:c. 247 

like the Poets : feigned an Idea of a Roman- 
tick State, that never was, nor ever will be, 
on!v to pleafe their own Fancies, or the ere- 
duioiis People. Neither is it the State of Hea- 
ven and Eternal Life that is here meant orin- 
tsjndjd : For, befides that they had httle or 
no Light concerning thole Notions, in the 
Old Teftament. The Prophets generally in 
their Defcription of this Happinefs, either ex- 
prefs the Earth, or at leaft give plain Marks 
c: 1 Terreilrial State. Wherefore, the only 
Qudiion that remains, is this, Woetker thefe 
har/py Days are part already, or to come? 
Whether this blelTed State of the Church is 
behind us, or before us ? Whether our Prede- 
ceffors have enjoyM it, or our Pofterity is to 
expe£t it ? For we are very fure that ix. is not 
prefent. The World is full of Wars, and ru- 
mours of Wars; of Vice and Kavery, of Op- 
preflRon and Perfecution : and thefe are things 
direQly contrary the Genius and Characters of 
the State which we look after. 

And if we look for it m times paft, we can 
go no further back than the beginning of Chri- 
Itianity. For St. '^ohn^ the laft of the Apo- 
ftles, Propliefied of thefe Times, as to come : 
and plac'd them at the end of his fyftem of 
Prophecies; whereby one might conclude that 
they are not only within the compafs of the 
Chriltian ages, but fir advanced into them. 
But however, not to infill U[X)n that at prefent, 
where will you find a thoufand Years, from the 
Birth of Chriftianity to this prefent age, that 
d?fvi'ves the Name, or anfwers to the chara- 

R 4 racier^ 

24S r^^ Theory of the E a r t h. 

rafters of this "Pure and Tacifick State of the 
Church. The firft Ages of Chriftianity, as 
they were the moft pure, fo likewife were 
they the leaft peaceable. Continually, more 
or lefs, under the Perfecution of the Hea- 
then Emperors ; and fo far from being the 
Reign and Empire of Chrift and his Saints 
over the Nations, that Chriftians were then, 
every where, in Subjeftion or Slavery ; a poor, 
feeble, helplefs People, thruft into Prifons, or 
thrown to the Lions, at the pleafure of their 
Princes or Rulers. *'Tis true, when the Em- 
pire became Chriltian under Co?tftantine^ in 
the Fourth Century, there was, for a time, 
Peace and Prolperity in the Church, and a 
good degree of Purity and Piety. But that 
Peace was foon difturb'd, and that Piety foon 
corrupted. The growing Pride and Ambi- 
tion of the Ecclefiafticks, and their eafinefs 
to admit or introduce fuperftitious Pra£lices, 
deftroy'd the Purity of the Church. And as 
to the Peace of it, Their Contefis about Opi- 
nions and Doftrines, tore the Chriftians them- 
felves into pieces; and, foon after, an Inun- 
dation of barbarous People fell into Chriften- 
dom, and put it all into Flames and Confu- 
fion. After this Eruption of the Northern 
Nations, Mahomet afiifm rofe in the Eaft; and 
fwarms of Saracens^ like Armies of Locufts, 
invaded, conquer'd, and planted their Reli- 
gion in feveral parts of the Rumaji Empire, 
and of the ChriftianizM World. And can 
we call fuch Times the Reign of Chrift, or 
the Imprifonment of Satan ? In the following 


Concerning the New Heavens^ ?rc- 249 

Ages, the Turks over-run the Eaftern Empire 
and the Greek Church, and ftill hold that 
miferable People in Slavery. Providence feems 
to have fo order'd Affairs, that the Chriftian 
World fhould never be without a W O E 
upon it, left it (liould fanfie it felf already in 
thofe happy Days of Peace and Profperity, 
which are refervM for future times. Laftly, 
Whofoever is fenfible of the Corruptions and 
Perfecutions of the Church of Rome^ fince fhe 
came to her Greatnefs ; whofoever allows her 
to be Myftical 'Bah)lo?i^ which muft fall be- 
fore the Kingdom of Chrift comes on, will 
think that Kingdom duly placM by St. John 
at the end of his Prophecies, concerning the 
Chriftian Church : and that there ftill re* 
viains^ according to the Words of St. ^atd^ 
( Hebr. 4.9.) a Sahbatifm to the Teo^le (f 


'i,^o The Theory of the E a r t h.' 

Chap. VL 

The fence andteftimony of the Trimitive Church 
concernhng /-Z?^ Millennium, or future Kjng- 
dam of Chrifi : from the Times of the oApo^ 
files to the Nicene Council. The fecond Tro^ 
fofition laid do'wn, When^ hy what mea?is^ 
> a7td for what reafo7ts^ that doctrine was 
afterwards negletied or difcou?itenanc*d. 

YOU have heard the Voice of th^Trophets. 
and oApofiles^ declaring the future King- 
dom of Chrill, Next to thefe, the Trimitive 
Fathers are accounted of good authority ; Let 
us therefore now enquire into their Senfe con- 
cerning this Doftrine, that we may give fatis- 
faction to all parties ; And both thofe that are 
guided by Scripture alone, and thofe that have 
a Veneration for Antiquity, may find proofs 
fuitable to their inclinations and and judgment. 
And to make few Words of it, we will lay 
down this Conclufion, That the Millennial 
Kjngdom of Chrifi was the general T)oHrine 
cf the "Primitive Churchy from the Times of 
the oApofiles to the NictneCouncil; inclufively. 
St. John out-livM all the reft of the Apoftles, 
and towards the latter end of his Life, being 
banifh'd into the Ifle of Tathmos^ he writ his 
oApocaljffe ; wherein he hath given us a more 
full and diftinO: account of the Millennial King- 
of Chrift, than any of the Prophets or Apoftles 


Concerning tie New Heavens,' %:c. 251 

before him. Tafias, BiOiop of Hierafolis, and 
Martyr; one oi^t.John'^ Auditors, as Iren^zus 
teflifies, hen Ul\ «;. c. 52. taught the fame Doc- 
trineafrer St. John He was the familiar friend of 
Tolycarf, another of St. John\ Difciples , and 
either from him, or immediately from St. John's 
mouth, he might receive this Doftrine. That 
he taught it in the Church, is agreed on by all 
hands ; both by thofe tliat are !iis followers, as 
Jrenaus : and thofe that are not wiell-wifliers 
to this Doftrine, as Enfehius ^^nA Jerome. 

There is alfo another channel wherein this 
DoCtrine is Traditionally deriv'd from St. John^ 
namely by the Clergy of (iAjia ; as lre?imis 
tells us in the fame Chapter. For, arguing the 
Point, he fhows that the Blefling promised to 
Jacoh from his Father l^aac, was not made 
good to him in this Life, and therefore he fays 
without doubt thofe Words had a further aim 
and profpeat u^on the Times of the Kjngdom : 
(fo they usM to call the Millennial ftate) when 
the Jiiji rijing from the dead, JJmll reign : and 
when Nature renew'' d and jet at liberty, jhall 
yield flejity and abundance of all thi?igs ; being 
hleft with the dew of Heaven, and a great 
Fertility of the Earth. oAccording as has been 
related by thofe Ecclefiafticks or Clergy,whofee 
St. John, the T)ifcifle of Chrifi ; and heard of 
fee, goes to the Fountain-head. The Chri- 
ftian Clergy receive it from St. John, and 
St. John relates it from the Mouth of our Sa- 


ijs The Theory of the E a r t h. 

So much for the Original authority of this 
Doftrine, as a Tradition : that it was from 
St. John^ and by him from Chrift. And as to 
the propagation and prevailing of it in the Pri- 
mitive Church, we can bring a witnefs beyond 
all exception, "Jrifiin Martyr ^ Contemporary 
with Irenaus^ and his Senior. He fays, that 
himfelfy and all the Orthodox Chriftians of his 
tinie^ did achiowledge the RefurreBion of the 
flejh (fuppofe the fir ft Refurrection) and a thou^ 
fand years reign in Jerr^falem reftor'^d^ or in the 
New Jerufalem, T)ial with Tryphon the Jew, 
eAccording as the Trofhets, Ezekiel^ and Jfaiahy 
and Others^ at t eft with common confe?it. As 
St. 'Veter had fa id before, oAH. 3.21. That all 
the Trophets hadfpokcn of it. Then he quotes 
the S^^th Chapter of Ifaiah^ whicli is a bulwark 
for this Doctrine, that never can be broken. 
And to fhew the Jew, with whom he had 
this difcourfe, that it was the Senfe of our 
Prophets, as well as of theirs, He tells him, 
that a certain Man amongft us Chrifiia7ts, hy 
7tame John, one of the oAfoftk': of Chrift, in a 
Revelation made to himdidfrovhefie, that the 
Faithful believers in Chrift fl:otfid live a thou- 
fand years in the New Jerufalem-^ and after 
that (hould he the general RefurreBion and 
day of Judgment. Thus you have the thoughts 
and fentiment of Juftin Martyr, as to himfelf : 
as to all the reputed Orthodox of his time ; 
As to the Senle of the Prophets in the Old 
Teftament, and as to the SenYe of St. John in 
the oApocaljffe. All confpiring in Confirmar 
tion of the Milicnnary Doftrine, 


Concerning the New Heavens^ hcl 25 j 

To thefe three WitneiTes, Tapzas, Irenansy 
and "Jiiftin Martyr^ we may add two more 
within the fecond Age of the Church ; MelitOy 
Bifliop of SardiSj and St. "Barnahas^ or who- 
foever was the Author of the Epiftle under his 
Name. This Melito^ by fome, is thought 
to be the Angel of the Church of Sardif^ to 
whom St. John direds the Epiftle to that 
Church, oApoc, 5. i. But I do not take him 
to be fo ancient ; however, he was Bifliop of 
that Place, at leaft in the Second Century, 
and a Perfon of great SanQ:ity and Learning : 
He writ many Books, as you may fee in 
St. Jerome : and, as He notes out of TertnU 
lian^ was h rnofi Chriftiaiis replied a Tro^ 
fhet ( De Scrip. Ecclef. T)ogm. EccL c. 55.) 
He was alfo a declared Milleuuarj^ and is re- 
corded as fuch, both by Jerome and Genim- 
dim. As to the Epiftle of Harnaluis^ which 
we mention'd, it muft be very ancient, whofoe- 
ver is the Author of it, and before the Third 
Century ; feeing it is often cited by Clemens 
eAlexa7idrinmy who was himfelf witliin the 
Second Century. The Genius of it is very 
much Millennarian, in the Interpretation of the 
Sabhath^ the frQ77zis*d Land^ a T^ay for a thoU'* 
[and years^ and concerning the Renovation of 
the World. In all which, he follows the Foot- 
fteps of the Orthodox of thofe Times ; that is, 
of the MiUennarians. 

So much for the Firft and Second Centuries 
of the Church. By which JliOx'-t Account it 
appears, that the Millennary Doftrine wasOr- 
thodox and Catholick in thofc early Days : for 


254 ^^^ Theory of the E a r t n. 

thefe Authors do not fet it down as a private 
Opinion of their own, but as a Chrifium "Do- 
&rine^ or an oAfofiolical Tradition. 'Tis re- 
markable what "Papas fays of himfelf, and 
liis Way of Learning, in his Book call'd, The 
Explanation of the Words of the Lordj as 
St. Jerome gives us an account of it : ( T)e 
Script, EccleJ',) Fie fays in his Preface, He did 
not follow various O^inions^ hut had the e.4- 
fofiks for his ^Authors : eAnd that he con-^ 
fider'^d what Andrew, and what Ftttvfaid; 
•what Philip, what Thomas, a^id other T)if 
cifles of ttje Lord ; /zs aho ^johat Ariftion, 
and John the Se7iior^ "Difcifies of the Lord^ 
*mhat they fpoke. oAnd that he aid not fro^ 
fit \o much hy reading 'Books^ as hy tbe li^ 
ving Voice of thefe Terfons which refounded 
from them to that da^ This hath very much 
the air of Truth and Sincerity, and of a Man, 
that, in good earneft, fought after the Chri- 
ftian DoClrine, from tliole that were the moft 
authentick Teachers of it. I know Eufehim^ 
m his Ecclejiafiical HiJ^ory^ gives a double 
CharaQer of this Tafias ; in one place he calls 
liim, qA very eloptent Man in all things^ and 
skilful in Scripture ; and in another, he makes 
him a Man of 2ifmaU under flafiding^ (Vide Hie- 
ron. Epifi. 28. ad Lucinium.) But what rea- 
ion there is to fufpect Ei-Jehius of Partiality in 
this Point oixh^Millennwrn^ we fljall make ap- 
pear hereafter. However, we do not depend 
upon the Learning of Tapins^ or the depth of 
his Underftanding : allow him but to be an ho- 
neft Man and a fair Witnefs, and 'tis all we 


Concemhig the New Heave?ts^ 8cc. 255 

defire. And we have little reafonto queftioa 
his Teftimony in this Point, feeing it is backed 
by others of good Credit ; and alfo becaufe 
there is no Counter-Evidence, nor any Wit- 
nefs that appears againft him: For there is 
not extant, either the Writing, Name, or 
Memory, of any Perfon that contefted this 
Doftrine in the firft or fecond Century : I fay, 
that call'd in queftion this Millennary Doftrine, 
proposM after a Chriftian Manner, unlefs fuch 
Hereticks as deny'd the Refurreftion wholly, 
or fuch Chriftians as deny'd the Divine Au- 
thority of the oA^ocdyffe. 

We proceed now to the Third Century ; 
Where you find Tertullian^ Origen^ ViBoriims^ 
Bifliop and Martyr; Nefm^ Mgypiws^ Cy^ 
fria?i^ and, at the end of it, Lactantiws ; all 
openly profeffing, or implicitly, favouring the 
Millennary Doftrine. We do not mention 
Clemens oAlexandrinws^ contemporary with 
TertulUan^ becaufe he hath not any thing, 
that I know of, exprefly either for, or againft: 
the Millennhmi. But he takes notice that the 
Seventh "Day hatli been accounted Sacred^ both 
by the Hebrews and Greeks^ becaufe of the 
Revolution of the Worlds and the Kenovatio7i 
of all things. And giving this as a Reafon 
why they kept that Day holy^ feeing there is 
not a Revolution of the World every kv^n 
Days, it can be in no other fenfe than as the 
SeventhT}a)'X^y^xt{tx\ts> the Seventh Mille?maryy 
in which the Renovation of the World and the 
Kingdom of Chrift, is to be. As to Tertnllianj 
St. Jerome reckons him, in the firft place, a- 


^5^ 3^6^ Theory of the E a r t h; 

mongfl: the Latin Millennaries. And tho' his 
Book, about the Hofe of the faithful^ as alfa 
that about Taradife^ which ftould have given 
us the greateft Light in this Affair, be both 
loft or fupprefs'd ; yet there are fufficient Indi- 
cations of his Millennary Opinion in his Trads 
againft Marcio?i^ and againft Hermogenes. 
St. Cyprian was Tertullia?i's Admirer, and in- 
clines to the fame Opinion, fo far as one can 
judge, in this Particular ; for his Period of 
Six Thoufand Tears^ and making the Seventh 
Millennary the Confummation of all, is wholly 
according to the Annalogy of the Millennary 
Doctrine. As to the Two Bifhops, Victoria 
Tttis and Ne^os^ St. '^Jerome vouches for them. 
The Writings of the one are loft, and of the 
other fo changed, that the Senfe of the Author 
does not appear there nov/. But LaHantiusy 
whom we nam'd in the laft place, does open- 
ly and profufely teach this Dodrine, \\\ his 
T)ivi?ie hiftitutions^ (Book 7.) and with the 
fame AlTurance that he does other parts of the 
Chriftian Dotlrine : For he concludes thus, 
fpeaking of the Millennium^ This is the T)oHrine 
of the Holy Tro^hets^ which we Chriftia7is 
follow : This is our Wifdom^ &c. Yet he ac- 
knowledges there, that it was kept as a My- 
ftery or Secret amongft the Chriftians, left 
the Heathens fliould make any perverfe or 
odious Interpretation of it. And for the fame 
or like Reafon, I believe, the Book of the 
eApocalypJe was kept out of the Hands of the 
Vulgar for fome time, and not read publickly^ 
left it fliould be found to have fpoken too open- 

Concernhig the New Heavens^ &c. 2^7 

!y of the Fate of the Roman Empire, or of this 

Miiicnnial State. 

So much for the Firft, Second ?.nd Third 
Century of the Church. But by our Con- 
clulion, we engaged to make out this Proof as 
tar as the Nicene Council^ inclufively: The 
Nice?ieCouncil wasabout the year of Chrift ji^. 
and we may reafonably fuppofe LaBaiitiif/s 
was then living ; at leaft he came within the 
time of CoHftantirie^s Empire. But however, 
the Fathers of that Council are themfelves 
our WitnciTes in this Point. For, in their 
Eccle/iafikrd Forms or Co?ifiitutio?is^ in the 
Chapter ahout the "Providence of Godj and 
^bout the IVorld^ they fpeak tlius ; The World 
was made tneaner or iejs ferfeti^ froviden^ 
tiall/ ; for God forefee that Man would fin. 
Wherefore we exfeH Nezv Heave7ts and a 
iXew Earthy according to the Holy Scriptures : 
at the Qy4pfeara?/ce and Kjngdom of the great 
God^ and oicr Saviour Jefus Chrifi. And then, 
as 'Dajiiel fays (Chap. 7. 18.) The Saints of 
the molt High Jlmll take the Kingdom, a4nd 
the Earth fl}aU he Ture^ Holv^ the Land of the 
Livings not of the "Dead. Which David /^r^- 
feei7ighy the Eye of Faith ^ cries out, (Tfal. 27. 
I ^..) / believe to fee the good things of the 
Lorxi^ in toe Land of the Living, Our Saviour 
Jaysj Happy are the meeh^ for they pall inhe- 
rit the Earthy Mat. 5. 5. oAnd the Trophet 
Ifafahy^^vy, (Chap. 26. 6.) the feet of the meek 
and lowly fl:all tread upon it. So you fee, ac- 
cording to the Judgment of thefe Fathers, there 
will be a Kingdom of Chrift upon Earth; and 

Book IV. S more- 

2 5§ Tlje Theory of the Earth.' 

moreover, that it will be in the New Heavens 
and the Nei^: Earth. And, in both thefe 
Points, they cite the Prophets and our Saviour 
in confirmation of them. 

Thus we have difchargM our Promife, and 
given you an account of the Doflrine of the 
Mi]len7iium^ or Future Kingdom of Chrift, 
throughout the Three Firft Ages of the 
Church, before any confiderable Corruptions 
were crept into the Chriftian Reh'gion. And 
thofe Authorities of fingle and fiicceflive Fa- 
thers, w^e have feaPd up all together, with the 
Declaration of the Nicene Fathers, in a Body. 
Thofe that think Tradition a Rule of Faitli, 
or a confiderable Motive to it, will find it 
hard to turn offthe Force of thefe Teftimonies. 
And thofe that do not go fo far, but yet have 
a reverence for Antiquity and the Primitive 
Church, will noteafily produce better Autho- 
rities, more early, more numerous, or more 
uncontradicted, for any Article that is not 
Fundamental. Yet thefe are but Seconds to 
the Prophets and Apofl:!es, who are truly the 
Principals in this Caufe. I will leave them 
altogether, to be exarain'd and weighed by the 
impartial Reader. And becaufe they feem to 
me to make a full and undeniable Proof, I will 
now at the foot of the Account fet down our 
Second Propofition, which is this, That there 
u a Millejinial State^ or a Future Kjfigdom of 
Chrift and his Sahits^ Trofhefied of aiid "Fro- 
mijed^ in the Old and New Tejtament \ and 
received hy the Ti'imitive Church as a Chri- 
fii/in andCathoUck ^Doarhie, (Propof. I.) 


Concenihig the New Heave?ts^?icc. 259 

HAVING difpatcIiM this main Point; 
To conclude the Chapter and this Head 
of our Difcourfe, it will be fome Satisfaction 
pofTibly to fee. How a Doctrine fo generally 
received and approv'd, came to decay, and al- 
mofl: wear out of the Church, in following 
Ages. The ChriPcian Millennary Doctrine 
was not caird into queftion, fo far as appears 
from Hittory, before the middle of the third 
Century ; when 'Dionyfim oy^lexandrinivs writ 
againft NePos^ ?iRALzyp2an Bifliop, who had 
decIarM himfelf upon that Subject. But we 
do not find that this Book had any great Ef- 
fect ; for the Declaration or Conftitution of 
the Nicene Fathers was after : and in St. Je^ 
romeh time, who writ towards the end of 
the Fourth Century, this Doctrine had fo 
much Credit, that He, who was its greateft 
Adverfary, yet durft not condemn it, as he 
fays himfelf ; Ou^ licet 7ion ftqua?nur^ tamen 
damnare noii fojjumu^ ; quia multi Ecclejialiico* 
rum vironmi i$ martjres ifia dixertmt : Which 
Things or T^oHrines^ fpeaking of the Millen- 
nium, tho* we do not follow^ yet we cannot 
condemn \ hecanfe many of our Church-men^ and 
Martyrs^ have affirmed thefe things. And 
when eApoUinarim reply'd to that Book of 
""DionyfiU'S^ St. 'Jerome iays. That, not only 
thoj'e of his own Seti^ hut a great multitude 
of other Chriftians did agree z^i^ith Apollina- 
rius in that Tarticular : Ut frafaga mtnte jam 
cernam^ quantortm in me ralies concitanda 

S 2 Jit : 

i6o Tide Theory of the Earth} 

fit : That I now forefee^ how many will he en-^ 
rag^d again(l me^ for what I have f^oke?^ 
agabifi the Millemiary T)oHrine, 

We may therefore conclude that in St. Je-^ 
r<?7^;^'s time the Millennaries made the greater 
Party in the Church ; for a h'ttle matter would 
not have frighted him from cenfciring their 
Opinion. St. '\forome was a rough and rugged 
Saint, and an unfair Adverfary, that ufually 
run down, with Heat and Violence, whac 
ftood in his way. As ta his Unfairnefs, he 
lliews it fufficiently in this very Cauie, for 
he generally reprefentsthe Millennary Doctrine' 
after a Judaical rather than a Chriftian Man- 
ner. And in reckoning up the chief Pa trons- 
of it, he always skips Jtiftin Martyr: Who- 
was not a Man fo obicure as to be over-look'd : 
and he was a Man that had declared himfelf 
fufficiently upon this Point, for he fays, 'Both 
himjelf and all the Orthodox of his time^ were 
of that "judgment ^ and applies both the d^i^o- 
calypje of St. John^ and the 65th Chapter of 
Jfaiahy for the Proof of it. As we noted before. 

As St. Ji^rome was an open Enemy to this 
Do8:rine, fo Euf'cbim was a back Friend to it \ 
and reprefented every thing to its Difidvan- 
tage,, fo far as was tolerably confident with the 
Fairnels of an Hiftorian. He gives a flight 
Charader of Tapas^ without any Authority 
for it ; and brings in one Gaiu^ that makes 
Cerinthus to be the Author of thQ e.4pocalypfi 
and of the M/llennium {Ecclef. Hijt. 7,,'^2.) 
and calls the Vifions there, Ti^c^loio^U^^ nion^ 
[irons Stories. He himfelf is willing to fiiuffle 


Concerning the New Heai>ens, S^c. 16 1 

off that Book from John the Evangel ifl to ^n- 
other John d.Tresb)'ter : and to fhew his Skill 
in the Interpretation of it^ ( /. ^. ^2. de vit. 
Conftan. ) he makes the New Jerujalem in the 
2 1 ft Chapter to be Conflanti?te\ Jerujalem^ 
when he turned the Heathen Temples there 
into Chriftian. A wonderful Invention. As 
St. Jerome by his Flouts, fo Eufehius^ by fini- 
fter Infmuations, endeavour'd to leden the 
Reputation of this Doftrine ; and the Art they 
t!>oth us'd, was, to mifreprefent it as Judakal. 
But we muft not caft off every Doctrine which 
the Jews behev'd, only for that Reafon ; for 
we ixave the fame Oracles which they had, 
and the fame Prophets : and they have collecl- 
ed from them the fame general Doctrine 
that we liave^ namely that There will he aii 
happj' and ■Pacific^ State of the Chiirch^ in fu- 
ture times. But as to the Circumftances of 
this State we differ very much ; They fuppofe 
the Mofaical Law will be reftor'd, with all its 
Pomp, Rites, and Ceremonies : whereas we 
fuppofe the Chriftian Worfliip, or fomething 
more perfeft, will then take place. Yet 
St. Jerome has the Confidence, even there 
where he fpeaks of the many Chriftian Clergy 
and Martyrs that held this Doctrine : has tlie 
Confidence, I fay, to reprcfent it, as if they 
held that Circumcifion^ Sacrifices^ and all the 
Judaical Rites, friould then be reftor'd. Which 
fcems to me to be a great Slander, and a great 
Inftance how far Mens Paffions will carry 
rhcm, in mifreprefenting an Opinion uhich 
tliey hav^ a mind to diigrace. 

S^j But 

2^2 The Theory of the E A r t h. 

But as we have reafon to blame the Par- 
tiality of thofe that oppofed this Doclrine, fo, 
on the o^her hand, we cannot excufe the Pa- 
ti'ons of it from all Indifcretions. I believe 
they might partly themfelves make it obno- 
xious ; by mixing fome things with it, from 
pretended Traditions, or the Books of the 
^^ybiUs^ or other private Authorities, that had 
fo fufficient warrant fi'om Scripture; and 
things, fbmetimes, that Nature would not 
eafily hear. Befides, in later Ages, they feem 
to have dropt one half of the Doctrine, namely, 
tlie Renovation of Nature^ which Iren^m^ 
'Jupihi Martyr^ and the Antients, join infepa- 
rably with the MiXiennium, And by this 
Omiffion, the Doftrine hath been made lefs 
intelligible, and one part of it incon fiftent 
with another. And when their Precenfions 
were to reign upon this prefent Earth, and in 
this prefent State of Nature, it gave a Jea- 
loufie to Temporal Princes, and gave occafion 
likewife to many of Fanatical Spirits, under 
the notion of Saints, to afpire to Dominion, 
after a violent and tumultuary Manner. This 
I reckon as one great Caufe that brought the 
Doctrine into difcredit. But I hope by redu- 
ducing of it to the true State, we Ihail cure 
this and other Abufes for the future. 

Laftly, It never pleasM the Church of FcC'^^f; 
and fo far as the influence and Authority of 
that would go, you may be fure it would be 
deprefsM and difcountenanc'd. I never yet 
met with a Popifli Doftor that held the MIU 
lennium ; and "Earonim would have it pafs for 


Concerning the New Heavens^ 8^c. 26J 

an Herefie, and T^^ias for the Inventor of ft ; 
whereas, if Irerutis may be credited, it was 
receiv'd from St. 'John^ and by him from the 
mouth of our Saviour. And neither St. Je'- 
rome^ nor his Friend Pope T)amaju'5^ durft 
ever condemn it for an Herefy, It was al- 
ways indeed uneafie, and gave Offence, to 
the Church of Rome^ becaufe it does not fuit 
to that Scheme of Chriftianity, which they 
have drawn. They fuppofe Chrift reigns al- 
ready, by his Vicar, the Pope ; and treads 
upon the Necks of Emperors and Kings. And 
if they could but fupprefs the Northern He^ 
rejie^ as they call it, they do not know what 
a Milkrjiium would fignific, or how the Churh 
could be in an happier Condition than fhe is. 
The dApocaljffe of St. John does fuppofe the 
true Church under Hardfliip and Perfecution, 
more or lefs, for the greateft part of the Chri- 
ftian Ages; namely, for 1260 Years, while 
the Witneffes are in Sack-cloth. But the 
Church of Ro??^e hath been in Profperity and 
Greatnefs, and the commanding Church in 
Chriftendom, for fo long or longer, and hath 
rulM the Nations with a Rod of Iron ; fo as 
that Mark of the true Church does not favour 
her at all. And the Mille/mzu??^ being proper- 
ly a Revv^ard and Triumph for thofe that come 
out of Perfecution, fuch as have livM always 
in Pomp and Profperity can pretend to no 
Share in it, or Benefit by it. This has made 
tlie Church of Ro^r^e have always an ill Eye 
upon tliis Doftrine, becaufe it feemM to have 
an ill Eye upon her. And as flie grew in 
S 4 Splendor 

564 The Theory of the Earth. 

Splendor and Greatnefs, (lie ecIipsM and ob- 
fcur'd It more and more : fo that it would 
li^ve been loft out of the World as an obfolete 
En'or, if it had not been reviv'd by fome of the 


The true State of the Millennium, according to 

Characters taken from Scripture ; fome 
Mifiakes concerni7iz it examttHd. 


XT7 E ha V--. made fufficient Proof of aMil- 
V\ lenniai State^ from Scripture and An-^, 
tiquitv ; and upon that firm Bafis have fettled 
oui' fcjond Propofition. We fliould now de- 
termine the Tirie and ^lace of this future 
Kingdom of Chrift : Not whether it is to be 
in Heaven, or upon Earth ; for that w^e fup- 
pofe detcrminM already : but whether it is to 
be in the prefent Earth, and under the prefent 
Conftitution of Nature, or in the New Hea- 
vens^ and New Earthy w^hich are promised 
after the Co7iflagration. This is to make our 
Third VroPofiticn : and I fnould liave proceed- 
ed immediately to the Examination of it, but 
that I im.agine ic Vv'ill give us feme Liglit in 
this Affair, if we inquire further into the true 
State of the ^//&;/;;/?^^;, before we determine 
its Time and Place, 

^^ Wc 

Concerning the New Heavens^ 8:c. 265 

We have already noted fome moral Chara- 
ftcrs of the Millennial State ; and the great Ay?- 
tural Charafter of it, is this in general, That 
it will be Taradifiacal ; free from all Incon- 
veniences, either of external Nature, or of our 
own Bodies. For my part, I do not under- 
ftand how there can be any confiderable de- 
gree of Happinefs without Indolency ; nor 
how there can be Indolency^ while we have 
fuch Bodies as we have now, and fuch an ex- 
ternal Conftitution of Nature. And as there 
muft be lndolenc)\ where there is Happinefs, 
fo there muft not be Indigency^ or want of any 
due Comforts of Life : For where there is 
lndige?tcy^ there is Sollicitude and Diftraftion, 
and Uneafinefs, and Fear : Paffions that do as 
naturally dilquiet the Soul, as pain does the 
Body. Therefore Indolency and Plenty feem 
to be two effential Ingredients of every happy 
State ; and thefe two in conjunction make that 
State we call "ParadifiacaL 

Now the Scripture feems plainly to exempt 
the Sons of the New'Jeriffalem^ or of the Milieu* 
nium^ from all ^ain or Wajit^ in thofe Words, 
a4j>oc, 21. 4. oAnd God pall wil^e away all 
tears from their eyes. oAnd there pall be no 
more deaths neither for roiv^ nor crying : iieither 
fmll there he any more fain : for the former 
things arepajjed away. And the Lord of that 
Kingdorri, He that fate ripon the Throne^ laid, 
^Behold I make all thi?igs new^ ver. 5. This 
Ilenovation is a Reftauration to fome former 
State : and I hope not that State of Indigency 
and Mifcry, and Difcafcdnefs, which we ian- 


2(5(5 The Theory of the E a r t h, 

guifh under at prefent ; but to that priftine 
Faradifiacal State, which was the BlefTing of 
the firft Heavens and the firli Earth. 

As Health and Plenty are the Bleflings of 
Nature, fo, in Civil Affairs, Teace is the great- 
eft BlefTing. And this is infeparably annexed 
to the MiUe?tnium : an indelible Cha rafter of 
the Kingdom of Chrift. And by Teace^ we 
underftand not only Freedom from Perfecu- 
tron upon Religious Accounts, but that Na^ 
tio7i fJmll not rife up againfi Nation^ upon any 
account whatfoever. That bloody Monfter, 
War^ that hath devoured fo many Millions of 
the Sons of oAdam^ is now at length to be 
chain'd up : and the Furies, that run through- 
out the Earth, with their Snakes and Torches, 
fliall be thrown into the Abyfs, to fting and 
prey upon one another. All evil and mifchie- 
vous Paflions fiiall be extinguiflAl ; and that 
not in Men only, but even in Brute Creatures, 
according to the Prophets. The Lanib and the 
Lion fl)all lie down together^ a?td the fuc'ki7tg 
Child fiall play with the 'Bafilish Happy 
Days, v/hen not only the Temple of Janu<s 
iliall be fliut up for a Thoufand Years, and the 
Natiojis [kail heat their /words into plough- 
(hares : but all Enmities and Antipathies fhall 
ceafe, all a(Ei:s of Hoftility, throughout all 
Nature. And this Univerfal Peace is a De- 
monftration alfo of the former CharaiEter, 
Univerfal Tlenty : for where there is Want 
and Neceflitoufnefs, there will be quarrelling. 

Fourthly, ^Tis a Kingdom of Paghteournefs, 
as well as of Peace. Tiiefe alfo muft go toge- 
ther : 

Concerning the New Heavens^ he. 267 

ther ; for unrighteous Perfons will not live 
long in Peace, no more than indigent Perfons. 
The Tfalmift therefore joins them together : 
and Tlenty alfo, as their neceflary Preferva- 
tive, in his Defcription of the Kingdom of 
Chrift, Tjal. 85. 10, 11, 12. Mercy and truth 
are met together : PJghteou[?iefs and Teace 
have Jdjjed each other. Truth pall fpring out 
of the Earthy and right eoufrefs fiall look down 
from Heaven. Tea^ the Lord (I)all give good^ 
and our Laud fiall yield her increafe. This 
will not be a Medley-State, as the prefent 
World is, good and bad mingled together ; but 
a chofen Generation^ a royal 'Vriefthood^ an holy 
Nation^ a -peculiar Teople. Thofe that have 
a part in the firft RefurreQion, the Scripture 
pronounceth them //(?/)' and "Blefjed: and fays, 
The fecond death (ludl have no -power over 
them. Satan alfo is bound and fhut up in the 
bottomlefs Pit, and has no liberty of tempting 
or feducing this People, for a Thoufand Years: 
but at the end of that Time, he vvill meet 
with a degenerate Crew, feparate and Aliens 
to the Holy City, that will make Waragainft 
it, and perifli in the Attempt. In a word, thofe 
that are to enjoy tliis State, are always dillin- 
guiiliM from the Multitude, as People redeem- 
ed from the Eartli, {qApoc. 5. 9.) That Iiavc 
wafh'd their Robes, and made them white in 
the Blood of the Lamb ; and are reprefented as 
Viftorsover the World ; with fuch other Cha- 
racters as are incompetible to any but the 
Righteous, Ch.j.iA. C/6. 14. 3^4. Ch.21.2j. 


2 68 The Theory of the E a r t h.' 

Fifthly, This will be a ftate under a peculiar 
divine prefence and conduft. It is not eafie 
indeed to determine the manner of tliis pre- 
fence, but the Scripture plainly imph'es fome 
extraordinary divine prefence to enlighten and 
enliven that ftate. When the New Jerufalem 
was come down, St. Joh/i fays, eApoc, 21.5. 
eAfid I heard a great voice out of HeaveUy 
faying^ behold the Tabernacle of God is with 
Men : and he will dwell with them^ and 
they fl?all he his Teople : and God himfelf 
Jball he with them a?id he their God, And the 
like is promisM to the Palm-bearing Company, 
Chaf. 7. 15. where they are admitted to the 
priviledges of the New Jerufalem, When 
our Saviour was incarnate, and vouch(afed to 
dwell amongft the Children of Men, the fame 
Phrafe is us'd by this fame Author, yjc^yoxn. Joh. 
I. 14. The Word was madeflefl)^ and Taherna- 
cled amongft us: and we heheld his glory ^ &c. 
We read it, He dwelt amo7tgfz us^ bur rendered 
more clofely, it is, He fet his Tabernacle amongft 
us. And that which the Hebrews call the 
njoiy Shehinahj or divine prefence^ Maimon. 
Mor. Nev.far. 1. c. 25. comes from a word of 
the like figniiication and found with the 
Greek word here us'd. Therefore there will 
be a Shekinah in that Kingdom of Chrift ; but 
as to the mode of it, I am very willing to 
Gonfefs my ignorance. 

The lail CharaOier that belongs to this ftate, 
or rather to thofe that enjoy it, is, that they arp 
Ixjngs, and Tritfis unto God. lliis is a cha- 
racler oktn repeated in Scripture, -^xdA therefore 

Concerning the New Heavens^ ^c. 269 

the more to be regarded. It occurs thrice in 
the oApocahffe in formal Terms, Ch. i. 6. Ch. 
5. lo. Ch. 20. 6. And as to the Regal dignity 
apart,, that is further expreft, either by the 
^Donation of a Kj?igdom^ as in T)anieVs phrafe, 
Chafi 7. 18, 22, 27. Or by flacmg nfon 
Thrones^ with a judicial power ; which is the 
New Teflament ftyle, Mat. 19. 28. Lnh 22. 
29, 50. Revel. 2o» 4. Thefe two Titles, no doubt, 
are intended to comprehend the higheft ho- 
nours that we are capable of: thefe being the 
higheft dignities in every Kingdom ; and fucli 
as were by the Antients, both in the Eaft and 
in the Weft, commonly united in one and the 
lame Perfon. Their Kings being Priefts, like 
Melchifedeck^ or as the Roman Emperour was 
Tontifex Maximus, But as to the Sacerdotal 
charaftcr, that feems chiefly to refpeft the 
temper of the Mind ; to fignifie a People de- 
dicated to God and his Service, feparate from 
the World, and from fecular affairs, fpending 
their time in devotion and contemplation, which 
will be the great employments of that happy 
ftate. For where there is Eafe, Peace, anct 
Plenty of all Things; refin\l Bodies, and puri- 
fied Minds, there will be more inclination to 
intellefltual exercifes and entertainments: which 
they may attend upon, without any diftraftion, 
having neither want, pain, nor worldly bufinefs. 
The Title of Al/V/q' implies a confluence of 
all Things that conftitutc temporal happinefs, 
n'is the higheft tiling we can wiPn any in this 
World, to be a King. So as the Regn'l dignity 
feems to comprehend al! the Goods of Fortune, 
or external felicity : And the Sacerdotal^ the 


270 The Theory of the Earth. 

Goods of the Mind, or internal, both wlijch 
concur in the conftitution of true happinefs. 
There is alfo a force and emphafis ia 
this notion, of the Saints leing made l\jngs^ 
if we confider it comparatively^ with refpeft 
to what they were before ia this World; where 
they were not only mean and defpicable, m 
fubje8:ion and fervilitVt, but often under perfe- 
cution, abusM and trampled upon, by the fecu- 
lar and Ecclefiaftical Powers. But nou'" the 
Scene is chang\l, and you fee the reverfe of 
Providence, according as e^dhraham faid to the 
Rich-Man, Son^ remember that thou in thy 
life time receivedfi thy good things, and like^ 
wife Lazarus evil things, "Bta now he is codu 
forte d and thou art tormented. Now they are 
fet upon Thrones and Tribunals, who were 
before arraigned as Criminals, and brought 
before tyrannical Judicatures. They are now 
Laws and Law-givers to themfelves, in a true 
ftate of Royal Liberty, neither under the do- 
mination of evil Men, nor of their own evil 

Some poffibly may think, that this high 
charafter of lei?ig made Triefts and Kjngs to 
God^ is not general to all that enjoy the Millen- 
7iitim^ but a prerogative belonging to the Apo- 
ftles and fomeofthe chief Martyrs, who are 
eminently rewarded for their eminent fervices* 
But Scripture, as far as I perceive, applies it 
to all that inherit that Kingdom. The redeemed 
out of every kindred^ and tongue, and people j 
and nation^ are made Kjngs aiid Triefis to Gody 
and JJ;aIl reign on the Earthy o^dpoc. 5. 9, ic. 


C oncer 711 ng the New Heavens^ &:c, 271 

And in the 10th chaf.ver. 6. all the Sons of 
the firft Refiirreftion are made Trie/Is of God 
mid fijall reig7i with him a thouj'and 'jears. 
Here is no diftinftion or difcrimination thus 
far. Not that we llippofe an univerfal equality 
of conditions in the Millennial ftate, but as 
to all thefe characters which we have given of 
it, I do not perceive that they are reftrain'd or 
confinM by Scripture to fingle Perfons, but 
make the general happinefs of that ftate, and 
are the Portion of every one that is admitted 
into the New Jerufdem. 

Others poffibly may think that this privi- 
ledge of the firft RefurreBiou is not common 
to all that enjoy the Millennial State. For 
tho' St. John^ who is the only perfon that hath 
made exprefs mention of the Jirfi Refurrefiion^ 
and of the thoufand years Reign of Chrifl:, 
does joyn thefe two as the fame thing, and 
common to the fame perfons ; yet I know there 
are fome that would diftinguiih them as things 
of a different extent, and alfo of a different 
Nature. They fuppofe the Martyrs only will 
>ife-from the Dead ; and will be immediately 
tranfiated into Heaven, and there pafs their 
MiWerinium in celeflial glory. While the Church 
is ftill here below, in her MiWennra-fii^ fuch as 
it is ; a Hate indeed better than ordinary, and 
free from -per fecut ion , but obnoxious to all the 
inconveniences of our prcfent mortal Life, and 
a medly of good and bad People, without repa- 
ration. This is fuch an Idea of the Millenniumy 
as, to my eye, hath neither beauty in it, nor 
foundation in Scripture. That the Citizens 


27X The Theory of the Earth. 

of the New ^erufalem are not a mifcellaneous 
company, but a Community of righteous 
Perfons, we have noted before, and that the 
ftate of Nature will be better than it is at 
prefent. But, befides this, w^hat warrant have 
they for this Afcenfion of the Martyrs into 
Heaven at that time ? Where do we read of 
that in Scripture ? And in thofe things that are 
not matters of Natural Order, but of Divine 
Oeconomy, we ought to be very careful how 
we add to Scripture. 

The Scripture fpeaks only of the Refurrec- 
tion of the Martyrs, oAfoc^ 20, 45. But not a 
word concerning their Afcenfion into Heaven. 
Will that be vifible ? We read of our Saviour's, 
Refurreclion and Afcenfion, and therefore w^e^ 
have reafon to affirm them both. We read 
alfo of the RefurreQion and Afcenfion of the 
Witnejjes^ (oAfoc. \i,) inaugurate fenfe, and in 
that fenfe we may aiTert them upon good 
grounds. But as to the Martyrs, we read of 
their Refurreftion only, without any thing ex- 
preft or imptyM about their Afcenfion. By 
what Authority then Oiall we add this .New- 
Notion to the Hiitory or Scheme of the MiU 
lennium ? The Scripture on the contrary^ 
makes mention of the defcent of the New 
Jerufalem^ oApoc. 21. 2. making the Earth the 
Theatre of all that affair. And the Camp 
of the Saints is upon the Earth, ver. 9. and 
thefe Saints are the fame Perfons, fb far as can 
be collected from the text, that rife fi^om the- 
dead^ and reigrPd with Chrift^ and were Triefts 
toGody ve;\ 4, 5,6. Neither is there any di- 


Comermng the New Heavens^ &c. 27 j 
ftinOiioa mcidc, that I find, by St. Joh?!^ of two 
forts of Saints in the Mille?mium^ the one in 
Heaven, and the other upon Earth. Lall;ly, 
The four and twenty Elders, ch. 5. 10. tho' 
they were Kjngs and Trie] is mito God^ were 
content to reign upon Earth. Now who Caa 
you fuppofe of a fuperiour order to thefe four 
and twenty Elders : Whether they reprefent 
the twelve Patriarchs and twelve Apoflles, or 
whomfoever they reprefent, they are plac'd 
next to him that fits upon the Throne, and 
they have Crowns of Gold upon their Heads, 
Ch, 4. 4. Qh. 1 1. 16. There can be no Marks 
of honour and dignity greater than thefe are ; 
and therefore feeing thefe higefl: Dignitaries 
in the Millennium or future Kingdom of 
Chrifl:, are to reign upon Earh, there is no 
ground to fuppofe the aifumpiion of any other 
into Heaven upon that account, or upon that 

This is a fliort and general draught of the 
Millennial ftate, or future Reign of the Saints, 
according to Scripture. Wherein I have en- 
deavoured to reftifie lome miilakes or mifcon- 
ceptions about it: That viewing it in its true 
Nature, we may be the better able to judge, 
when and where it will obtain. Which is the 
next thing to be confider'd. 

Book IV, T C H A p. 

Z74 27je Theory of the E a r t h. 

Chap. VIIL 

The Third 'Profofition laid dowUj concerning 
the Time and "Place of the Millennium. 
Several oArguments ns*d to prove that it 
cannot he till after the Conflagration : and 
that the New Heavens and the New Earth 
are the true Seat of the hlejjed Millen- 

WF. .ome now to the Third and laft head 
of our Difcourfe : To determine the 
Time and "Place of the Millenniwrt, And fee- 
ing it is indifferent whether the Proofs lead or 
follow the Conclufion, we will lay down the 
Conclufion in the firfi: Place, that our bufinefs 
may be more in view ; and back it with proofs 
in the following Part of the Chapter. Our 
Third and laft Propofition therefore is this, 
That the hlejjed Millennium^ Tropof 5. (pro- 
perly fo called) according as it is defer ihd in 
Scripture^ cannot ohtain in the prefent Earthy 
7ior under the prefent confiitution of Nature 
and Trovidence ; hit is to he celeirated in the 
New Heavens and New Earthy after the Co7t^ 
fiagration. This Propofition, it may be, will 
feem a Paradox or Angularity to many, even 
of thofe that believe a Millennium ; We will 
therefore make it the bufinefs of this Chapter, 
toftate it, and prove it; by fuch Arguments 


Co7tcerning the New Heavens^ Z?:c. 275 

as are manifeftly founded in Scripture and in 

And to prevent miftakes, we muft premlfe 
this inthcfirrt Place ; That, tho' the BleffedM//- 
lennium will not be in this Earth, yet we 
allow that the ftate of the Church liere, will 
grow much better than it is at prefent. Tliere 
will be a better Idea of Chriftianity, and ac- 
cording to the Prophecies a full Refurret'iion of 
the iVitiiCjles^ and an oAfcenjion into power, 
and the Tenth Part of the City will fall ; 
which things imply eafe from Perfecution, 
The Converfion of fome Part of the Chriftian 
World to the reformed Faith, and a confider- 
able diminution of the Power of Antichrift. 
But this rtill comes flidrt of the happinefs and 
glory wherein the future Kingdom of Chrift 
is reprefented. Which cannot come to pafs 
till the Ma?i. of Sin be deftroy'd, with a total 
deftru&ion. After the Refurreftion of the 
Witnelfes, there is a Third WOE yet to come : 
and how long that will laft, does not appear. 
If it bear proportion with the preceding fVOESy 
it may laft fome hundreds of years. And we 
cannot imagine the Mille?imum to begin till 
that WOE be finilh'd. As neither till the Vials 
be poured out, in the 1 51^/? Cbaj). wliich cannot 
be all pour'd out till after the Refurreftion of 
the WitnelTes; thofe Viah being the laft 
plagues that compleat the deftruclion of 
Antichrift. Wherefore allowing that the 
Church, upon the Refurrettion and Afcenfion 
of the Witnefles, will be advanced into a bet- 
ter condition, yet that condition cannot be the 

T 2 Mil- 

276 The Theory of the E a r t h: 

Millennial ftate ; where the Beaft is utterly 
deftrovM, and Satan bound, and caft into the 
bottomlels Pit. 

This being preniisM, let us now examine 
what grounds there are for the Tranflation of 
that blefled ftate into the New Heavens and 
New Earth : feeing that Thought, it may be, 
to many Perfons, will appear new and extra- 
ordinary. In the firft Place, We fuppofe it 
out of difpute, that there will be New Hea- 
vens and a New Earth after the Conflagration. 
This was our firft Propofition, and we depend 
upon it, as fufficiently provM both from Scrip- 
ture and Antiquity. This being admitted, 
How will you ftock this New Earth ? What 
ufe will you put it to ? 'Twill be a much nobler 
Earth, and beter built than the prefent : and 
'tis pity it fliould only float about, empty and 
ufelefs, in the wild Air. If you will not make 
it the feat and habitation of the Juii in the 
bleffed Mille?imum^ what will you make it ? 
How will it turn to account ? V/hat hath Pro- 
vidence defign'd it for ? We muft not fuppofe 
New Worlds made without counfel or defign. 
And as, on the one hand, you cannot tell what 
to do with this New Creation, if it be not 
thus employM : fo, on the other hand, it is 
every way fitted and fuited to be an happy 
and Paradifiacal habitation, and anfwers all 
the natural Charafters of the Millennial fl:ate ; 
which is a great prefumption that it is defign'd 
for it. 

But to argue this more clofely upon Scrip- 
ture-grounds. St. T^ter fays, tlie Righteous 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. 277 

fliall inhabit die New Heavens and the New 
Earth: iTet, 3. ij. Neverthelefs^ accordirig 
to his pro?}i2J'e^ we look for New Heavens and 
TEOUSNESS : tliat is, a Righteous People, 
as we have fliewn before. But who are thcTe. 
Righteous People ? That's the great queftioyi. 
If you compare St. Ttter'^s New Heavens and 
New Earth with St. John's, ^Apoc. zt. i, 2. 
it will go far tov/ards the refblutioa of this que- 
ftion: For St. John feems plainly to make the luy 
habitants of the New Jerr/falem to be in this 
N^ew Earth. I faw, fays he, Nezi^ Heavens 
and a New Zcirth^ and the New JeYtvfaJem 
dejcending from God out of Heaven ; therefore 
defcending iato this Nezio Earthy which he had 
nientionM immediately before. And there the 
Tabernacle of God was with nien^ ver. 5. and 
there He that fat upon the Throne, faid, "Behold 
1 7nake all things New. Referring ftill to this 
New Heavens and New Earth, as the Theatre 
where all thefe Things are aQ;ed, or all tliefe 
Scenes exliibited : from the firft Verfe to the 
Eighth- Now the A^ew Jerufale?^ ftate being 
the lame with the Millennial, if the one be in 
the New Heavens and New Earth, the other 
is there alfo. And this interpretation of St. 
John\ word is confirmed and fully afflir'd to us 
by the Prophet Ifaiah ; who alio placet h the 
Joy and rejoycing of the New J^irufaletn in the 
New Heavens and New Earth : Cliap. 65. 
17, 18. For behold I create new Heavens a?id 
anew Earth: and the former fiall not be re* 
memlred: but be )ou glad a?id re]o)ce for ever 
r 5 " h{ 

27 S The Theory of the E a r t hJ 

271 that which I create : for hehoJd^ I create jT^- 
rr/falem a re]oycing^ a?id her Teo^Ie a joj. 
Namely, in that New Heavens and New 
Earth. Wliich anfwers to St. John^ Vifion of 
the New Jerufalem being let down upon the 
New Earth. 

To thefeReafons, and deduftions from Scrip- 
ture, we might add the teftimony of feveral 
of the Fathers ; I mean of thofe that were Mil- 
lennaries. For we are fpeaking now to fuch as 
beh'eve the MiJlenniumy but place it in the 
prefent Earth before the Renovation ; whereas 
the antient Millennaries fiipposM the regenera- 
tion and renovation of the World before the 
Kingdom of ChriPc came. As you may fee in 
^ Iremtis^ (a) ^jiijTin Martyr^ (b) TertiAlian^ 
(c) LaHa?it2us^ and (d) the Author ad Ortho- 
doxos. And the negled; of this, I look upon 
«s one reafon, as we noted before, that brought 
that doctrine into difcredit and decay. For 
when they placM the Kingdom of the Saints 
upon this Earth, it became more capable of 
being abus'd, by fanati:al fpirius, to the diftur- 
bance of the World, and tlie iuvafion of the 
rights of the Magiftrates, Civil or EcclefiafH- 
cal, under that notion of Saints. And made 
them alfo dream of fenfual pleafures, fuch as 
they fee in this Life : Or at leaft gave an oc- 
cafion and opportunity to thofe, that had a 
IT^ind to make the doctrine odious, of charging 
it with thefe confequences. All thefe abufes 
»■" - . , , ' 

^ i/, 5. ch. 32, ^f. (a^) Dial, Cum Tryph. (bj Contra Marc. 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. 279 

are cut ofF, and thefe fcandals prevented, by 
placing the Millennium aright. Namely, not 
in this prefcnt Life, or on this prefeiit Earth, 
but in the New Creation, wh.ere Peace and 
Righteoufnefs will dwell. And this is our 
firft Argument why we place the MiHennium 
in the New Heavens and New Earth: and 
'tis taken partly, you fee, from the reafon of 
the thing it felf, the difficulty of affigning any 
otlier wit of the New Earth, and its fitnefs for 
this ; and partly from Script ui^e- evidence, and 
partly from Antiquity. 

The fecond argument for our opinion, is this; 
The prefent conftitution of Nature will not 
!)ear that happinefs, that is promised in the 
Millennium, or is not confident with it. The 
dileafes of oitr Bodies, the difordersof our PaC 
fions, the incommodroufnefs of external Na- 
ture ; Indigency, fervility, and the unpeacea- 
blenefsof the World ; Thefe are things in- 
confiftent with the happinefs that is promised 
in the Kingdom of Chrift. But thefe are con- 
ftant attendants upon this Life, and infepara- 
ble from the prefent ftate of Nature. Suppofe 
the Millennium was to begin Nine or Ten 
Years lience, as fome pretend it will. How 
fl'iall this World, all on a fudden, be metamor- 
phosed into that happy ftate? <^ifoc. 23. 4. 
No more jorrow^ nor crying^ nor -^ain^ nor 
deathy fays St. "^ohn : <tAU former things are 
fa ft away. But how pad away ? Shall we 
not have the fame Bodies : and the fam.e ex- 
ternal Nature : and the fame corruptions of the 
Air : and the fame excelfes and iatemperature 

1 4 of 

sSo The Theory of the Earth. 

of Seafons ? Will there nor be the fame bar- 
rennefs of the Ground : the fame number of 
People to be fed : and muft they not get their 
living by the fweat of their brows, with 
fervile labour and drudgery ? How then are 
all former evils paft away ? And as to pub- 
lick affairs, while there are the fame ne- 
ceffities of humane Life, and a diftintlion of 
Nations, thofe Nations fometimes will have 
contrary interefts, will clafh and interfere one 
with another : whence differences, and con- 
tefts, and Wars will a rife, and the Thoiifa?id 
Tears Truce^ I am afraid, will be often broken. 
We might add alio, that if our Bodies be not 
chang'd, we fliall be fubjefl: to the fame Ap- 
petites, and the fam.e Paffions ; and upon 
thofe. Vices will grow, as bad Fruit upon a 
bad Tree. To conclude. So long as our Bo- 
dies are the fame, external Nature the fame, 
the Necellities of Human Life the fame : 
Which things are the Roots of Evil ; you may 
call it a Millennitim^ or what you pleafe, but 
there w^ill be ftill'Dileafes, Vices, Wars, Tears 
and Cries, Pain and Sorrow in this MiWen^ 
mum ; and if fo, 'tis a Millennium of your own 
making ; for that which the Prophets defcribe 
is quite another thing. 

Furthermore, if you fuppofe the Millennium 
will be upon this Earth, and begin, it may be, 
ten or twenty Years hence. How will it be in- 
trpduc'd ? How flhall we know when we are 
in it, or when we enter upon it ? If we con- 
tinue the fame, and all Nature continue the 
fimej, we Ihall npf 4ifcern when we flip into 
■ ' " ' the 

Concernhig the New Heavens^ &c. 281 

die Millennium. And as to the Moral State 
of it, ftall we all, on a fuddcn, hecome l<j?igs 
andTriefis to God? Wherein will that Change 
confift, and how will it be wrought ? St. "John 
makes the Firfi Refurrectio?i introduce the 
Millennium; and that's a confpicuous Mark 
and Boundary. But as to the modern or vul- 
gar Millennium, I know not how 'tis ufher'd 
in. Whether they fuppofe a vifible Refur- 
reclion of the Martyrs, and a vifible Alcen- 
fion ; and that to be a Signal to all the World 
that the Jubilee is beginning ; or whether 'tis 
gradual and creeps upon us infenfibly ; or the 
Fall of the BeafI: marks it. Thefe things need 
both Explication and Proof; for to me they 
feem either arbitrary or unintelligible. 

But to purfue our Defign and Subjefl*. 
That which gives me the greatefl: Scandal ia 
this Doftrine of the vulgar Millennium, is, 
their joining things together that are really 
inconfill-ent ; a natural World of one Colour, 
and a moral World of another. They will 
make us happy in fpight of Nature : as the 
Stoicks would make a Man happy in Tbrdrtris 
his 'Bull ; fo muft the Saints be in full Blifs in 
the Millennium, tho' they be under a fit of 
the Gout, or of the Stone. For my part, I 
could never reconcile Pain to Happinefs : It 
feems to me to deftroy and drown all Pleafure, 
as a loud Noife does a ftill Voice : It affcfls 
the Nerves with Violence, and over-bears all 
other Motions. But il-^ according to this mo- 
dern Suppofition, they have the fame Bodies, 
and breath the fame Air, ia the Millennium, 


2^2 The Theory of the Earth. 

as we do now, there will be both private and 
epidemical Difiempers, in the fame Manner 
ss now. Suppofe then a Plague comes and 
fweeps away half an hundred thoufand Saints 
in the Millennium, is this no Prejudice or Dif- 
honour to the State ? Or a War makes a Na- 
tion defolate ; Oi', in fingle Perfons, a lingring 
Dileafe makes life a Burthen ; or a burning 
Fever, or a violent Cholick tortures them to 
death. Where fuch Evils as thefe reign, chri- 
ften the thing what you will, it can be no bet- 
ter than a Mock-Millennium. Nor fliali I 
ever be perfwaded that fuch a State as our 
prefent Life, where an aking Tooth, or an 
aking Head, does ib difcom^Kjfe the Soul, as tQ 
make her unfit for Bufmefs, Stud\-, Devotion^ 
or any ufeful Employment : And that all the 
Powers of the Mind, all its Virtue, and all its 
Wifdom, are noi: able to ftop thefe little Mo« 
tions, or to fupport them with Tranquility : 
I can never perfwade my felf, I fay, that fuch 
a State was defign'd by God or Nature, for a 
State of Happinefs* 

Our Third Argument is tliis : The future 
Kingdom of Chrilt will not take place, till the 
Kingdom of Antichrift be wholly defl-roy'd. 
But that wii] not be wholly deftroy'd till the 
end of the World, and tlie appearing of our 
Saviour. Therefore the Millennium will not 
be till then. Chrifl: and Antichrift cannot 
reign upon Earth together : their Kingdoms 
are oppofite, as Light and Darknefs, Befides, 
the Kingdom of Chrift is univerfal, extends 
to all the Nations, and leaves no room for 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &:c. 28} 

other Kingdoms at that time. Thus it is de- 
fcrib'd in ^'Darnel^ in the Place mention'd be- 
fore, Chaf. 7. i^, 14. I faw in the Nightvi^ 
ftons^ and heboid^ one like the Son ofman^ came 
with the Clouds of Heaven^ and came to the 
oAncient of days ; oAnd there was given him 
dominion a7id glory ^ and a Kjngdom ; that all 
Teople^ Natio7is^ and Languages^ fjotdd jerve 
him. And again, ver. 27. eAnd the l\ingdom 
and dominion.^ and the greatnefs of the Kjng- 
dom under the whole heave?ij fiall he giveu to 
the feo-ple of the Saints of the moft High ; 
whofe Kjngdom is an everlafti?ig Kjngdom^ and 
all dominion fludl ferve and obey him. The 
fame Character of Univerfality is given to the 
Kingdom of Chrift by T)avidj Pfal. 2. and 
Pfil. 72. Ifaiah., 2. 2. and other Prophets. But 
the moft direfl: Proof of this, is from the 
eApocahffe : where the 'Beafi and falje Tro- 
fhet are thrown into the Lake of Fire and 
Brimftone, (^Chaj^. 19. 20.) before the Mil- 
lennium comes on: ch. 20. This, heing cafl 
into a Lake of fire hurning with brimftone., 
muft needs fignify utter Deftruflion. Not a 
diminution of Power only, but a total Perdi- 
tion and Confumption. And that this was 
before the Millennium, both the Order of the 
Narration fliows, and its Place in the Pro- 
phecy ; and alfo becaufe notice is taken, at 
the end of the Millennium, of the Beaft and 
falfe Prophet's being in the Lake of Fire, as 
of a thing paft, and formerly tranfitled. For 
when Satan, at length, is thrown into the firme 
Lake, 'tis faid, He is thrown into the Lake 


2S4 ^^^ Theory of the Earth. 
Gt* Fire and Brimftone, where the T^eafl 
ani fal[e Troj^het are^ Apoc, 20. 10. They 
were there before, it feems'j namely, at the 
be<^inning of the Millennium ; and now at 
the conclafion of it, the Devil is thrown in to 
them. Befides, the Ligation of Satan proves 
this Point efiFeftually. For fo long as Anti- 
chrift reigns, Satan cannot be faid to be bound ; 
but he is bound at the beginning of the Mil- 
lennium , therefore Antichrift's Reign was 
then totally expired. Laflly, the Deftruction 
oi "Babylon^ and the Deftruftion of Antichriit. 
go together : but you fee 'Bal)io?i utterly and 
finally deftroy'd, {oAfoc. 18, and 19.) before 
the Millennium comes on. I fay, utterly and 
iinaWy deftroyed. For flie is not only faid to 
"be made an utter Defolation, but to be con- 
lum'd by Fire ; and abforpt as a Milftone 
thrown into the Sea ; and that he fliall be 
found no more at all, Chaf.^ 18.21. Nothing 
can exprefs a total and univerfai Deftruflion 
npore effeftually, or more emphatically. 
And this is before the Millennium begins ; 
as you may fee both by the Order of the 
Prophecies, and particularly, in that upon this 
PeifruSion, the Hallelujah's are fung,C)6. 19. 
;^d concluded thus, ver. 6, 7. Hallelujah j for 
the God 07nni^otent reigneth. Let us he glad 
and rejoice^ and give honour to him ; for the 
marriage of the Lamb is come^ a?id his wife 
hath made her felf ready. This, I^ fuppofe, 
every one allows to be the Millennial State, 
•which now approaches, and is making ready, 
upon the Deftructionof S^^^/^/^/. 


Concerning the Mew Heavens^ ^c 2S> 

Thus much for the firft part of our Argu- 
ment, That the Kinfrdom of Chrift will not 
take place, till the Kingdom of AntichrilT: be 
wholly deftroyM. We are now td prove the 
Second Part : That the Kingdom of Anti- 
chrilt will not be wholly deftroy'd till the end 
of the World, and the coming of our Saviour, 
This, one would think, is fufficiently prov'^d 
from St. Tad\ Words alone, 2 Thef 2. 8. 
The Lord (I) all confmne the man of fin ^ wlio is 
fuppos'd the fame with Antichriil:, with the 
Spirit of his mouthy andjlmll deftroy him uvtb 
the hrightncfs of his cmiing. He will not thea 
bedeftroyed befofe the coming of our Saviour; 
and that will not be till the end of the World* 
For St. Teter fays, oAt'i. 5. ii. The Heaven 
mufl receive him^ fpeaking of Chrif!:, until the 
times of refcitittion of all thijtgs : that is, tlie 
Renovation of the World. And if we con- 
fider that our Saviour's coming will be in flame's 
of Fire ^ as the fame Apoftle, St. *P/^r^/ tells us 
2Thejf. I. 7, 8. 'tis plain, that his coming Vv'iil 
not be till the Conflagration : in which Intt 
Flames Antichrifl: will be univerfally deftroy'd. 
This Manner of Dcftruftion agrees alfo with 
the oApocalypfe and with 'Daniel^ and the 
Brophets of the Old Teftament. As to the 
oApocalypfe^ 'Bahlon^ the Seat of Antichrift 
is reprefented tliere as deftroy'd by Fire, 
Chap. 1 8. 8, f 8. Chap. 14. 11. Chap, 19. j, 20* 
And in T>aniel, when the Beaft is deftroy'd. 
Chap. 7. II, His body za^as given to the him- 
ing flr,me. Then as to the other Prophets, 
they do not, you know, fpeak of Antichrift 


28(5 The Theory of the Earth. 

or the Beaft in Terms, but under the Types of 
"Babylon, Tyre^ and fuch-like; and thele Pla- 
ces or Princes are reprefented by them as to be 
deftroy^d by Fire, Ifa. 13. 19, Jer. 51. 25. 
Ezeh. 2S. 18. 

So much for this Third Argument. The 
Fourth Ai'gument is this : The Future King- 
dom of Chrift will not be till the Day of Judg- 
ment and the Refurreftion : But that will not 
be till the end of the World. Therefore, 
neither the Kingdom of Chrift. By the Day 
of Judgment here, I do not mean the final 
and univerfal Judgment : Nor by the Refur- 
reftion, the final and univerfal Refurrection ; 
for thefe will not be till after the Millennium. 
But we underftand here the firft Day of Judg- 
ment and the firft Refurreftion, which will 
be at the end of this prefent World ; according 
as St. John does diftinguiQi them, in the 20th 
Chapter of the oApocalypfe, Now that the 
Millennium w^ill not be till the Day of Judg- 
ment in this Senfc, we have both the Tefti- 
monies of T)aniel and of St. Joh?L T)aniely 
in Cha^, 7. ver. 9,lffc. ver. 26, or. fuppofesthe 
Beaft to rule till judgment jl^allfit^ andthen they 
Jlmll take away bis dominion, and it fhall be 
given to thePeople of the Saints of the m.gft 
High. St. John makes an explicite Declara- 
tion of both thefe, in his 20th Chapter of the 
c.4pocahffe, which is the great Direclory in this 
Point of the Millennium ; He fays there were 
Thrones fet, as for a Judicature, ver. 4. Then 
there was a Rcfurrection from the Dead, and 
thofe that rife^ reigned with Chrift a Thou- 


Comemtng the Nevo Heavem^ &c, 2S^ 

find Ye^rs- Here's a Judicial Sedion,. a Re- 
furreclion, and the Reign of Chrift ioincd to- 
gether. Thei*e is alio another Paflage ia 
St. ^ohn tliat joins the Judgment of the Dead 
with the Kingdom of Chrilt : 'Tis in the 
nth Chapter, under the Seventh Trumpet ; 
the Words are thefe, ver. 15. oAndthe feventb 
oAngel founded^ and there were great voices 
in heaven^ f^y^^igt the kingdoms of this zvorld 
are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his 
Chrift : and he Jhall reign for ever and ever. 
oAnd the four a?id twenty Elders^ &rc. oAnd the 
nations ^a^ere angr)\ and thy wrath is comr^ 
and the ti?}te of the 'Vead^ that they ff)ould be 
judged^ and that thou(!)otddfi give reward unto 
thy Jervants the Trophets^ and to the Saints^ 
a?id them that fear thy name. Here are two 
things plainly exprefsM and link'd together. 
The judging of the Dead^ and the Kjngdomof 
Chrift ; wherein the Prophets and Saints are 
rev/arded. Now as tl'ie judging of the 'T>ea<l 
is not in this Life, fo neither is the Rew^ard 
of the Prophets and Saints in tliis Life ; as w^e 
are taught fufficicntly in the Gofpel, and by 
the Apofltes, Mat, 19. 28. i Th€j]\ t. 7, 2 TinK 
4. 8. I Tet, 1. 7. and ch. ^, 4. Therefore the 
Reign and Kingdom of Cliriil, wdiich is join- 
ed with thefe two, cannot be in this Life, or 
before tlie end of the World. And as a fur- 
ther Tertimony and Confirmation of this, w^e 
may obfervethatSt. 'Vaul to Timothy hath join\l 
togetherthefethreethings ; The Q.4ppearance of 
Chrift^ the Reign of Chrift^ and the judging of 
the T)ead. I charge thee therefore before God 


288 The Theory of the E a r t Hct' 

and the Lord Jefiis Chrifi^^ who /I;aU judge the 
quick and the dead^ at his a^-^earing^ and his 
Kj7tji^dom^ 2 Tim. 4. i. 

This might alfo be prov'd from the Order, 
Extent and Progrefs of the Prophecies of the 
cApocalvpfe ; whereof fome are fuch as reach 
to the end of the World, and yet mufl: be ac- 
compliflVd before the Millennium begins, as 
the Vials. Others are fo far already advanced 
towards the end of the World, as to leave no 
room for a Thoufand Years Reign ; as the 
Trumpets. But becaufe every one hath his 
own Interpretation of thefe Prophecies, and 
it would be tedious here to prove any fingle 
Hypothefis in Contradiftinftion to all the reft, 
we will therefore leave this Remark, to have 
more or lefs Effeft, according to the Minds it 
falls upon ; and proceed to our Fifth Argu- 

Fifthly, The New Jerufalem State is the 
fame with the Millennial State ; but the New 
"Jerufalem State will not be till the end of the 
World, or till after the Conflagration : There- 
fore neither the Millennium. That the New 
Jerufalem State is the fame with the Mi^ 
lennium, is agreed upon, I think, by all Mil- 
lennaries, ancient and mod(irn. Juftin Martyr^ 
Ireium and TertuUian^ fpeak of it in that 
fenfe ; and fo d.o the latter Authors, fo far as 
I have obferv'd. And St. John feems to give 
them good Authority for it : In the 2otli 
Chapter of the eApocaljffej he fays, the Camp 
of the Saints^ and the Beloved City were be- 
fieg'd by Satan and his Giagantick Crew ?t 


Concerning the New Heave7is^ Sec. 2S9 

the end of the Millennium. That T.eloved 
City is the New '"Jernfalem^ and you fee it is 
the fame with the Camp of the Saints, or, at 
leaft, contemporary with it. Befides, the 
Marriage of the Lamb was in, or at the Ap- 
pearance of the New Jerufale?}}^ for that was 
the Spoufe of the Lamh^ Apoc. 21. 2. Now 
this Spoufe was ready, and this Marriage was 
faid to be come, at the Deftruction oVBdhy-^ 
lon^ which was the beginning of the Millen- 
nium, C/?^/?. 18. 7. Therefore the New'Je- 
rufalem run all along with the Millennium, 
and was indeed the fame thing under another 
Name. Laitly, What is this Nezk^ Jen/fakm^ 
if it be not the fame with the Millennial State ? 
It is promised as a Reward to the Sufferers for 
Chrill, G/4p<?c. 5. 12. and you fee its wonderful 
Privileges, Cb. 21. ^, 4. and yet it is not Hea- 
ven and Eternal Life; for it is'faid to come 
down from God cut of Heaven, Chap. 21.2. 
and C^. J. 12. It can therefore be nothing 
but the glorious Kingdom of Chriil upon 
Earth, where the Saints fliall reign with him 
a Thoufand Years. 

Now as to the fecond part of our Argument, 
that the A^ew Jerufalem will not come down 
from Heaven till the end of the World : Of 
this St. John feems to give us a plain Proof or 
Demonftration ; for he places the New Jeru- 
Jalem in the New Heavens and New Earth, 
which cannot be till after the Conliagration. 
Let us hear his Words, e.4poc. 21. i, x. e.4'id 
t faw a New Heaven and a New Earthy for 
the fir/i Heaven and the fir fc Earth were f^af- 

Book IV. U lei 

290 The Theory cf the Earth, 

fed aW(%)\ and there was 710 more Sea. Q,4nd 
I "John [aw the Holy City^ New JerufaJe??^^ 
coming doWft from God out of Heaven : pre fa- 
red as a 'Bride adorned for her Husband. 
When the New Earth was made, he fees the 
A^ew JerufaJem coming dowia upon it ; and 
this Renovation of the Earth not being till the 
Conflagration, the New Jerufalem could not 
be till then neither. The Prophet Ifalah had 
long before faid the fame thing, tliough not 
in Terms fo exprefs ; He firil fays, 'Behold I 
create new Heavens and a new Earthy where- 
inyou fiall rejoyce : Then fubjoins immediate- 
ly, Behold^ I create Jerufalem a rejoicingy 
Ifa.65, 17, 18. This rejoicing is ftill in the 
fame Place ; in the New Heavens and New 
Earth, or in the A^ew Jerufalem. And St. John 
in a like Method, firft fets down the New 
Earth, then the New Jerufalem ; and expref- 
fes the Mind of the Prophet Ifaiah more 

This leads me to a Sixth Argument to con- 
firm our Conclufion. The Time of the Re- 
ftitutton or Kefiauration of all things^ fpoken 
of by St. "Veter and the Prophets, is the fame 
with the Millennium : But that Reftauratioa 
will not be till the coming of Chrift, and the 
end of the World : Therefore neither the Mil- 
lennium. That this Reftirution of all things 
will not be till the coming of our Saviour, 
St. "Veter declares in his Sermon, oAiis ^. 21. 
and that the coming of our Saviour will not 
be till the end of the World, or till the Con- 
flagration, both St.7^///andSt. Tc'i^^r fignifie 


Concernhig the New Heavens^ 8cc. 291 

to us, I Tne'^]\ i. 7, 8. 2 "Vet. 5. 10. ^ There- 
fore it remains only to prove, that this Refti- 
tLition of all things fpoken of here by the 
Apoftle, is the fame with the Millennium. I 
know that which it does direOily and imme- 
diately fignifie, is the Renovation of the World: 
but it mull include the Moral World as well 
as the Natural ; otherwife it cannot be truly 
faid, as St. "Veter does there, that all the Pro- 
phets have fpoken of it. And what is the 
Renovation of the Natural and Moral World, 
but the New Jerufalejn or the Millennium. 

Thefe Arguments, taken together, have, 
to me, an irrefiftible Evidence for the Proof 
of our Conclufion ; That the Bleffed Millen- 
nium cannot obtain in the prefent Earth, or 
before the Conflagration ; but when Nature 
is renewed, and the Saints and Martyrs rais'd 
from the Dead, then they fhall reign toge- 
ther with Chrift, in the New Heavens and 
New Earth, or in the Nezv Jerufakm \ Satan 
being bound for a Thoufand Years. 



292 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Chap. IX. 

The Chief Emfloymeift of the Millenninm^ 

TTT E have now done with the Subftance 
VV of our Difcourfe ; which is compre- 
hended in thefe Three Fropofitions ; 

I. eAfter the Conflagration of this World^ 

there will be New Heavens and a 
New Earth : and that Earth will be 

II. That there is an happy Millennial'State^ 

or a Future Kjngdom of Chrift and his 
Saiftts^ prophefied of and fromis'^d in 
the Old and New Te[tame?it : and re- 
ceived by the Primitive Churchy as a 
Cbrifiian and Catholick 'VoHrine. 

III. That this blefed Millennial-State^ ac- 
cording as it is defcriVd in Scripture^ 
cannot take place in the prefent Earthy 
nor 'under the prefent Conftitution of 
Nature and providence : 'But is to 
be celebrated in the New Heavejts and 
New Earthy after the Conflagration. 

Thefe Three Fropofitions fupport this 
Work j and if any of them be broken, I con- 


Concernhig the New Heavens^ &c. 293 

fefs my Defign is broken, and tliis TreatiTe is 
of no effect. But what remains to be fpoken 
to in thde laft Chapters, is more circumftan- 
tial or modal ; and an Error or Miftake in 
fuch things, does not wound any vital Part of 
the Argument. You muft now therefore lay 
afide your Severity and rigorous Cenfures ; we 
are very happy, if, in this Life, we can attain 
to the Subiiance of truth : and make rational 
Conjectures concerning Modes and Circuni- 
ftances ; where every one hath Right to offer 
his Senfe, with Modefty and Submiffion. 
Revelations made to us from Heaven \x\ tliis 
prefent State, are often incomp^eat, and do 
not tell us all : as if it was on purpofe to fet 
our Thoughts a-work to fupply the reft ; v/hich 
we may lawfully do, provided it be according 
to the Analogy of Scripture and Reafon. 

To proceed therefoue ; We fuppofe, as you 
fee, the new Heavens and the new Earth to 
be the Seat of the Mille?mium^ and that new 
Creation to be Tarrtdif.accil. Its Inhabitants 
alfo to be Righteous Perfons, the Saints of the 
moft High. And feeing the ordinary Em- 
ployments of our prefejit Life will then be 
necdlefs and fuperfeded, as Military- Affairs, 
Sea-Affairs, moft Trades and Manufactures, 
Law, Phyfick, and the laborious part of Agri- 
culture ; it may be wonder'd, how this happy 
People will beftow their Time ; what Enter- 
tainment they will Hnd in a ftate of (b much 
Eafe, and fo litde Action. To this ont might 
anfwer in fljort, by another Qiaeftion, How 
would thev have enrertain'd themfelves in 

Uj Para- 

294 2^^^ Theory of the E a r t h. 

Paradife, if Man had continued in Innocency ? 
This is a Revolution of the fame State, and 
therefore they may pafs time as well now as 
they could have done then. But to anfwer 
more particularly, befides all innocent Diver- 
fions, ingenious Converfations, and Entertain- 
ments of Friendflliip, the greated part of their 
Time will be fpent in T^evotion and Co?it€m^ 
flation. O happy Employment, and next to 
that of Heaven it felf. What do the Saints 
Above, but fing Praifes unto God, and con- 
template his Perfections. And how mean 
and defpicable, for the moft part, are the Em- 
ployments of this prefent Life, if compared 
with thofe Intelletlual Adions. If Mankind 
was divided into ten parts, nine of thofe ten 
employ their Time to get Bread to their Belly, 
and Cloaths to their Back ; And what Im- 
pertinences are thefe tQ a reafonable Soul, if 
flae was free from the clog of a Mortal Body, 
or if that could be provided for, without Trou- 
ble or lofs of time? Corporeal Labour is from 
Need and Neceflity, but intellectual Exercifes 
are matter of choice, that pleafe and perfed at 
the fame Tim.e. 

Devotion waims and opens the Soul, and 
di^pofes it to receive Divine Influences. It 
fometimes raifes the mind into an hea- 
venly Ecftafie, and fills it with a joy tliat is 
not to be expreft. When it is pure, it leaves 
a ftrong impreffion upon the Heart, of Love 
to God ; and infpires us with a contempt of 
tliis World, having tailed the Pleafares of the 
World to come. In the State wlii:h wc Ipeak 


Concerning the New Heavens^ Src. 295 

of, {cdngthoTahernacleofGodwillbewIth Men^ 
Q.4foc, 2r. 3. we may rcafonably fuppofe that 
there will be greater Effufions and Irradiations 
of the Holy Spirit, than w^e have or can expetl 
in this region of darknefs : and confcquently, 
all the ft-rength and comfort that can arifc from 
private devotion. 

And as to their publick Devotions, all beau- 
ties of Holinefs, all perfection of Divine Wor- 
fliip, will fliine in their Afiemblies. What- 
foever 'David ikys of <SV^;/and Jerufalem^ 7fal. 
84. are but fhadows of this iVew "JerufaUm^ 
and of the Glory that will be in thofe Solem- 
nities, Tjal. 87. Imagine what a Congrega' 
tion will be there of Patriarchs, Prophets, 
Apoftles, Chriftian Martyrs, and Saints of the 
firfl: rank, throughout all Ages. And thefe 
all known to one another by their Names and 
Hiftory. This very meeting together of fuch 
Perfons, muft needs create a joy unfpeakable : 
But when they unite in their Praifes to God 
and to the Lamb, w^ith pure hearts full of di- 
vine Love : when they fnig their Hallelujahs 
to him that fits upon the Throne, that hath 
wafh'd them in his blood, and redeemM them 
out of every Kingdom, and Tongue and People, 
and Nation. When, with their Palms in their 
Hands, they triumph over Sin, and Death, and 
Hell, and all the Powers of Darknefs : can 
there be any thing, on this fide Heaven, and 
a Qi-iire of Angels, more glorious or more joy- 
ful ? 

But why did I except Angels? Why may 

fjOt they be thought to be prefent at thefe Af- 

U 4 femblies ? 

296 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

femblies? In a Society of Saints and purified 
Spirits, Why fhould we think their converfe 
impoiTibla ; In the Golden Age, the Gods 
were always reprefented, as having freer inter- 
courfe with Men ; and before the Flood, we 
rnay reafonably believe it fo. I cannot think, 
Enoch was tranflated into Heaven without any 
converfe with its Inhabitants before he went 
thither. And feeing the Angels vouchfafed 
often, in former Ages, to vifit the Patriarchs 
upon Earth, we may with reafon judge, that 
they will much more converfe with the fame 
Patriarchs and holy Prophets, now they are 
rifen from the Dead, and cleansM from their 
fins, and feated in the New Jennfalem. I 
cannot but call to mind upon this occafion, 
That reprefentation which St. Taul makes to 
us, of a glorious ftate and a glorious AiTembly, 
too high for this prefent Earth : 'Tis, (Hehr. 
12. 22, i^c.) in thefe words: "^nt you are 
come unto Mount Sion^ and unto the City of the 
living Godj the heavenly "Jeruj'alem^ and to an 
imiumerahle company of oA^igels ; To the gene^ 
ral oA^femhly and Church of the Firfi-lorn^ 
which are written in Heaven ; and to God the 
"judge of a% and to the Sfirits of juft men 
7nade ferfe^t. This, I know, feveral apply to 
the Times and ftate of the Gofpel, in oppofition 
to that of the Law ; and it is introduced ia 
that manner ; But here are feveral expreflions 
too high for any prefent ftate of things ; They 
muft refpcft a future ftate, either of Heaven, 
or of the Millennial Kingdom of Chrift. And 
to, the later of thefe,expreiIions agree, and l^ave 

a pecuaar 

Concernhtg the New Heavens^ S^c. 297 

a peculiar fitnefs and applicability to it. And 
what follows in the context, ver, 26^ 27, 28. 
oAhout fiakh;g the Heavens and the Earth 
once more : Removing the former Scenes, and 
bringing on a New Kingdom that cannot be 
lliaken : All this, I fay, anfwers to the King- 
dom of Chrift, which is to be eftablifli'd in 
the New Heavens and New Earth. 

But to proceed in their publick Devotions ; 
Suppofe this Auguft Affembly, inflaniM with 
all Divine PafFions, met together to celebrate 
the Name of God ; with Angels intermixt, to 
bear a part in this Holy Exei'cife. And let this 
concourfe be, not in any Temple made with 
Hands, but under the great roof of Heaven, 
(the True Temple of the moft High,) fo as 
all the Air may be fill'd with the chearful har- 
mony of their Hymns and Hallelujahs. Then, 
in the highth of their Devotion, as they fing 
Praifes to the Lamb, and to him that fits upon 
the Throne, fuppofe the Heavens to open, and 
the Son of God to appear in his Glory, oAfoc. 
5. II. with Thoufands and Ten Thoufands of 
Angels round about him ; That their eyes may 
fee him, who, for their fakes, was crucified 
upon Earth, now encircled with Light and 
Majefty. This will raife them into as great 
tranfports as humane nature can bear: They 
will wifli to be diflblv'd, they will ftrive to 
fly up to him in the Clouds, or to breath out 
their Souls in repeated doxologies of 'Blejfing, 
ch. 5. ij. and honour^ and glory ^ and-^ovcer^ 
to him that fits u^on the Throne^ and to the 
Lamhj for ever and ever. 


29S The Theory of the E a r t h.' 

But we cannot live always in the Flames of 
Devotion. The weaknefs of our Nature will 
not fufFer us to continue long under fuch 
ftrong Paffions, and fuch intenfenefs of Mind. 
The quellion is therefore, What will be the 
ordinary employment of that Life? How will 
they entertain their thoughts, or fpead their 
time ? For we fuppofe they will not have that 
multiplicity of frivolous bufmefs that we have 
now : About our Bodies, about our Children : 
in Trades and Mechanicks: in TraiBck and 
Navigation : or Wars by Sea or Land. Thefe 
things being fwept away, wholly or in a great 
meafure, what will come in their Place ? how 
will they find work or entertainment for a 
long Life ? If, we confider, who they are 
that will have a Part in this firfl: Refurrcction, 
and be Inhabitants of that World that is to 
come, we may eafily believe that the moft con- 
ftant employment of their Life will be CON- 
TEMPLATION. Not that I exclude any 
innocent diverfions, as I faid before : The 
entertainments of friendfliip, or ingenuous con- 
verfation, but the great bufmefs and defign of 
that life is Contemplation : as preparatory to 
Heaven and eternal Glory. Ut -^aulatim a}- 
fuefcant capereT)eu?n^ L. 5. c. 51. as Irenaus 
fays, that they may, by degrees, enlarge their 
capacities, fit and acciijtom themselves to re- 
ceive God, Or, as he fays in another place, 
'Ihr4,t they may lecome capable of the Glory of 
the Father^ that is, capable of bearing the 
glory and prefence of God: capable of the 
hislicft eniovment of him, which is uiuallv 
"" ' cair'd 

Concermng the New Heavens^ &:c. 299 

call'd the "Beatifical Vifioji ; and is the condir 
tion of the Blefled in Heaven. 

It cannot be deny'd, that in fach a Millen- 
nial State, where we iliall be freed from alltiie 
Incumbrances of this Life, and provided of 
better Bodies and greater Light of Mind : It 
cannot be doubted, I fay, but that we fhall 
then be in a difpofition to make great Profi- 
ciency in the knowledge of all things. Divine 
and Intelleftual ; and confequently of making 
happy Preparations for our entring upon a 
further ftate of Glory. For there is nothing 
certainly does more prepare the Mind of 
Man for the higheft Perfeclions, than Con- 
templation, with that Devotion which natu» 
rally flows from it, as Heat follows Light. 
And this Contemplation hath aUvays a greater 
or lefs Effefl upon the Mind according to the 
PerfeGion of its Objefl:. So as the Contempla- 
tion of the Divine Nature is, of all others, the 
moll: perfeflive in it felf, and to us, according 
to our Capacities and Degree of Abftraftion. 
An lmmen[e 'Being does ftrangely fill the Soul : 
and Omnipotency, Omnifciency, and Infinite 
Goodnefs, do enlarge and dilate the Spirit, 
while it fixtly looks upon them. They raife 
ftrong Paflions of Love and Admiration, which 
melt our Nature, and transform it into the 
Mould and Image of that which we contem- 
plate. What the Scripture fays of our Tranj- 
f'jrmation into the Divine Likenefs ; what 
St. '[]ohn and the 'Vlatonifcs fay of our Uniofi 
witli God. And whatever is not Cant in the 
Mjllica] Theology^ when they tell us of being 


50O The Theory of the Ear t h.' 

deified ; all this muft fpring from thefe Sources 
of Devotion and Contemplation. They will 
change and raife us from Perfcftioa to Perfe- 
£lion, as from Glory to Glory, into a greater 
Similitude and nearer Station to the Divine 

1 he Contemplation of God and his Works, 
comprehends all things : For, the one makes 
the uncreated AYorld, and the other tlie cre- 
ated. And as the Divine Eifence and Attri- 
butes are the greateft Objecls that the Mind 
of Man can fet before it felf; fo next to that 
are the Effects and Emanations of the Divini- 
ty, or the Yv^orks of the Divine Goodnefs, 
"Wifdom and Power in the created World. 
This hath a vaft Extent and Variety, and 
would be fuScient to entertain their Time, 
in that happy State, much longer than a 
Thoufand Years ; as you will eafily grant, if 
you allow me but to point at the feveral Heads 
of thofe Specaladons. 

The Contemplation of the created World 
divides it felf into three Parts ; that of the In- 
teUeBiiul World ; that of the corporal ; and 
the Government and Aclminiftration of both, 
which is ufually call'd Trovidence, Thefe 
three, drawn into one Thought, with the 
Reafons and Proportions that refult from them, 
compofe that GRo^iNT) VDE^, which is 
the Treafury and Comprehenfion of all Know- 
ledge. Whereof we have fpoken more largely 
in the laft Chapter of the Second Book of this 
Theory^ under the name of i\\Q Mundane Idea. 
But at prefent we (liall only mention fuch Par- 

Concerning the New Heavens^ Src. joi 

ticulars, as may be thought proper Subjefls for 
tlie Meditations and Ei]quiries of thofe who 
fliall enjoy that happy State which we now 
treat of. 

As to the Intelledual World, excepting our 
own Souls, we know little, in this Region of 
Darknefs where we are at prefent, more than 
bare Names. We hear of Angels and Archan- 
gels, of Cherubins and Seraphins, of Princi- 
palities and Powers, and Thrones, and Do- 
minions. We hear the Sound of thefe Words 
with Admiration, but we know little of their 
Natures ; wherein their general Notion, and 
wherein their diftinftion confifts; what pe- 
culiar Excellencies they have, what Offices 
and Employments. Of all this we are igno- 
rant : Only in general, we cannot but fuppofc 
that there are more Orders and Degrees of In- 
telleftual Beings, betwixt us and the Almigh- 
ty, than there are Kinds or Species of living 
Creatures upon the face of the Earth ; betwixt 
Man, their Lord and Mailer, and the leaft 
Worm that creeps upon the Ground ; nay, 
than there are Stars in Heaven, or Sands up- 
on the Sea-fliore. For there is an infinite 
Diftance and Interval betwixt us and God 
Almighty; and ail that is hlld with created 
Beings of different Decrees of Perfection, ftill 
approaching nearer and nearer to their Maker. 
And when this invifible World fliall be openM 
to us, when the Curtain i> drawn, and the 
Celeftial Hierarchy fet in order before our 
Eyes, we fiiall dcfpife our felves, and all the 


302 The Theory of the V^ xkt h. 

petty Glories of a mortal Life, as the Dirt un- 
der our Feet. 

As to the Corporeal Unii^erfe, we have fome 
fhare already in tlie Contemplation and Know- 
ledge of that ; though little in comparifon of 
what will be then difcover'^d. The Doftrine 
of the Heavens, fixed Stars, Planets and 
Comets, both as to their Matter, Motion and 
Form, will be then clearly demonftrated; and 
what are Myfteries to us now, will become 
matter of ordinary Converfation. We fliall 
be better acquainted with our neighbouring 
Worlds, and make new Difcoveries as to the 
State of their Affairs. The Sun efpecially, 
the great Monarch of the Planetary Worlds ; 
whofe Dominion reaches from Pole to Pole, 
and the greatnefs of his Kingdom is under the 
whole Heaven : Who fends his bright Mef- 
fengers every day through all the Regions of 
his vaft Empire ; throwing his Beams of 
Light round about him, fwifter and further 
than a Thought can follow. This noble Crea- 
ture, I fay, will make a good part of their 
fiudy in the fucceeding World. Eudoxm^ the 
Philofopher, wifliM he might die like Thaeto?i^ 
in approaching too near to the Sun, provided 
he could fly fo near it, and endure it fo long, 
till he had difcoverM its Beauty and Perfe- 
ftion. Who can blame his Curiofity ? who 
would not venture far to fee the Court of fo 
great a Prince, who hath more Worlds under 
his Command than the Emperors of the Earth 
hath Provinces or Principalities ? Neither 


Concerning the New Heavens^ Sec. 505 

does he make his Subjefts Slaves to his Pleafure, 
or Tributaries to ferve and fupply his Wants : 
On the contrary, they live upon him, he nou- 
riflies and preferves them ; gives them Fruits 
every year, Corn, and Wine, and all the Com- 
forts of Life. This glorious Body, which now 
we can only gaze upon and admire, will be 
then better underftood. A Mafs of Light and 
Flame, and Ethereal Matter, ten thoufand 
times bigger than this Earth : Enlightning 
and enlivening an Orb that exceeds the bulk 
of our Globe, as much as that does the leaft 
Sand upon the Sea-fhore, may reafonably be 
prefumM to have fome great Being at the 
Centre of it. But what that is, we mull 
leave to the Enquiries of another Life. 

The Theory of the Earth will be a common 
Leffon there ; carried through all its Vicif- 
fitudes and Periods from firit to laft, till its 
entire Revolution be accomplifh'd. I told 
you in the Preface, The Revolution of the 
World w^as one of the greatell: Speculations 
that we are capable of in this Life : and this 
little World where we are, will be the firll 
and eafieil Inliance of it, feeing we have Re- 
cords, Hiftorical or Prophetical, that reach 
from the Chaos to the end of the new Hea- 
vens and new Earth; which courfe of Time 
makes up the greatelt part of the Circle or 
Revolution. And as what was before the 
Chaos, was bur, in my Opinion, the firft Re- 
move from a fixed Star, fo what is after tlie 
Thoufand Years Renovation, is but tlie laft 
ftep to it again. 


504 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

The Theory of Human Nature is alfo an 
ufeful and neceffary Speculation, and will be 
carried on to Perfection m that State. Ha- 
ving fix'd the true Diftinclion betwixt Matter 
and Spirit, betwixt the Soul and the Body, 
and the true Nature and Laws of their Union, 
the original Contraft, and the Terms ratified 
by Providence at their firft Conjunftion, it 
will not be hard to difcover the Springs of 
Action and Paffion ; how the Thoughts of 
our Mind, and the Motions of our Body act 
in dependance one upon another. What are 
the primary Differences of Genius's and Com- 
plexions, and ho>v our Intellectuals or Morals 
depend upon them. What is the Root of Fa- 
tality, and how farit extends. By thefe Lights 
they will fee into their own and every Man's 
Bread:, and trace the Foot-fteps of the Divine 
Wifdom in that ftrange Compofition of Soul 
and Body. 

This indeed is a mixM Speculation, as mofl: 
others are, and takes in fomething of both 
Worlds, Intellectual and Corporeal ; and may 
alfo belong in part to the Third Head we men- 
tioned, "providence. But there is no need of 
diitinguiiliing thefe Heads fo nicely, provided 
w^e take in, under fome or other of them, 
what may be thought beft to deferve our 
Knowledge now, or in another World. As to 
Provide nee ^ what we intend chiefly by it here, 
is the general Oeconomy of our Religion, and 
what is reveal'd to us in Scripture, concerning 
God, Angels, and Mankind. Thefe Reve- 
lations, as moll: in Sacred Writ, are fliort and 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. joj 

compleat ; as being defignM for Praftice more 
than for Speculation, or to awaken and excite 
our Thoughts rather than to fatisfy them. Ac- 
cordingly, we read in Scripture of a Triune 
Deity ; of God made Flefh, in the Womb of 
a Virgin ; barbaroufly crucified by the Jews ; 
defending into Hell; rifing again from the 
Dead; vifibly afcending into Heaven; and 
fitting at the Right Hand of God the Father, 
above Angels and Archangels. Thefe great 
things are imperfedly rev^al'd to us in this 
Life ; which we are to believe fo far as they 
are reveal'd, in hopes thefe Myfteries will 
be made more intelligible in that happy State 
to come, where Prophets, Apoftles and An- 
gels, will meet in converfation together. 

In like manner, how little is it we under- 
ftand concerning the Holy Gboft, That he 
defcended like a "Dove upon our Saviour, 
Mat. ^. 1 6. Like cloven Tongues of Fire upon 
the Apoftles, the Place being fill'd with a 
rufhing mighty Wind, qA^s 2. That he over- 
fliadow'd the BlefTed Virgin, and begot the 
Holy Infant, Matt. i. i8- That he made the 
Apoftles fpeak all forts of Tongues and Lan- 
guages ex te?npore^ and pour'd out ftrange 
Virtues and miraculous Gifts upon the Primi- 
tive Chriftians, L^ike i. ^5. Thefe things we 
know as bare Matter of Fadl, but the Method 
of thefe Operations we do not at all under- 
ftand. Who can tell us now, what that is 
which we call INSTIReATION^ What 
Change is wrought in the Brain, and what in 
the Soul, and how the Effed follows ? Who 

Book IV. X will 

3o6 The Theory of the Earth, 

will give us the jufl: Definition of a Miracle ? 
What the proximate Agent is above Alan, 
and whether they are all from the fame Pow- 
er ? How the Manner and Procefs of thofe 
miraculous Changes in matter, may be con- 
ceiv'd ? Thefe things we fee darkly, and 
hope they will be fet in a clearer Light, and 
the Doftrines of our Religion more fully 
expounded to us, in that Future World. For 
as feveral things obfcurely exprefs'd in the 
Old Teftament, are more clearly reveaPd in 
the New ; So the fame Myfteries, in a fuc- 
ceeding State, may ftill receive a further Ex- 

The Hillory of the Angels, good or bad, 
makes another partoftliis Providential Syftem. 
Chriftian Religion gives us fome Notices of 
both Kinds, but very imperfeft ; What In- 
tereft the good Angels have in the Govern- 
ment of the World, and in ordering the Af- 
fairs of this Earth and Mankind : What Sub* 
jeftion they have to our Saviour, and what 
Part in his Miniftry : Whether they are Guar- 
dians to particular Perfons, to Kingdoms, to 
Empires. All that we know at prefent, con- 
cerning thefe things, is but conjectural. And 
as to the bad Angels, who will give us an 
account of their Fall, and of their former 
Condition? I had rather know the Hiftory 
of Lucifer^ than of all the "Babylonian and Ter- 
fuin Kings ; nay, than of all the Kings of the 
Earth. >/hat the Birth-right was of that 
mighty Prince ; what his Dominions ; where 
his Imperial Court and Refidence ? How he 


Conce-nirrig the New Heavens^ Src, J07 

was dcpos'd ; for what Crime, and by what 
Power ? How he ftill wages War againft 
Heaven, in his Exile ? What Confederates he 
hath ? What is his Power over Mankind, and 
how h'mitcd ? What Change or Damage he 
fuflPerM by the coming of Chriii, and how it 
airer'd the Pofture of his Affiiirs ? Where lie 
will be imprifoaM in the Millemtitm ; and 
what will be his laft Fate and final Doom ? 
wliethcr he may ever hope for a Revolution 
or Reftauration ? Thefe things lie hid in the 
fccret Recoi'ds of Providence, which then, I 
hope, will be openM to us. 

With the Revolution of Worlds^ we men- 
tioned before the Revolution of 5^///j-; which 
is another great Circle of Providence, to be 
fludied hereafter. We know little here, either 
of the Pre-exiil:ence or Poft-exiftence of our 
Souls. Wc know not what they will be, till 
the loud Trump awakes us, and calls us again 
into the Corporeal World. Who knows how 
many turns he fliall take upon this Stage of 
the Earth, and how many Trials he fliall 
have, before his Doom will be finally conclu- 
ded ? Who know^s where, or what, is the 
State of Hell ; where the Souls of the Wicked 
are (aid to be for ever : What is the true State 
of Heaven ; What our Celeftial Bodies ; and. 
What that Sovereign Happinefs that is calPd 
the 'Beatifical Vifton r" Our Knowledge and 
Conceptions of thefe things are, at prefent, 
very general and fuperficial ; but in the future 
Kingdom of Chrili, which is introdudorv to 
Heaven it felf, thefe Tmperfcdlions, in a great 
X 2 mcii- 

■508 The Theory of the Earth. 

meafure, will be done away ; and fuch Pre- 
parations wrought, both in the Will and Un- 
derftanding, as may fit us for the Life of An- 
gels, and the Enjoyment of God in Eternal 

Thus you fee in general, what will be the 
Employment of the Saints in the Bleffed MiU 
lennium. And though they have few of the 
trifling bufineiTes of this Life, they will not 
want the bed: and nobleit of Diverfions. 'Tis 
an happy thing when a Man's Pleafure is alfo 
his PerfeGion ; for mod: Mens Pleafures are 
fuch as debafe their Nature. Y/e commonly 
gratify our lower Faculties, our Paffions, and 
our Appetites ; and thefe do not improve, but 
deprefs the Mind : And befides, they are fo 
grofs that the fineft Tempers are furfeited 
in a little time. There is no lafting Pleafure 
but Contem^latio7i\ all others grow flat and 
infipid upon frequent Ufe ; and when a Man 
hath run thorow a Set of Vanities, in the De- 
clenfion of his Age, he knows not what to do 
with him.felf, if he cannot Think : He faun- 
ters about, from one dull Bufinefs to another, 
to wear out Time ; and hath no reafon to va- 
lue Life, but becaufe he is afraid of Death. 
Eut Contemplation is a continual Spring of 
frefh Pleafures. Truth is inexhaufl:ed, and 
when once you are in the right Way, the fur- 
ther you go, the greater Difcoveries you make, 
and with the greater Joy. We are fometimes 
highly pleas'd, and even tranfported, with 
little Inventions in Mathematicks, or Mecha- 
flicks^ or Natural Philofophy : All thefe things 


Concerning the New Heavens^ he. 309 

will make part of their Diverfion and Enter- 
tainment in that State ; All the Dodrine of 
Sounds and Harmony, of Light, Colours, and 
Peripeclive, will be known in Perfeftion. But 
thefc I call Diverfions, in comparifon of their 
higher and more fcrious Speculations, which 
will be the Bufinefs and Happinefs of th^t 

Do but imagine, that tliey will have the 
Scheme of all humane Affairs lying before 
them, from the Chaos to the laft Period; the 
iiniverfal Hiftory and Order of Times; the 
whole Oeconomy of the Chriftian Religion, 
and of all the Religions in the V/orld ; the 
Plan of the Undertaking of the Meffiah ; with 
all other Parts and Ingredients of the Provi* 
dence of this Earth: Do but imagine this, 
I fay, and you will eafily allow, that when 
they contemplate the Beaury, Wifdom and 
Goodnefs of the whole Defign, it muft needs 
raife great and noble Padions, and a far richer 
Joy than either the Pleafures or Speculations 
of this Life can excite in us. And this being 
the lad: Aft and Clofe of all humane Affairs, 
it ought to be the more exquifite and elabo- 
rate ; that it may crown the Work, fatisfie the 
Spedators, and end in a general Applaufe ; 
the whole Theatre refounding with the Praifes 
of the great Dramatift, and the wonderful Art 
^nd Order of the Compofition. 

X 5 c K A ?; 

510 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

Chap X. 

OhjeBions againfl the Millennhim^ a7tfwer*d. 
With fo7ne Co7i]e Bur es concerning the State 
of things after the Millennium : and what 
'will he the final Confumjnation of this 

XT'O U fee how Nature and Providence have 
JL confpir'd, to make the MiUe?mlum as 
happy a State, as any Terreftrial State can be. 
Fc^', befides Health and Plenty, Peace, Truth, 
and Righteoufnefs will flouriHj there, and all 
the Evils of this Life ftand excluded. There 
will be no ambitious Princes, ftudying Mif- 
chief one againfl: another ; or contriving Me- 
thods to bring their own Subjefts into Slavery ; 
No mercenary Statefmen to affift and intrigue 
with them ; No OppreflTion from the Power- 
ful, no Snares or Traps laid for the Innocent ; 
No treacherous Friends, no malicious Ene- 
mies; No Knaves, Cheats, Hypocrites; the 
Vermin of this Earth, that fwarm every where. 
There will be nothing but Truth, Candor, 
Sincerity and Ingenuity; as in a Society oi' 
Commonwealth of Saints and Philofophers. 
In a word, 'twill be Taradlfe refhr\J^ both as 
to Innocency of Temper, and the Beauties of 

I believe you will be ?.pt to fay, If this be 
not true, 'tis pity but it flioukl be true. For 


Co'dcerning the New Heavens^ S^c. 51 1 

'tis a very defirable State, where all good 
People would find themfelves mightily at eafe. 
What is it that hinders it then? It muft be 
fome ill Geiims : For Nature tends to fuch a 
Renovation, as we fuppofe; and Scripture 
fpeaks loudly of an happy State to be fome 
time or other, on this fide Heaven. And 
what is there, pray, in this prefent World, 
Natural or Moral, if I may ask with Reve- 
rence, that could make it worth the while 
for God to create it, if it never was better, nor 
ever will be better ? Is there not more 
Mifery than Happinefs; Is there not more 
Vice than Virtue in this World ? as if it had 
been made by a Manicheaji God. The Earth 
barren, the Heavens inconftant ; Men w^'ck- 
ed and God offended. This is the Pofture of 
our Affairs ; fuch hath our World been hi- 
therto ; with Wars and Blood-flieed, Sicknefs 
and Difeafes, Poverty, Servitude and perpe- 
tual Drudgery for the Neceffaries of a Mortal 
Life. We may therefore reafonably hope, 
from a God infinitely good and powerful, for 
better Times and a better State, before the 
lafi: Period and Confummation of all things. 

But it will be objecled, it may be, that, ac* 
cording to Scripture, the vices and wickednefs 
of Men will continue to the end of the 
World ; and fo there will be no room for fuch 
an happy ftate, as we hope for, Lnk, 1 8. 8. Our 
Saviour fays. When the Son of Man cometh^ 
JJjall he Bid Faith upon the Earth ? They fliall 
€at arid drhk and ^la). as before the deftrudion 

X 4 of 

'^12 The Theory of tie Earth, 

of the old World^^ or of Sodom^ (Luh 17. 2^, 
iSc) and the wickednefs of thofe Men, you 
know, continued to the laft. This objeflion 
jnay pinch thofe that fuppofe the Millennium 
to be in the prefent Earth, and a thoufand 
years before the coming of our Saviour : for 
his words feem to imply that the World will 
be in a ftate of wickednefs even till his coming. 
Accordingly Antichriil or the Ma7t of Sh/^ is 
jiot faid to be deftroy'd till the coming of our 
Saviour, 2 ThejJ] 2. 8« and till he be deftroy'd^ 
we cannot hope for a Millennium. Laftly,, 
The coming of our Saviour is always reprefen- 
ted in Scripture as fudden, furprizing and un- 
expected. As Light fling breaking fuddenly 
out of the Clouds, (Ltthe 17. 24. and ch. 21. 
34, 5 5.; or as a Thief in the Nighty i ThejJ\ 5. 
a, 3, 4. i Vet. 5. 10. qA^oc. 16. 15. But if 
there be fuch a forerunner of it as the Mil- 
lennial ftate, whofe bounds we know, accor- 
ding as that expires and draws to an End, 
Men will be certainly advertised of the ap- 
proaching of our Saviour. But this objeftion, 
as I told you, does not affeO: our Hypothefis, 
for we fuppofe the Millennium will not be till 
after the coming of our Saviour, and the Con- 
flagration. And alfo that his coming will be 
fudden and furprifing : and that Antichrift will 
continue in being, tho' not in the fam.e degree 
of power, till that time. So that they that 
place the Millennium in the prefent fearth, 
are chiefly concern'd to anfwer this firft ob- 


Concerning the New Heavens^ S^c. 515 

But you will object, it may be, in the fecond 
Place, That this Millennium, wherefoever it. 
is, would degenerate at length, into fenfuality, 
and a Mahometan Paradife. For where there 
are earthly pleafures and earthly appetites, 
they will not be kept always in order without 
any excefs or luxuriancy : efpecially as to the 
fenfes of Touch and Tafte. I am apt to think 
this is true, if the Soul have no more power 
over the Body than fhe hath at prefent, and our 
Senfes, Paflions, and Appetites be as ftrong 
as they are now. But according to our ex- 
plication of the Millennium, we have great 
reafon to hope, that the Soul will have a greater 
dominion over the Refurreflion-body, than fhe 
hath over this. And you know we fuppofe 
that none will truly inherit the Millennium, 
but thofe that rife from the Dead. Nor do we 
admit any propagation there, nor the trouble 
or wcaknefs of Infants. But that all rife in a 
perfeQ: Age, and never die: being tranflated, 
at the final judgment, to meet our Saviour in 
the Clouds, and to be with him for ever. 
Thus we eafiiy avoid the force of this ob« 
jeclion. But thofe that place the Millennium 
in this Life, and to be enjoy'd in thefe Bodies, 
muft find out fome new prefervatives againft 
Vice, otherwife they will be continually fubjcft 
to degeneracy. 

Another objection may be taken from 
the perfonal Reign of Chrift upon Earth, 
which is a thing incongruous, and yet afferted 
by many modern Millennaries. That Chrift 
fliould leave that right hand of his Father, to 


^14 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

come and pafs a thoufand years here below • 
living upon Earthin an Heavenly Body : This, 
I confefs, is a thing I never could digefl:, and 
therefore I am not concerned in this objeftion ; 
not thinking it necelTary that Chrift fliould be 
perfonally prefent and refident upon Earth in 
the Millennium. I am apt to believe that there 
will be then a Celeftial Prefence of Chrift, or 
a 5^^^/;^^Z), as we noted before: As the Sun is 
prefent to the Earth, yet never leaves its place 
in. the Firmament ; fo Chrift may be vifibly 
confpicuous in his Heavenly Throne, as he was 
to St. Ste^hen^ eA^.j. 55, 56. and yet never 
leave the right hand of his Father. And this 
would be a more glorious and illuftrious pre- 
fence, than if he fhould defcend, and converfe 
amongft Men in a perfonal fliape. But thefe 
things not being diftinftly reveal'd to us, we 
ought not to determine any thing concerning 
them, but with modeftly and fubmiffion. 

We have thus far pretty well efoap'd, and 
kept our felves out of the reach of the ordina- 
ry objeclions againft the Millennium. But 
there remains one, concerning a double Rejur- 
reBion^ which muft fall upon every Hypothe- 
cs : and 'tis this. The Scripture, they fay, 
fpeaks but of one Refurreftion ; whereas the 
doftrine of the Millennium fuppofes two ; one 
at the beginning of the Millennium, for the 
Martyrs, and thofe that enjoy that happy ilate, 
and the other at the end of it , wliich is uni- 
verfal and final, in the laft day of judgment. 
'Tis true, Scripture generally fpeaks of the Re- 
furrection in s^rofs : without diftinsuifliing 

^ firit 

Concerning tie New Heavens j Src ". 515^ 

firft and fecond ; and fo it fpeaks of the Corn^ 
i;/^ of our Saviour, without diftinftion of firft 
01" fecond ; yet it does not follow from that, 
that there is but one coming of our Saviour, 
fo neither that there is but one RefurreQion. 
And feein^^ there is one place of Scripture that 
fpeaks diftinftlyof two Refurreftions, namely, 
the %othchaf. of the Q.4pocaljffe ; that is to us a 
fufficient w^arrant for aiTerting two. As there 
are fome things in one Evangelift that are not 
in another, yet we think them Authentick if 
they be but in one. There are alfo fome things 
in 'Dayiiel^ concerning the Mejjiahj and con- 
cerning the Refurretiion^ that are not in the 
red: of the Prophets : yet we look upon his 
fmgle teliimony, as good authority. St. ^ohn, 
w^rit the laft of all the Apoflles, and as the 
whole feries of his Prophecies is new, reaching 
through the later Times to the Confummation 
of all things ; fo we cannot wonder if he had 
fomething more particular reveaPd to him con- 
cerning the Refurreclion ; That w^hich was 
fpoken of before in general, being diitinguifli'd 
now into Virfl and Second^ or particular and 
univerfai, in this laft Prophet, See Mr. Mede. 
Some think St. Taul means no lefs, when he 
makes an order in the Refurreftion : fome 
rifmg fooner, fome later: \Cor, 15. 25, 24. 
I Tbe\\\ 4. 14, 1 5, iSc but whether that be fO 
or no, St. John might have a more diftinfl: re- 
velation concerning it, than St. Tanl had, or 
anyone before him. 

After thefe Objeftions, a great many Qiie- 
rics and Difficulties might be proposal relating 


5i5 The Theory of the E a r t h. 

to the Millennium. But that's no more than 
what is found in all other m.atters, remote 
from our Knowledge. Who can anfwer all 
the Queries that may be made concerning Hea^ 
ven^ or Hell^ or Taradife ? When we know a 
Thing as to the Subftance, we are not to let 
go our hold, tho' there remain feme difficulties 
unrefolvM : otherwife we lliould be eternally 
Sceptical in moft matters of Knowledge. 
Therefore, tho' we cannot, for example, give 
a full account of the diftinStion of habitations 
and inhabitants in the Future Earth : or, of 
the order of the Firfi Refurre^ion ; whether 
it be performed by degrees and fucceiTivly, or 
all the Inhabitants of the New Jerufalem rife 
at once, and continue throughout the whole 
Millennium. I fay, tho' we cannot give a 
diftinO: account of thefe, or fuch like particulars, 
we ought not therefore to deny or doubt whe* 
ther there w^ill be a A'ew Earthy or a Firfi 
RefurreSiion. For the Revelation goes clearly 
fo far, and the obfcurity is only in the confequen- 
ces and dependances of it. Which Providence 
thought fit, without further light, to leave to 
our fearch and difquifition. 

Scripture mentions one Thing, at the end of 
the Millennium, which is a common Difficulty 
to all ; and every one muft contribute their 
beft thoughts and ConjeGures towards the fo- 
lution of it. 'Tis the ftrange doftrine of Gog 
and Magog \ oApoc. 20. 8, 9. which are to 
rife up in rebellion againft the Saints, and 
befiege the holy City, and the holy Camp. 
And this is to be upoa the Expiration of th^ 

Thou fa nd 

Concerning the New Heavens^ ?^cl 517 

Thoufand Years, when Satan is loofen'd. For 
no fooner will his Chains be knockM off, but 
he will put himfelf in the Head of this Army 
of Gyants, or Sons of the Earth, and attack 
Heaven^ and the Saints of the mod High. 
But with ill fuccefs, for there will come down 
fire and lightning from Heaven, and confume 
them. This, methinks, hath a great affinity 
with the Hiiiory of the Gyants, rebelling and 
and affaulting Heaven and ftruk down by Thun- 
der-Bolts. But that of fetting Mountains upon 
Mountains, or toffing them into the Skie, 
that's the Poetical Part, and we muft not ex- 
pect to find it in the Prophecy. The Poets 
told their Fable, as of a thing paft, and fo it 
was a Fable ; But the Prophets fpeak of it, 
as of a thing to come, and fo it will be a re- 
ality. But how and in what fenfe it is to be 
underftood and explained, every one has the 
liberty to make the beft Judgment he can, 

Ezehel mentions Gog and Magogs Ch. 58, 
£if ^9. which I take to be only types and flia- 
dowsofthefe which we arenowfpeaking of, and 
not yet exemplified, no more than his Temple. 
And feeing this People is to be at the End of 
the Millennium^ and in the fame Earth with it, 
We muft, according to our Hypothefis, plant 
them in the future Earth, and therefore all 
former conjectures about the Turks ^ or Scythi- 
ans, or other IBarharians^ are out of Doors 
with us, feeing the Scene of this aftion does 
not lie in the prefent Earth. They are alfo 
I'eprefented by the Prophet, as a People di- 
fiind and feparate from the Saints, not in their 


^i8 The Theory of the E akt h. 

manners only, but alfo in their feats and 
Habitations; Vov {G.4poc. 20.^8, 9.; they are 
faid to come up from the four Corners of 
tlie Earth, upon the breadth of the Earth, and 
there to befiege the Camp of the Saints and 
the heloved City : This makes it feem probable 
to me, that there will be a double race of 
Mankind in that Future Earth: very different 
one from another, both as to their temper and 
difpofition, and sa to their origin. The one 
born from Heaven, Sons of God, and of the 
Refurredion : who are the true Saints and 
Heirs of the Millennium, The others born of 
the Earth, Sons of the Earth, generated from 
theflime of the Ground, and the Heat of the 
Sun, as brute Creatures were at firlT:. This 
fecond Progeny or Generation of Men in the 
Future Earth, I underftand to be fignified by 
the Prophet under thefe borrowed or feigned 
Names of Gog and Magog. And this Earth- 
born race, encreafing and multiplying after 
the manner of Men, by carnal propagation, 
after a thoufand years, grew numerous, as the 
Sand by the Sea ; and thereupon made an ir- 
ruption or inundation upon the Face of the 
Earth, and upon the habitations of the Saints; 
As the barbarous Nations did formerly upon 
Chriftendom, Or as the Gyants are faid to 
have made War againft the Gods. But they 
were foon confounded in their impious and 
facrilegious defign, being ftruck and confum'd 
by Fire from Heaven. 

' Som.e will think, it may be, that there was 
fuch a double race of Mankind in the firfi: 
World alfo. Toe Sons of o^^dam, and the 


Concerning the New Heavens^ Src. jf^ 

Sons of God: becaufe it is faid. Gen. 6. When 
men lerran to nmltifly upon the Face of the 
Earth, diiit the SONS OF GOT) S^W THE 
'DAUGHTERS OF MEN, that they were 
fair, and they took them Wives of all that 
they lik^d. And it is added prefently, ver. 4* 
There were Gyaiits in the Earth in thofe Days-^ 
and alfo after that, when the Sons of God came 
in tinto the daughters of men, and they lare 
children to them : the fame became jnighty Meiij 
which were of old, men of renown. Here 
feem to be two or three orders or races in this 
Ante-diluvian World. The Sons of God : The 
Sons and T)aughters of oAdam : and a third 
fort arifing from the mixture and copulation of 
thefc, which are calPd Mighty men of old, or 
Heroes. Befides, here are Gyants mentioned, 
and to which they are to be reduced, it does 
not certainly appear. 

This mixture of thefe two Races, whatfbe- 
ver they were, gave, it feems, fo great offence 
to God, that he deftroy'd that World upon it, 
m a Deluge of Water. It hath been matter of 
great difficulty to determine, who thefe 6'^^/j' <?/ 
G6>Jwere, that fell in love with and married 
the Daughters of Men. There are tv/o con- 
jedures that prevail mod : One, that they 
were Angels : and another, that they were of 
the Poftcrity of Seth, and diftinguiffi'd from 
the reft, by their Piety, and the wordiip of 
the true God : fo that it was a great Crime 
for them to mingle with the reft of Mankind, 
who are fuppos'd to have been Idolaters. Nei- 
ther of thefe opinions is to me fatisfaftory. 
For as to Angels ; Good Angels neither mar- 

J20 The Theory of the E a r t h* 

r>', nor are given in marriage ; Matt, 22. ^o,' 
and bad Angels are not called the Sons of God, 
Befides, if Angels were capable of thofe mean 
pleafures, we ought in reafon to fuppofe, that 
there are female Angels, as well as male ; 
for furely thofe capacities are not in vain 
through a whole Species of Beings. And if 
there be female Angels, we cannot imagine, 
but that they muft be of a far more charming 
beauty than the dowdy daughters of Men. 
Then as to the line of Seth^ It does not appear 
that there was any fuch diftindion of Idolaters- 
and true V/orfhippers before the Flood, or 
that there was any fuch thing, as Idolatry, at 
that Time : nor for fome Ages after. Befides, 
it is not faid, that the Sons of God fell in love 
with the Daughters of Cain^ or of any de- 
generate race, but with the Daughters of 
eAdam : which may be the Daughters of Sethy 
as well as of any other. Thefe conjectures 
therefore feem to be fhallow and ill-grounded. 
But what the diftinftion was of thofe two 
orders, remains yet very uncertain. 

St. Tatd to the GaJatianSy (Chap, 4. 21, 22, 
i^c.J makes a dif!:in£i:ion alfo of a double 
Progeny : that of Sarah^ and that of Hager. 
One was born according to the Flefh, after a 
natural manner : and the other by the divine 
Power, or in vertue of the divine promife- 
This diftinfticnof a Natural and fupernatural 
Origin, and of a double progeny : the one 
born to fervitudc, the other to liberty , repre- 
fents very well either the manner of our pre- 
fent birth, and of our Future, at the Refur- 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &€. j2i 

reft ion : Or that double progeny and double 
manner of Birth, which we fuppofe in the 
Future Earth. 'Tis true, St. Tatd applies 
this to the Law and the Gofpel ; but Typical 
Things, you know, have different Afpects 
and Completions, which are not exclufive of 
one another : and fo it may be here. But 
however this double race of Mankind in the 
Future Earth, to explain the Doctrine of 
Gog and Magogs is but a conjefture : and 
does not pretend to be otherwife confi- 

The laft thing that remains to be con- 
fider'd and accounted for, is the upfhot and 
conclufion of all : Namely, what will become 
of the Earth after the thoufand Years ex^ 
pirM ? Or after the Day of Judgment paft, 
and the Saints trandated into Heaven, what 
will be the Face of things here below ? There 
being nothing exprefly revcal'd concerning 
this, we muft not expeO: a pofitive refolution 
of it. And the difficulty is not peculiar to 
our hypothefis : for though the MHlennimnj 
and the final Judgment were concluded in the 
prefent Earth, the Q^usere would ftill .remain, 
What would become of this Earth after the 
Laft Day. So that all Parties are equally con- 
cerned, and equally free, to give their opini- 
on, What will be the laft fiate a?id cofifum- 
7nation of this Earth. Scripture, I told you, 
hath not defin'd this point ; and the Philofo- 
phcrs fliy very little concerning it. The Sto- 
icks indeed fpeak of the final refolution of all 
tilings into Fire^ or into ALther : which is. the 

Book \\\ Y pureft 

'^22 The Theory of the 'Eh "^t h.' 

pureft and fubtleft fort of Fire. So that the 
whole Globe or Mafs of the Earth, and all 
particular bodies, will, according to them, 
be at laft diffolv'd into a liquid Flame. Nei- 
ther was this Doftrine firft invented by the 
Stoicks : HeracUtus taught it long before them 
and I take it to be as Antient as Orpheus him- 
felf; who was the firft Philofopher amongft 
the Greeks : And he deriving his Notions 
from the "Barharick Philofophers, or the Sages 
of the Eaft, that School of Wifdom may be 
lookM upon as the true feminary of this Do- 
ftrine, as it was of moft other natural know- 

But this diflblution of the Earth into Fire, 
may be underftood two Ways ; either that it 
win be dilToIvM into a loofe Flame, and fo 
diflipated and loft as Lightning in the Air, 
and vanifli into nothing ; or that it will be 
diffolvM into a fixt Flame, fuch as the Sun is, 
or a fixt Star. And I am of opinion, that 
the Earth after the laft Day of Judgment, 
will be changed into the Nature of a Sun, or 
of a fixt Star, and fliine like them in the Fir- 
mament. Being all melted down into a Mafs 
of Ethereal Matter, and enlightning a Sphere 
or Orb round about it. I have no direO: and 
demonftrative Proof of this, I confefs, but if 
Planets were once fixt Stars, as I believe 
they were, their revolution to the fame ftate 
again, in a great Circle of Time, feems to 
be according to the Methods of Providence, 
which loves to recover what was loft or de- 
cayed, after certain periods, and v*^hat was 


Concerning the New Heavens^ &c. 325 

originally good and happy, to make it fb 
again ; All Nature, at laft, being transform'd 
into alike Glory with the Sons of God, (Rom. 
8. 11.) 

I will not tell you what Foundation there 
is in Nature, for this change or transforma- 
tion from the interiour conftitution of the 
Earth, and the Inftances we have feen of 
new Stars appearing in the Heavens. I fhould 
lead the EngUfh Reader too far out of his way, 
todifcourfeof thefe things. Butif there be any 
PafTages or Expreflions in Scripture, that coun- 
tenance fuch a ftate of Things aftei' the Day 
of Judgment, it will not be improper to take 
notice of them. That radiant and illuftrious 
Jerufalem^ defcrib'd by St. John^ oAfoc, 21. 
ver. 10, II, 12, ^c. composed all of Gemms 
and bright Materials, clear and fparkling, as 
a Star in the Firmament : Who can give an 
account what that is ? Its Foundations, Walls, 
Gates, Streets, all the Body of it, refplendent 
as Light or Fire. What is there in Nature, 
or in this Univerfe, that bears any refemblance 
with fuch a Pha:nomenon as this, unlefs it 
be a Sun or a fixt Star ? Efpecially if we add 
and confider what follows, K^r. 2j. That the 
City had no need of the Sun^ 7ior of the 
Moon^ to flmte in it^ Ver, 25. And that there 
was no Night there. This can be no Ter- 
reftrial Body ; it muft be a fubftance luminous 
in it felf, and a Fountain of Light, as a fixt 
Star. And upon fuch a change of the Earth, 
or Transformation, as this, would he brought 
to Pafsthe fajhig that is written, 7)EqATjF£ 

Y 2 IS 

5 24 ^^ Theory of the E a. r t h: 
indeed St. Taul feems to apply to our Bodies 
in particular, i Cor. 15. 54. But in the 
Eighth Chapter to the Roma?is He extends it 
to all Nature, Fer. 21. The Creatiofi it [elf 
/iJfo pall he deliver'* d from the "Bondage of 
Corruptions i7tto the glorious liberty of the 
Sons of God, And accordingly St. John^ 
fpeaking of the fame Time with St. Taul in 
that Place to the Cori^^thians^ namely of the 
general Refurreclion and Day of Judgment, 
fays, "Death and Hades^ which we render 
Hell, were caft into the Lake of Fire^ oApoc. 
20. 14. This is their being fwallowed up in 
viBory^ which St. Taul fpeaks of ; when 
Death and Hades, that is, all the Region of 
Mortality : The Earth and all its Dependances : 
are abforpt into a Mafs of Fire ; and conver- 
ted, by a glorious Viftory over the Powers of 
Darknefs, into a Luminous Body and a Region 
of Light. 

This great Iffue and Period of the Earth, 
and of all humane Affairs, tho' it feem to 
be founded in Nature, and fupported by feve* 
ral expreffions of Scripture ; yet we cannot, 
for want of full inftruction, propofe it other- 
wife than as a fair Conjefture. The Heavens 
and the Earth fhall flie away at the Day of 
Judgment, fays the Text: oApoc. 20. 11. 
fAnd their Tlace fiall not he found. This 
muft be underftood of our Heavens and our 
Earth. And their flying away muft be their 
removing to fome other Part of the Univerfe ; 
fo as their Place or refidcnce fliall not be 

' - found 

Co7icerning the New HeaveTis, 8cc. 525 

found any more here below. This is the eafie 
and natural fence of the Words; and this 
Tranflation of the Earth will not be without 
fome Change preceding, that makes it leave 
its Place, and, with a lofty flight, take its feat 

amongft the Stars. There we leave it ; 

Having condufted it for the Space of Seven 
Thoufand Years, through various Changes, 
from a dark Chaos to a bright Star. 

F J N I S. 



Of the Sacred 




And of its 


Efpecially in Reference to 



Printed for J. H o o k e in Fleet-Street^ 


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Of the Sacred 


O F T H E 


O take a Review of this Theory of 
the Earth, which we have now 
finiflf d, We muft confider, firft, 
the Extent of it ; and then the 
principal Parts whereof it confifts. 
It reaches, as you fee, from one end of the 
World to the other; from the firfl: Chaos to 
the laft Day, and the Confummation of all 
things. This, probably, will run the length 
of Seven Thoufand Years : which is a good 
competent fpace of Time to exercife our 
Thoughts upon, and to obferve the feveral 
Scenes which Nature and Providence bring into 
View within the compafs of fo many Ages. 


jjo gA review of 

The Matter and principal Parts of tin's 
Theory are fuch things as are recorded in 
Scripture. We do not feign a Subjeft, and 
then difcant upon it, for Diverfion ; but en- 
deavour to give an intelligible and rational 
Account of fuch Matters of Faft, paft or fu- 
ture, as are there fpecified and declared. 
AVbat it hath feem'd good to the Holy Ghoft 
to communicate to us, by Hijftory or Prophe- 
cy, concerning the feveral States and general 
Changes of this Earth, makes the Argument 
of our Difcourfe. Therefore the things them- 
felves muft be taken for granted, in one fenfe 
or other, feeing, befides all other Proofs, they 
have the Authority of a Revelation ; and our 
Bufinefs is only to give fuch an Explication of 
them, as fhall approve it felf to the Faculties 
fefMan, and be conformable to Scripture. 

We will therefore firft fet down the things 
themfelves, that make the fubjeft matter of this 
Theory ; and remind you of our Explication 
of them. Then recolleQ: the general Proofs 
of that Explication, from Reafon and Nature ; 
but more fully and particularly fbew how it is 
grounded upon Scripture. The primary Tha- 
Tiomena whereof v/e are to give an account, are 
'thefe Five or Six. 


I. The Original of the Earth from a Chaos. 

II. The State of Taradife^ ard the oAnte- 

diluvian World, 

III. The Univerfal "Deluge. 

IV. The Univerfai Conflagration. 

V. The 

the Theory of the U x^r \^. ^ ji 

V. The Renovation of the Worlds or the 

New Heavejts and New Earth. 

VI. The Conftmmation of all things, 

Thefe are unqueftionably in Scripture ; and 
thefe all relate, as you fee, to the feveral 
Forms, States and Revolutions of this Earth, 
We are therefore oblig'd to give a clear and 
coherent Account of thefe Th^nome^ia^ in that 
Order and Confecution wherein they ftand to 

There are alfo in Scripture fome other 
things, relating to the fame Subjects, that 
may be call'd the Secondary Ingredients of 
this Theory, and are to be referr'd to their 
refpedive primary Heads. Such are, for In- 

I. The Longevity of the oAnte-diluvians. 

II. The Rupture of the great oAhyfs, at the 


III. The a^^earing of the Rainlow after the 

"Deluge : as a Sign that there never 
Jhould he a fecond Flood. 

Thefe things Scripture hath alfo left upon 
Record, as Direftions and Indications how to 
underftand the Ante-diluvian State, and the 
Deluge it felf. Whofoever therefore fhall un- 
dertake to write the Theory of the Earth, muft 
think himfelf bound to give us a juft Explica- 
tion of thefe fecondary Phsenomina, as well as 
of the primary • and that in fueh a Depen- 


jp qA REVl EW of 

dance and Connexion, as to make them give 
and receive Light from one-another. 

The former part of the Task Is concerning 
the World behind us, Times and Things paft, 
that are already come to light. The latter 
is concerning th;^ world before us^ Times and 
Things to come ; that lie yet in the bofom of 
providence, and in the feeds of Nature. And 
thefe are chiefly the Conflagration of the World, 
and the Renovation of it. When thefe are 
over and expirM, then comes the end^ as 
St. 'Vaul favs, I Cor, 1 5. • Then the Heavens 
and the Earth fly away^ as St. John fays, 
eApoc. 20. Then is the Confummatlon of all 
things, and the laft Period of this fublunary 
World, whatfoever it is. Thus far the Theo- 
rift muft go, and purfue the motions of Na- 
ture, till all things are brought to Reft and 
and Silence. And in this latter -part of the 
-Theory, there is alfo a collateral Phasnomenon, 
the Millennium^ or Thoufind Years Reign of 
Chrift and his Saints upon Earth, to be con- 
■fider'd. For this, according as it is reprefent- 
ed in Scripture, does imply a Change in the 
Natural World, as well as in the Moral ; and 
therefore muft be accounted for in the Theory 
of the Earth. At leaft it muft be there deter- 
.min'd, whether that State of the World, which 
IS fingular and extraordinary, will be before 
pr after the Conflagration. 
. .Thefe are the Principals and Incidents of 
this Theory of the Earth, as to the Matter 
.andSubjea of it; which, you fee, is bpth im- 
portant, and wholly taken out of Scripture. 


the Theory of the E a r t h. jj j 

As to our Explication of thefe points, that is 
fufficiently known, being fet down at large 
in Four Books of this Theory : Therefore it 
remains only, having feen the Matter of the 
Theory, to examine the Form of it, and the 
Proofs of it ; for from thefe two things it muft 
receive its Cenfure. As to the Form, the 
Charafters of a regular Theory feem to be thefe 
tliree ; Few and eafie Toftulattms ; Union of 
"Parts ; and a Fitnefs to anjwer^ fully and 
clearly^ all the ThiZnomena to which it is to he 

We think our Hypothefis does not want any 
of thefe Chraftcrs. As to the Firfl:, we take 
but one fingle Toftulattim for the whole Theo- 
ry, and that an eafie one, warranted both by 
Scripture and Antiquity ; Namely, That this 
Earth rife, at fir ft, from a Chaos. As to the 
Second, 'Union of Parts, The whole Theory 
is but one Series of Caufes and EfFecls from 
that firft Chaos. Befides, you can fcarce ad- 
mit any one part of it, firfl:, lafl:, or interme- 
diate, but you muft, in confequence of that, 
admit all the reft. Grant me but that the 
Deluge is truly explain'd, and I'll defire no 
more" Proof for all the Theory. Or, if you 
begin at the other end, and grant the New 
■Heavens and NewEarth^htK the Conflagra- 
tion, you will be led back ^again to the firft 
Heavens and firft Earth that were before -the 
Flood. For St, John fays, that New Earth 
was without a Sea, oApoc. ii. i. And it was 
a Renovation, or Refiitution to fome former 
ftate of things : There was therefore fome 


554 ^ REVIEW of 

former Earth without a Sea ; which not being 
the prefent Earth, it muft be the Ante-diluvian. 
BefideSj both St. JoJm^ and the Prophet Efaias^ 
have reprefented the New Heavens and New 
Earth, as ^aradifiacal^ according as is pro- 
ved, ^ook IV. Cha\\ 2. And having told us 
the Form of the New-fature-Earth, that it 
will have no Sea^ it is a reafonable Inference 
that there was no Sea in the Taradifiacal 
Earth. However, from the Form of this Fu- 
ture Earth, which St. "Johi reprefents to us, 
we may at leaft conclude, that an Earth with-- 
cut a Sea is no Chimera, or Impoffibility ; 
but rather a fit Seat and Habitation for the 
Juft and the Innocent. • 

Thus you fee the Parts of the Theory link 
and hold fail one-another, according to the 
lecond Character. And as to the third, of 
hQingfuited to the Th^nomena^ we muft refer 
that to the next Head o^Troofs. It may be 
truly, faid, that bare Coherence and Union of 
Parts is not a fufBcient Proof; The Parts of a 
Fable or Romance may hang aptly together, 
and yet have no Truth in them. This is 
enough indeed to give the title of a Juft Com- 
pofition to any Work, but not of a true 
one ; till it appear that the Conclufions and 
Explications are grounded upon good natural 
Evidence, or upon good Divine Authority. 
We muft therefore proceed now^ to the third 
thing to be confider'd in a Theory, M^hat its 
Proofs are: or the Grounds upon which it 
Hands, whether Sacred or Natural. 


the Theory of the E a r t h.' 'jj5 

According to Natural Evidence, things are 
proved from their Caufes or their Effeds. 
And we think we have this double Order of 
Proofs for the Truth of our Hypothefis. As 
to the Method of Caufes, we proceed from 
what is more fimple, to what is more com- 
pound, and build all upon one Foundation. 
Go but to the Head of the Theory, and you 
will fee the Caufes lying in a train before you, 
from firft to laft. And tho' you did not know 
the Natural Hiftory of the World, pail: or fu- 
ture, you might, by Intuition, foretel it, as 
to the grand Revolutions and fucceffive faces 
of Nature, through a long Series of Ages, If 
we have given a true Account of the Motions 
of the Chaos, we have alfo truly formed the 
lirft habitable Earth. And if that be truly 
form'd, we have thereby given a true Account 
of the State of Farad ife, and of all that depends 
upon it ; and not of that only, but alfo of the 
Univerfal Deluge. Both thefe we have fhewn 
in their Caufes : The one from the Form of 
that Earth, and the other from the Fall of it 
into the Abyfs. And tho' we had not been 
made acquainted with thefe things by Anti- 
quity, we might, in contemplation of the 
Caufes, have truly conceiv'd them as Proper- 
ties or Incidents to the Firft Earth. But as to 
the Deluge, I do not fay, that we might have 
calculated the Time, Alanner, and other Cir-. 
cumftances of it : Thefe things w^ere regu- 
lated by Providence, in fubordination to the 
Moral World : But that there would be, at: 
one time or other, a Difruption of that Earthy" 

3^6 (A R EFIEJV of 

or of the great Aby fs, and in confequence of 
it, an univerfal Deluge ; fo far, I think, the 
Light of a Theory might carry us. 

Furthermore, In confequence of this Difrup- 
tion of the Primeval Earth, at the Deluge, 
the prefent Earth was made hollow and ca- 
vernous : [^Theor, "Book ^. ch. 7, ^ 8. ] and 
by that means, (due Preparations being ufed) 
capaple of Cwnhiftio?/^ or of perifliing by an 
univerfal Fire: Yet, to fpeakingenuoufly, this 
is as hard a Step to be made, in vertue of Natural 
Caufes, as any in the whole Theory. Bat in 
recompence of that Defefl:, the Conflagration 
is fo plainly and literally taught us in Scrip- 
ture, and avowM by Antiquity, that it can 
fall under no Difpute, as to the Thing it felf. 
And as to a Capacity or Difpofition to it in the 
prefent Earth, that I think is fufficiently made 

Then, the Conflagration admitted, in that 
way it is explained in the Third Book : The 
Earth, you fee, is, by that Fire, reduced to a 
Second Chaos, A Chaos truly fo call'd. And 
from that, as from the Firft, aiifes another 
Creation, or Nezv Heavens 2inA a New Earth-, 
by the fame Caufes, and in the fame Form, 
with the Paradidacal. This is the Renovation 
of the World ; The Refiittition of all things, 
mentioned both by Scripture and Antiquity ; 
and by the Prophet i[aiah^ St. "Reter and 
St. "^obn^ caird the New Heavens and Nevo 
Earth. With this, as the laft Period, and 
moft glorious Scene of all humane Affairs, our 
Theory concludes, as to this Method of Caufes, 
whereof we ar;.* now fpeaking. I fay> 

the Theory of the Earth.' 537 

I fay, here it ends as to the Method ofCau^ 
fes. For tho' we ^urfue the Earth ll:ill farther, 
even to its laft DiiTolution, which is call'd the 
Confummation of all things, yet all that we 
have fuperadded upon that occafion,. is but 
Problematical, and may, without Prejudice to 
the Theory, be argued and difputcd on either 
hand. I do not knovv^, but that our Conje- 
ctures there may be well grounded : but how- 
ever, not fpringing fo direftly from the fame 
Root, or, at leaft, not by Ways fo clear and 
vifible, I leave that part undecided. Efpe- 
cially feeing we pretend to write no more 
than the Theory of the Earthy and therefore 
as we begin no higher than the Chaos, fo we 
are not obliged to go any further than to the 
laft ftate of a Terreftrial Confiftency ; which 
is that of the New Heavens and the New 

This IS the firft natural Proof, from the 
Order of Caufes. The fecond is from the 
Confideration of EfFedb ; namely, of fuch Ef- 
fects as are already in being. And therefore 
this Proof can extend only to that part of the 
Theory, that explains the prefent and pafi: 
Form and Phasnomena of the Earth. What is 
future, mufl: be left to a further Trial, when 
the things come to pafs, and prefent themfelves 
to be examin'd and compared with the Hypo- 
thefis. As to the prefent Form of the Earth, 
we call all Nature to witnefs for us : The 
Rocks and the Mountains, the Tlills and the 
Valleys, tlie deep and wide Sea, and the Ca- 
verns of the Ground : Let thcfc fpeak, and 

Z tell 

3j8 (A REVIEW of 

tell their Origin : How the Body of the 
Earth came to be thus torn and mangled : If 
this ftrange and irregular Struflure was not the 
EiFeft of a Ruin ; and of fuch a Ruin as was 
univerfal over the face of the whole Globe. 
But we have given fuch a full Explication of 
this, in the the firft part of the Theory, from 
Chap. 9. to the end of that Treatife, that we 
dare ftand to the Judgment of any that reads 
thofe Four Chapters, to determine if the Hy- 
pothefis does not anfwer all thofe Phsenomena, 
eafily and adequately. 

The next Phaenomenon to be confider'd, is 
the T)eluge^ with its Adjunfts. This alfo is 
fully explained by our Hypothefis, in the id, 
3d, and 6ih Chapters of the Firft Book : 
Where it is fliewn^ that the Mofaical 'Deluge ; 
that is, an univerfal Inundation of the whole 
Earth, above the tops of the higheft A4oun- 
tains, made by a breaking open of the Great 
Abyfs, (for thus far Mojes leads us) is fully 
explainM by this Hypothefis, and cannot be 
conceivM in any other Method hitherto pro- 
posM. There are no Sources or Stores of Wa- 
ter fufficient for fuch an Effecb, that may be 
drawn upon the Earth, and drawn off again, 
but by fuppofing fuch an Abyfs, and fuch a 
Difruprion of it, as the Theory reprefents. 
■ Laftly, As to the Phenomena of Paradife, 
and the Ante-diluvian- World, we have kt 
them down in order in the Second Book ; and 
apply'd to each of them its proper Exphcation, 
from the fame Hypothefis. We have alfo 
given an Account of that Charadler which 


the Theory of the E A kt h. 559 

Antiquity always affign'd to the firft Age of 
the World, or the Golden Age, as they calTd 
it; namely, Equality of Seafons throug^out 
the Year, or a perpetual Equinox. We have 
alfo taken in all the Adjuncts or Concomitants 
of thefe States, as they are mentioned in Scrip- 
ture. The Lo7igevity of the Ante-diluvians, 
and the declenfion of their Age by degrees, 
after the Flood. As alfo that wonderfufPhae- 
nomenon, the Rainbow ; which appear'd to 
Noah for a Sign, that the Earth fhould never 
undergo a fecond Deluge. And we have 
ihewn iTheor. "Book 2. ch, 5.] wherein the 
Force and Propriety of that Sign confifted, for 

confirmincT A'oaFs Faith in the Promife and ia 

• • • 

the Divine Veracity. 

Thus far w^e have explainM the paft Phas- 
nomena of the Natural World. The reft are 
Futurities, which ftill lie hid in their Caufes ; 
and we cannot properly prove a Theory from 
Effefts that are not yet in Being. But fo far 
as they are foretold in Scripture, both as to 
Subftance and Circumftance, in profecution of 
the fame Principles we have ante-dated their 
Birth, and fliewM how they will come to pafs* 
We may therefore, I think, reafonably con- 
clude, That this Theory has perform'd its 
Task and anfwer'd its Title; having given an 
account of all the general Changes of the Na- 
tural World, as far as either Sacred Hiftory 
looks backwards, or Sacred Prophe:y looks 
forwards ; fo far as the one tells us what 
is paft in Nature, and the other what is 
to come. And if all this be nothing but an 
Z 2 Ap- 

540 14 REVIEW of 

Appearance of Truth, 'tis a kind of Fatality 
upon us to be deceived. 

SO much for Natural Evidence, from the 
Caufes or Effefts. We now proceed to 
Scripture, which will make the greateft part 
of this Review. The Sacred Bafis upon which 
the whole Theory ftands, is the Doctrine of 
St. Teter^ delivered in his Seco7id Efiftle and 
Third Chapter^ concerning the 7>/p/^ Order 
and Succeffion of the Heavens and the Earth. 
That " comprehends the whole Extent of our 
•Theory: which indeed is but a large Commen- 
tary upon St. Teter's Text. Tlje Apoftle fets 
out a threefold ftate of the Heavens and Earth ; 
with fome general Properties of each, taken 
from their different Conftitution and different 
Pate. The Theory takes the fame threefold 
State of the Heavens and the Earth ; and ex- 
plains more particularly, wherein their different 
Conftitution confifts ; and how, under the Con- 
duct of Providence, their different Fate depends 
upon it. Let us fet down the Apoftlc's Words, 
with the occafion of them; and their plain fenfe, 
according to the moft eafie and natural Ex« 

2 Pet. ^. ver. j. Kjtowijig this fir ft ^ that 
there (I) all come in toe la ft days [coffer Sy walk^ 
ing after their own hfts. 

4. oAnd faying^ Where is the fromife of his 
coming ? for f^ice the fathers fell afiee^^ all 
things conti?me as they ivere from the begin- 
ning of the creation. 5. For 

the Theory of the Earth. j4i 

5. For this they willingly are ignorarit ofy 
that ly the word of God^ the heavens were of 
ohU and the earth co?jfifdng of water and ly 

6. Wherely the world that then wasy leiitg 
overflowed with water ^ ferijljed, 

q, 'But the heavens and the earth that are 
now^ hy the fa?ne word^ are he ft in flore^ re* 
ferved u?ito fire agai?i[l the day of judgment y 
and -perdition of ungodly men. 

10. libe day of the Lord will come as a thief 
in the nh'M^ in the which the heavens fl^ll pap 
away with a great noife^ and the elements 
fjall melt with fervent heat ; the earth alfo 
andthe works that are therein fiall helurtituf, 

13. Never thelefs we ^ according to his fro^ 
mife^ look for 7iew heavens and a new earthy 
wherein dwejleth right eoufjiefs. 

This is the whole Difcourfe fc) far as relates 
to our Subject. St. Teter^ you fee, had met 
with fome that fcoffM at the future Deftruftioa 
of the World, and the coming of our Saviour ; 
and they were Men, it feems, that pretended 
to Philofophy and Argument ; and they ufe 
this Argument for their Opinion, Seeing there 
hath been no Change in Nature^ or in the 
Worlds from the hegimiing to this time^ why 
fiould we think there will be any Change for thir 
future ? 

The Apoftle anfwers to this, That they 
willingly forget, or are ignorant, that there 
were Heavens of old, and an Earth, (0 and 
fq conitituted : confiiling of Water and by 

Z 5 W^. 

542 \A REVIEW of 

Water ; by reafon whereof that World, or 
thofe Heavens and that Earth, perifli'd in a 
Deluge of Water. But, faith he, the Heavens 
and the Earth that are now, are of another 
Conftitution, fitted and referved to another 
Fate, namely, to perifli by Fire. And after 
thefe are perifh^d, there will be New Heavens 
and a New Earth, according to God's Promife. 

This is an eafie Paraphrafe, and the plain 
and genuine Senfe of the Apoftles Difcourfe; 
and no body, I think, would ever look after 
any other fenfe, if this did not carry them out 
of their ufual Road, and point to Conclufions 
which they did not fancy. This Senfe, you 
fee, hits the Obiedion directly, or the Cavil 
which thefe Scoffers made ; and tells them, 
that they vainly pretend that there hath been 
no Change in the World fince the beginning ; 
for there was one fort of Heavens and Earth 
before the Flood, and another fort now, the 
firft having been deftroy'd at the Deluge. So 
that the Apoftle's Argument fiands upon this 
Foundation, That there is a Diverfity betwixt 
the prefent Heavens and Earth, and the Ante- 
diluvian Heavens and Earth ; take away that, 
and you take away all the Force of his An- 

Then as to his New He averts and New 
Earth after the Conflagration, they muft be 
material and natural, in the fame Senfe and 
Signification with the former Heavens and 
Earth ; unlefs you will offer open Violence to 
the Text. So that this Triplicity of the Hea- 
vens and the Earth, is the firft, obvious, plain 


the Theory of the E A r t h. 345 

Senfe of the Apoftlc's DifcouiTe ; which every 
one would readily accept, if it did not draw 
after it a long train of Confequences, and lead 
them into other Worlds th^an they ever thought 
of before, or are willing to enter upon now. 

But we fliall have occafion by and by, to 
examine this Text more fully in all its Circum- 
ftances. Give me leave in the mean time to 
obferve, That St. Ta^d alfo implies that trifle 
Creatio?i which St. ^eter expreifes. St. "Vaul^ 
I fay, in the Sth Chapter to the Romans^ 
ver. 20, 21. tells us of a Creation that will be 
redeerrPd from Va?iity ; which are the New 
Heavens and New Earth to come, A Crea- 
tion in Juhjetiion to Va?iity ; which is the pre- 
fent State of the ^ orld : and a Creation chat 
was fubjcflred to Vanity, in hopes of being 
reflor'd ; which was the fiift Paradifiacal 
Creation. And thefe are the Three States of 
the Natural World, wdiich make the SubjeQ: 
of our Theory. 

To thefe two Places of St. Teter and Su 
Taul^ I might add that third in St. Johuy 
concerning the New Heavens and New Earth, 
with that diftinguifliing Character, that the 
Earth was without a Sea. As thisdiftinguifh' 
eth it from the prefent Earth, fo, being a Re^ 
fiitution or Kefauration^ as we noted before, 
it muft be the fame with fome former Earth : 
and confequently it implies, that there was 
another precedent State of the Natural World, 
to which this is a Reftitution. Thefe three 
places I alledge, as comprehending and con-. 
firming the 1 heory in its full extent : But we 

Z 4 dii:3i 

344 ^ ^ EVIEW of 

do not fuppofe them all of the fame Force and 
Clearnefs. St. Teter leads the way, and 
gives Light and Strength to the other two. 
When a Point is provM by one clear Text, we 
allow others, as Auxiliaries, that are " not of 
the fame Clearnefs ; but being open'd, receive 
Light from the primary Text, and refleci: it 
upon the Argument. 

So much for the Theory in general. We 
will now take one or two principal Heads of 
it, which vertually contain all the rell:, and 
examine them m.ore ftrictly and particularly, 
in reference to their agreement with Scripture. 
The two Heads we pitch upon, fliall be our 
Explication of the Deluge, and our Explica- 
tion of the New Heavens and New Earth. 
We told you before, thefe Two were as the 
Hinges, upon which all the Theory moves, 
and\vhichhold the Parts of it in firm Union 
one with another. As to the Deluge, if I 
have explained that aright, by the Difruption 
of the great A by fs, and the Diffolution of the 
Earth that cover'd it, all the reft follows in 
fuch a Chain of Confequences as cannot be 
broken. Wherefore, in order to the Proof of 
that Explication, and of all that depends upon 
it, I will make bold to lay dov/n this Propofi- 
tion, That our H)fothe/Is concerning the Uni" 
n)erfal 'Deluge^ is not only more dgreealle to 
'Reafofi and Thilofophy^ than any other yet fro- 
.fos'^d to the Worlds but is aljo more agreealle 
to Scripture. Namely, to fuch places of Scrip- 
ture as reflefb upon the Deluge^ the oAbyJs^ 
^nd the Forni of the fjfi: Earth, And par- 

x^ - 

the Theory of the E aVt li. '^45 

ticularly to the Hifiory of Noah'KF/^^^, as 
recorded hy Moles. If I can make thi$ good, 
it will, doubtlefs, give SatisfaQion to all that 
are i\QQ and intelligent. And I defire their 
Patience, if I proceed flowly and by feveral 
Steps. We will divide our Task into Parts, 
and examine them feparately :" Firfi:, by Scrip- 
ture in general, and then by Mofes his Hiftory 
and Deicription of the Flood. 

Our Hypothefis of the Deluge confifts of 
Three principal Heads, or differs remarkably 
in Three things from the common Explication. 
Firfr, In that we fuppofe the Ante-diluvian 
Earth to have been of another Form and Con- 
ftitution from the prefent Earth : with the 
Abyfs placed under it. 

Secondly, In that we fuppofe the Deluge 
to have been made, not by any Inundation of 
the Sea, or overflowing of Fountains and Ri- 
vers ; nor (principally) by an Excefs of Rains ; 
but by a real Difiolution of the Exteriour 
Earth, and Difruption of the Abyfs which it 
cover'd. Thefe are the two principal Points, 
to which m.av be added, as a Corollary, 

Thirdly, That the Deluge was not in the 
nature of a ftanding Pool *, the Waters lying 
every where level, of an equal Depth, and 
witli an uniform Surface : But was made by 
a Fkiftuation and Commotion of the Abyfs 
upon the Difruption : Which Commotion be- 
ing over, the Waters retired into their Channels, 
and let the dry Land appear. 

Thefe are the mofl: material and fundamen- 
tal Parts of our Hypothefis : and thefe being 


546 tA REVIEW of 

prov'd confonant to Scripture, there can be 
no doubt of the reft. 

We begin with the firft : That the Ante* 
diluvian Earth was of another Form and Con- 
ftitution from the prefent Earth, with the 
Abyfs placed under it. This is confirmed in 
Scripture, both by fuch Places as affert a Di- 
verfity in general; and by other Places that 
intimate to us, wherein that Diverfiry con- 
fifted, and what was the Form of the firft 
Earth. That Difcourfe of St. Teter's, which 
we have fet before you concerning the paft, 
prefent and future Heavens and Earth, is fo 
full a Proof of this Diverfity in general, that 
you muft either allow it, or make the Apoftle's 
Argumentation of no effe£t. He fpeaks plain- 
ly of the Natural World, The Heave?is and 
the Earth : And he makes a plain Diftinction, 
or rather Oppofition, betwixt thofe before and 
after, the Flood. So that the leaft we can con- 
elude from his Words, is a Diverfity betwixt 
them ; in anfwer to that Identity or Immu* 
tability of Nature, which the Scoffers pretend- 
ed to have been ever fmce the beginning. 

But tho' the Apoftle, to me, ipeaks plainly 
of the Natural WorU^ and diftinguiflies that 
which was before the Flood, from the prefent : 
Yet there are fome that will allow neither of 
thefe to be contained in St. y^^^r's Words ; 
and by that means would make this whole 
Difcourfe of little or no efFeO:, as to our Pur- 
pofe. And feeing we, on the contrary, have 
made it the chief Scripture-Bafis of the whole 
Theory of the Earth, we are obligM to free it 


the Theory of the E \^ t h. ^47 

from thofe falfe Gloffes or Mif-interpretations, 
that leffen the Force of its Teftimony, or 
make it wholly inefFeclual. 

Thefe Interpreters fay, That St. Teter 
meant no more than to mind thefe Scoffers, 
that the World was once deftroyM by a De- 
luge of Water ; meaning the ^Animate World^ 
Mankind and living Creatures. And that it 
fliall be deftroy'd again by another Element, 
namely, by Fire. So as there is no Oppofi- 
tion or Diverfity betwixt the two Natural 
Worlds, taught or intended by the Apoftle ; 
but only in reference to their different Fate or 
Manner of perifning, and not of their diffe- 
rent Nature or Conftitution, 

Here are two main Points, you fee, where- 
in our Interpretations of this Difcourfe of the 
Apoltles differ. Firft, In that they make the 
Apoftle (\x\ th^it Jixth verfe) to underftand on- 
ly the World oAfihnate^ or Men and brute 
Creatures. That thefe were indeed deftroy'd, 
but not the Natural World, or the Form and 
Conftitution of the then Earth and Heavens. 
Secondly, That there is no Diverfity or Oppo- 
fition made by St. ^eter betwixt the ancient 
Heavens and Earth, and the prefent, as to 
their Form and Conftitution. We pretend 
that thefe are Mif-apprehenfions, or Mif-re- 
prefentations of the Senfe of the Apoftle in 
both refpefts, and offer thefe Reafons to prove 
them to be fo. 

For the firft Point ; That the Apoftle fpeaks 
here of the Natural World, particularly in 
the 6th Vcrfe; and that it perifli'd, as well 


^S cA REVIEW of 

as the animate, Thefe Confiderations feem to 

Firft, becaufe the Argument or Ground thefe 
Scoffers went upon, was taken from the Na- 
tural World, its Conftancy and Permanency 
in the fame State from the beginning : There- 
fore if the Apoftle anfwers ad idem, and takes 
away their Argument, he mufl: underftand the 
fame Natural World, and (how that it hath 
been chang'd, or hath peridi'd. 
■ You will fay, it may be, the Apoftle doth 
not deny, nor take away the Ground they 
'went upon, but denies the Confequence they 
made f\'om it ; That Therefore there would he 
no Cha?ige^ lecaufe there had heen none. No, 
neither doth he do this, if by the World in the 
6th Verfe, he underftands Mankind only ; 
for their Ground was tliis, Toere hath heen 7iq 
Change hi the Natural World ; Their Con- 
fequence this, Therefore there will he 7tone^ 
nor any Conflagration. Now the Apoftle's 
Anfwer, according to you, is this. Ton forget 
that Ma?iki7id hath heen deftrofd in a Deluge. 
And what then? what's this to the Natural 
World, whereof they were fpeaking ? This 
takes away neither Antecedent nor Confe- 
quent, neither Ground nor Inference ; nor any 
way toucheth their Argument, which proceed- 
ed from the Natural World, to the Natural 
World. Therefore you muft either fuppofe 
that the Apoftle takes away their Ground, or 
he takes awav nothing. 

Secondly, What is it that the Apiftle tells 
thefe Scoffers they w^re ignorant of ? Tliaj: 
^ . there 

the Theory of the Earth. 349 

there was a Deluge, that deftroyed Mankind? 
They could not be ignorant of that, nor pre- 
tend to be fo : It was tlierefore the Conftitu-. 
tion of thofe Old Heavens and Earth, and the 
Change or Deftruclion of them at the Deluge, 
that they were ignorant of, or did not attend 
to ; and of this the Apoftle minds them. 
Thefe Scoffers appear to have been Jews by 
the Phrafe they ufe, Since the Fathers fell 
ajleepj which in both parts of it is a Judaical 
ExprefTion ; and does St. Teter tell the Jews 
that had Mofes read to them every Sabbath, 
That they were ignorant that Mankind was 
once deftroyed zmth a "Deluge in the T)ays of 
Noah ? Or could they pretend to be ignorant 
of that wichcut making themfelves ridiculous 
both to Jews and ChriRians ? (^) Befides, 
thefe do not feem to have been of the Vulgar 
amongll: them, for they bring a Philofophical 
Argument for their Opinion; and alfo in their 
very Argument they refer to the Hiftory of 
the Old Teftament, in faying, Si^/ce the Fa- 
thers fell afleep J amongft which Fathers, 
Noah was one of the moft remarkable. 

Thirdly, The Defign of the Apoflle is to 
prove to them, or to difpofe them to the belief 
of the Confla^^ration, or future Deftrudion of 

(*) There was a Sed amongH: the Je^cs that held this Per- 
petuity and Immutability of Nature ; and Malmonides him£ci£ 
was of this Principle, and gives the fame Reafon for it with the 
Scoffers here in the Text, Oj^iod mwidm r:tinct is* Jequitur Confui- 
tudincm And as to thofe of the Jews that were Ar'ijloteleanjy 
it was very fuitable to their principles to hold the Incorrupti- 
bilic/ of the World, as thdr Maftcr did, Vld, Ice, ' ' 


^50 gA review of 

the World ; which I luppofe you will not de- 
ny to be a Deftruclion of the Natural World ; 
therefore to prove or perfvvade this, he muft 
ufe an Argument taken from a precedent De- 
ftruftion of the Natural World ; for to give 
an Inftance of the perifliing of Mankind only, 
would not reach home to his purpofe. And 
you are to obferve here, that the Apoflle 
does not proceed againfi: them barely by Au- 
thority ; for what would that have bcoted ? 
If thefe Scoffers would have lubmitted to Au- 
thority, they had already the Authority of the 
Prophets and Apofiles in this Point : but he 
deals with them at their own Weapon, and 
oppofes Reafons to Reafons ; What hath been 
done may be done, and if the Natural World 
hath been once deftroyed, 'tis not hard, nor 
unreafonable to fuppofe thofe Prophecies to 
be true, that fay, it ihall be deftroyed again. 

Fourthly, Unlefs we underftand here the 
Natural World, we make the Apoftle both 
redundant in his Difcourfe, and alfo very ob- 
fcure in an eafie Argument. If his Defign 
was only to tell them that Mankind was once 
deftroy'd in a Deluge, what's that to the Hea- 
vens and the Earth? The 5th Verfe would 
befuperfiuous ; which yet he feems to makes the 
Foundation of his Difcourfe. Ke might have 
told them how Mankind had periili'd before 
witha Deluge, and aggravated thatDeftruftioa 
as much as he pleas'd, without tellmg them 
how the Heavens and the Earth were confti- 
tuted then ; what was that to the purpofe, it 
it had no Dependance or Connexion with 


the Theory of the Earth; 551 

the other ? In the precedent Chapter, ver, 5. 
when he fpeaks only of the Floods deftroying 
Mankind, he mentions nothing of the Hea- 
vens or the Earth : and if you make him to 
intend no more here, what he fays more is 

I alfo add, that you make the Apoftle very 
obfcure and operofe in a very eafie Argument. 
How eafie had it been for him, without this 
Q/iPparatus^ to have told them, as he did 
before, that God brought a Flood upon the 
World of the ungodly ; and not given us fo 
much difficulty to underftand his knCQ, or 
fuch a fufpicion and appearance, that he inten- 
ded fomething more ; for that there is at leaft 
a great appearance and tendency to a further 
fenfe, I think none can deny ; And St. (Auftinj 
T^idymusoAlex, "Bede^ as we fhall fee hereafter, 
underftood it plainly of the natural World, 
alfo modern Expofiters and Criticks ; as Caje^ 
tan^ Eftius^ T)rufius^ Heinfius^ haVe extended 
it to the natural World, more or lefs, the' 
they had no Theory to miflead them, nor 
fo much as an hypothefis to fupport them ; 
but attended only to the Tenor of the Apoftle's 
difcourfe, which conftrain'd them to that fenfe, 
in whole or in Part. 

Fifthly, the oppofition carries it upon the 
natural World. The oppofition lies betwixt 

the o\ 'iKTct^idLi ^jfaerc/ )^ <yr, and 0^ v^f ^^ctvoi }y tyri^ 

the Heavens that were of old, and the Earth, 
and the prefent Heavens and Earth, or the 
two natural Worlds. And if they will not 
allow them to be oppos'd in their Natures 


^52 a4 REVIEW of 

(which yet we fliaH prove by and by) ^t 
leaft they muft be opposed in theii' Fate ; and 
as this is to perifli by Fire, fo that periflfd 
jbyAVater; And if it perifli'd by V/ater, k 
perifliM ; which is all we contend for at prefent. 
Laftly, if we would be as eafily governVl 
in the expofition of this Piace^ as we are of 
other Places of Scripture, it w^ould be enough 
tofuggeft, that in Reafon and fairnefs of in- 
terpretation, the fame World is defrroyVl in 
the 6th Verfe^ that was defcribxl in the fore- 
going Verje ; but it is the Natural World 
thatls defcrib'd there, the Heavens and the 
£arth, fo and fo conftituted ; and therefore 
in fairnefs of interpretation they ought to be 
iinderftood here ; that World being the Sub- 
jed that went immediately before, and there 
being nothing in the Words that reftrains them 
to the animate World or to Mankind. In 
the Q.d ch. ver. 5. the Apoftle does reftraia 
the Word >:o<r,</(^ by adding cLcriQ^V:, the World 
of the ungodly ; but here 'tis not only illimited, 
but according to the context, both preceding 
and following, to be extended to the Natural 
World. I fay by the foUov/ing context too, 
for fo it Anfwers to the World that is to 
perifh by Fire; which v^^ill reach the Frame 
of Nature as well as Mankind. 

For a conclufion of this firft Point, I will 
fetdown St. g/^/z/'^Vs Judgment in this Cafe; 
who in feveral Parts of his Wor]<s hath inter- 
preted this Place of St. "^eter^ of the natural 
World. As ro the Heavens, he hath thefe 
Words in his Expofition upon Genep^ Hos 


the Theory of the Earth. ^5 j 

etlam aerios ccslos quondam periijje Tjihivioj 
in quddam earum qua Canonica affeUa?it7ir^ 
Epifiola legimus. We read in one of the Epi^ 
files called Canonical^ meaning this of St. Te^ 
ter\j that the aerial Heavens peri^Pd in the 
'Deluge, And he concerns himfelf there to 
let you know tliat it was not the ftarry Hea- 
vens that were dellroy'd ; the Waters could 
not reach fo high ; but the Regions of our Air. 
Then afterwards he hath thefe Words, F^- 
dlilis eos (c.odo'i^j fec7rddu?n iJlius EfiftoU autho- 
ritatem credimus perii\]e^ ly alios^ ficut ihi 
fcrihitur^ repofitos. IVe do more eafily believe, 
according to the Q.4.uthorit^ of that Epfthy 
thofe Heavens to have ferif!)^d; and others, 
as it is there written, fuhftituted in their 
Tlace. In like*manner, and to the fame Senfe, 
he hath thefe Words upon TfaL loi. Q.4erii 
7-tique cceli ferierunt ut propinqui Terr is, fe- 
cundum quod dicuntur volucres cceli ; fimt autem 
^ coeli coelorum, fuperiores in Firmamento, fed 
iitrhniS ipfiperituri fint igni, an hi foli, qui 
etiam diUivio perierunt, difceptatio eft alt- 
quanto fcrupulofior inter doHos, And in his 
iBook de Civ, 'Dei^ he hath feveral PalTages 
to the lame purpofe, Quemadfiiodum in q.4^o^ 
fioUca ilia EpiftoLi a toto Tars accipitur, quod 
diluvio periijfe dicius eft 7nundus, quamvis 
fola ejus cuju fuis ccelis pars ima ferierit, 
Thefe being to the fame effecl with the firfl: 
citation, I need not make them Englifli ; and 
this laft Place refers to the Earth ^s well as 
the Heavens, as feveral other Places in St. 
cA:'fin do, whereof wc lliall give you an 
A a account. 

j;4 <^ REVIEW of 

account, when we come to iliew his iudg- 
ment concerning the fecond Point, the diver- 
fity of the ante'dlluvian and fofi-diluvian. 
World. This being but a foretafte of his 
good will and inclinations towards this Do- 

Thefe Confiderations alledg'd, fo far as I 
can Judge, are full and unanfwerable Proofs, 
that this difcourfe of the Apoftle's compre- 
hends and refers to the Natural World ; and 
confequently they warrant our interpretation 
in this Particular, and deftroy the contrary. 
We have but one ftep more to make gooc], 
That there was a Change made i?i this natural 
world at the T>ehgc^ according to he Apo- 
ftle; and this is j[:o confute the fecotnd Part 
of their interpretation, which fuppofeth that 
St. Teter makes no diftinaion or oppofition 
betwixt the antediluvian Heav^ens and Earth, 
and the prefent Heavens and Earthy in that 

This fecond difference betwi^Jt us, methinks, 
is ftill harfiier than the firft ; and contrary to 
the very Form, as well as to the Matter of 
the Apoftle's difcourfe. For there is a plain 
Antithefis, or Oppofition made betwixt the 
Heavens and the Earth of old (yer, the <^th,') 
and the Heavens and the Earth that are now 
Qver. the jth,^ d 'i-ATcrjai i^vQl y^ » t^T and ^ vvv 
^a^fo/ ;e5 « 7»T, and the adverfitive Particle, «^* 
te, you fee marks the oppofition ; fo that 
it is full and plain according to Grammer and 
Logick. And that the Parts or members of 
this oppofition differ in Nature from one 


The Theory of the E a r t h.^ J55 

another, is certain from this, bccaufe other- 
wife the Apoftle's Argument or Difcoiirfe is 
of no effect, concludes nothing to the purpofe ; 
he makes no anfwer to the objection, nor 
proves any Thing againft the Scoffers, unlefs 
you admit that diverfity. For they faid, o^ill 
things had been the jame from the leghining in 
the Nattcral World^ and unlefs he fay, as he 
manifeftly does, that there hath been a change 
in Nature, and that the Heavens and Earth 
that are now, are different from the Ancient 
Heavens and Earth, which perifli'd at the 
Flood, he lays nothing to deftroy their Argu- 
ment, nor to confirm the Prophetical doftrine 
of the Future deftruftion of the Natural 

This, I think, would be enough to fatis- 
fie any clear and free mind concerning the 
meaning of the Apoftle ; but becaufe I de- 
fire to give as full a light to this Place as 
I can, and to put the Senfe of it out of 
controvcrfie, if poffible, for the Future, I 
will make fom^e further remarks to confirm 
tliis expofition. 

And we may obferve that feveral of thofe 
Reafons which we have ^iven to prove, That 
the Nattrral World is underftood by St. Teter^ 
are double Reafons ; and do alfo prove the 
other Point in Queftio/i, a diverfity letwixt 
the tiii'O Natural Worlds^ the Ante-diluvian 
and the Prefent. As for infi:ance, unlefs you 
admit this diverfity betwixt the two Natural 
Worlds, you make the 5/^.6 Verfe in this Chap- 
ter fjperfluous and ufelefs ; and you muft 
A a 2 fuppofe 

3^5 oA R EFIEJV of 

fuppofe the Apoftle to make an inference here 
Without premifcs. In tlie 6th Verfe he make?;' 
an inference, ^ IVkerely the World, then 
was, perin^M in a Deluge ; what does this- 
wherehj relate to ? ly Re^fon of what ? fure of 
theparticular conftitutron of the Heavens and 
the Earth immediately before defcri'oM. Nei- 
ther woiild it have fignified any thing to the 
Scoffers, for the Apoftle to have told them how 
the Antediluvian Heavens and Earth were 
confHtuted, if thet 'Cvere conftituted juil m 
the fame manner as the prefent. 

Befides, what is it, as I ask'd before, that 
the Apoftle tells thefe Scoffers tliey were 
ignorant of ? does he not fiy formally and 
exprcfly (ver. 5.) that they wei.'e ignorant that 
the Heavens and the Eartli v/ere conftituted 
fo and fo, before the Flood ? but if they were 
conftituted as tlvefe prefent Heavens and 
Earth are, they Vv^re not ignorant of their 
conftitution ; nor did pretend to be ignorant, 
for their own (miftaken) argument fuppo- 
feth it. 

But before we proceed any further, give 
mz leave to note the Impropriety of our 
Tranflation, in the <^th Yerfe, or latter Part 

cvv^^ZccL^ This Vv^e tranflate jlanding in the 
Water^ and out of the Water ^ wliich is done 

i^A o»v>per' que. Vulgar. Ojf.tnrircvr. Beza. Ou't dc c^tus^t. 
Grot, ^cmo intcrprctum ndidit <A}wJ', per <^uz^ -^ fuhlntcU'igendo 
aquas. Hoc argumenhttioncm Ap^'flolicam toUcre't^ fitppovifaque 
iUu,]'yrcs 'iU')S igtiaraff^ .jujd oiim fucrit Diluvium •, (^uod Jupponi n<.n 

pojj'c fuprk ofiend'mus. 


the Theory cf .the E A r t h. 557 

inanifeftlv in compliance with the prefent 
form of the Earth, and the Notions of the 
Tranflators : and not acC0L*din[5 to the natural 
Force andSenfe of the Greek Words. If one 
met with Sentance ^ in a Greek Author, 
who would ever render it fiaudhig in the 
Water^ and out of the Water^ nor do I know 
any Latiri Tranflator that hath ventured to 
render th.em in that Senfe ; nor any Latm 
Father; St. oAuflin and St. 'Jerome I'm fure 
do net, but Co?2fifte?is ex aqtia^ or de ajiia^ 
i^ fer aqunin : for later Phrafe alfo 
<ivvi<ri\<it <5'\ vfcLTo^^ does not with fo good proprie- 
ty fand hi the Hater^ as to confift 
or fubfiit by Water, or by the help of Wa- 
ter, Ta?irpfam ])er cntifam frffii?tentem ; as 
St Q^iuftin and Jerome render it. Neither does 
that inilance they give from i "Pet. j. 20. 
prove anything to the contrary, for the Ark 
was fiiftainM by the Waters, and the EjigliJI)^ 
does render it accordingly. 

The Tranflation being thus reftified, you 
fee the ante-diluvian Heavens and Earth con- 

* This Phrafe or manner of Speech avvz^vcu la vcl Z^ 
is not unuf^ial in Greeli Authors, and upon a like Subjccft j 
7-'/,/to faith, joif <h JtoTUov avy ^vcu l:'j TTJ^pi^ v JkTQ-y tti^s 
7>^$j buc he that ilioitia tranflare Platn^ 7b: li^or Id /lands out of 
Firc-y H^at-.r^ ls>:. would be thought neither Grxc'un^ nor Phiiofo- 
pher. Tne fame Phrafe is us\i in reciting Htraclitui his 
opinion^ tI tpxvtx c;c '^rJcU <r>.yi^ycU, )^ it; niu eiya,}vixK^, 
And alfo m Thai a his, which is Itill nearer to ths Subject, 
c;c Tb V'f!x.To?j (pi'.sij ffwi^aycu 7ra:'7tf, which Cic:ro renders, 
er lU/ua., dixit^ cr,vjii^re >mma. 'So that it is eafie to know the 
nue importance of this Phrafe, and how ill in is rendcr'd in the'.ifli, fiandin^' out of thi- iVJt.r, 

A a 5 fi{te4 

558 eA REVIEW of 

fifted of Water, and by Water ; which makes 
Way for a fecond obfervation to prove our 
fenfe of the Text ; for if you admit no diver- 
fity betwixt thofe Heavens and Earth, and 
the prefent, fhew us 'pray, how the prefent 
Heavens and Earth coniift of Water, and 
by Water. What watery conftitution have 
they ? The Apoftle implies rather, that 77?^ 
now Heaveiis and Earth have a fiery confti- 
tution. We have now Meteors of all forts 
in the Air, Winds, Hail, Snow, Lightning, 
Thunder, and all Things engendered of fiery 
Exhalations, as well as we have Rain ; but 
according to our Theory, ^Boo\ 2. c 5. the 
ante-diluvian Heavens, of all thefe Meteors 
had none but Dews and Vapors, or wa- 
tery Meteors only ; and therefore might very 
aptly be faid by the Apoftle to be coufiituted 
of VVater^ or to have a watery cn^Vc/c?,-. Then 
the Earth was faid to co??fi(t by Water^ becaufe 
it was built upon it, and at firft was fuftain'd 
by it. And when fuch a Key as this is put into 
our Hands, that does fo eafily unlock this 
hard PalTage, and makes it intelligible, ac- 
cording to the juft force of the Words, why 
fhould we pertinaciouily adhere to an '^ inter* 
pretation, that neither agrees with the Words^ 
nor makes any Senfe that is confidcrable ? 

* Whether you refer the Vv'^ords dz, Vo%t. -^ </!/ t^'/ar. 
feparatcly, to the Hciivcn? and the Earth, or both rorhc Earth, 
or both to bothj it will make tio grsat difi* rence as to our intcr- 


The Theory of the E a r t h. 559 

Thirdly, If the Apoftle had made the 
ante-diluvian Heavens and Earth the fame 
with the prefect, his Apodofis in tlie "jth 
Verfe, fliould not have been ti^vxjv ^le^vo], but 

it would not have been by way of Antithefis, 

but of Identity or Continuation ; oAud the 

jame Heavens and Earth are heft in flore 

re[erv\l unto Vire^ iSc, Accordingly we fee 

the Apoftle fpeaks thus, as to the Logos, or 

the Word of Go d^ Verfe 7. rep etvTcii' hoya, lythe 

fame Word of God ; where the Thing is the 

^fame, he expreifeth it as the fame; And if it 

had been the fame Heavens and Earth, as 

well as the fame Word of God, why fliould 

he ufe a Mark of Oppofition for the one, and 

of Identity for the other ? To this I do not fee 

what can be fairly anfwer'd. 

Fourthly, The ante-diluvian Heavens and 
Earth were different from the prefent, becaufe, 
as the Apoftle intimates, they were fuch, and 
fo conftituted, as made them obnoxious to a 
Deluge ; whereas ours are of fuch a Form, 
as niakes them incapable of a Deluge, and 
obnoxious to a Conflagration ; the juft contra- 
ry Fate, Theor, i 'Book. c. 2. 

If you fay there was nothing of natural 
Tendency or Difpofition in either World to 
their refpecrive Fate, but the flrft might as 
well have periflied by Fire as Water, and 
this by Water as by Fire, you unhinge all 
Nature and natural Providence in that Me- 
tliod, and contradict one main Scope of the 
A^poftle in this Difcourfe. His firll Scope is 
A a 4 to 

?6o oA R EVIEIV of 

to aiTeit, and mind them of that Diverfity 
there was betwixt the ancient Heavens and 
Earth, and the prefent ; and from that, to 
prove againft thofe Scoffers, that there had 
been a Change and Pvevohition in Nature : 
And his fecond Scone feems to be this, to fhow 
that Diverfity to be fuch, as, under the Divine 
ConduQ:, leads to a ditterent Fate, and ex^ 
posM that World to a Deluge ; for when he 
had defcribM the Conftitution of the firil Hea- 
vens and Earth, he fubjoins, ^"i Sv o tot* k^ju^ 
vJ'ctTt y^TAy.hv^Ji ^~'a5to. Qu'ik tolts erat^ faith 
GrotzHs^ qualem dixinnts^ confiitutio i3 Terra 
ef CkU. JV HERE'BT the then World fe- 
rifh^d in a Flood ofJVater. This wherehy notes 
fome kind of caufal Dependance, and muft 
relate to fome Means or Conditions precedent. 
It cannot relate to Logos ^ or the iVrrd ofGod^ 
Grammar will not permit that ; therefore it 
muft relate to the State of the Ante-diluvian 
Heavens and Earth immediatelv premised. 
And to what purpofe indeed Qiould he premife 
the Defcription of thofe Heavens and Earth, 
if it was not to lay a Ground for this Infe- 
rence ? 

Having given thefe Rcafons for the Ne- 
ceffity of this Interpretation ; in the laii place, 
let us confider St. G.4r/6'/Vs Jiidgmient and 
his Senfe upon this Place, as to the Point in 
queftion; as a!fo the RcflLdions that feme 
other of the Antients have miade upon tliis 
Do£trine of St. Teler^r, 'Didymus c^llexa;:- 
drinti^s^ wlio was for fome time St. Jc'rcme\ 
Mafter, made fuch a fevere Reflefliidn upon 


the Theory of tie E a h t it." ^61 

% that he faid this Epiftle was corrupted, 
and flioiild not be admitted into the Canon^ 
hecaufe it taufzht the Doclrine of a Trij^le or 
Triform IVorld ia this third Chapter ; as you 
inay fee in his Eriarr. in Epi/L Canonicas. 
Now this threefold World is firft that in the 
6th Verfe, The jVorJd'that then was. In the 
7th Vcrfe, The Heavens and the Earth that 
are now. And in the 13th Verfe, We ex^eH 
fiew) Heavens and a new Earthy accordi?tg to 
his Tromife. This feems to be a fair Account- 
that St. Tetcr taught the Doctrine of a Triple 
World : And I quote this Tellimony, to fliov/ 
wliat St. Peter's Words do naturally import, 
even in the Judgment of one that was not of 
Iiis mind. And a Man is not prone to make 
an Expofition againit his own Opinion, unlefs 
he think the Words very pregnant and ex- 

But St. QAiifti^i owns the Authority of this 
Epiftle, and oftliis Doctrine, as derived from 
it, taking notice of this Text of St. Teter'^s in 
fevcral parts of his Works, We have noted 
three or four Places already to this piirpofe, 
and we may further take notice of feveral Paf- 
figcs in his Treatife, de Civ. T^ei^ which con- 
firm our Expofirion. In his lorh Book, ch. 24. 
lie difputcs a gain ft Torfhpy, who had the 
fame Principles Vv'ith thefe Eternalifts in the 
Text ; or, if I may fo call them, Incorrupta- 
rians ; and tliouglit the World never had, nor 
ever would undergo any Change, efpecially as 
to the Heavens. St. ^Aufin could not urge 
Tor[hyry with tlie x\uthority of St. T^f^r, for 


^6% 'qA REVl EW of 

he had no veneration for the Chriftian Oracles, 
but it feems he had fome for the J^wijh ; and 
arguing againd him, upon that Text in the 
Pfalms, Ccvli ferihunt^ he fhows, upon occa- 
fion how he underftands St. Teter^ Deltru- 
£lion of the Old World. Legitur Coslum gjf 
Terra tranfihunt^ Mundtcs tranfit^ fed ptto quod, 
fraterit^ tranfitj tranjihunt aliquant o mitius 
dicta funt qukm ferihunt. In EpiftQla quoqtie 
"Petri oAfoftolij uhi aqtd inundatiis^ qui turn 
erat^ ferajje diHus eft Mmidus^ fatis clarum 
eft qu£. pars mundi a totoftg7iificata eft^ gjf qua- 
terns per iiffe dicta fit ^ 13 qtii Co^li refqfiti igni 
referva?tdi. This he explains more fully af- 
terwards by fubjoining a Caution (which we 
cited before) that we muft not underftand 
this Paffion of St. "Peters concerning the De- 
ftruStion of the ante-diluvian World, to take 
in the whole Univerfe, and the higheft Hea- 
vens, but only the aerial Heavens, and the 
fublunary World. In eApofiolica Hid Epfioli 
a toto pars acciptur^ quod T)ihvio feriifje 
diBus eft Mundus quamvis fola ejtM^ cum juis 
Ccelis^ pars ima perierit. In that G.4foftolical 
Efiftle^ a part isfignified hy the whole ^ when 
the World is faid to have ferif^ed in the 
"Deluge^ although the lower part of it onl)\ 
with the Heavens lelonging to it^ perified : 
that is. The Earth v.^th the Regions of the 
Air that belong to it. And confonant to this, 
in his Expofition of that ici Pfahn^ upon 
thofe Words, The Heavens are the PVork of 
thy Hands; They floaU perif})^ but thoufialt en-- 
dure. This periihing of the Heavens^ he fays^^ 


The Theory cf tie E at. t h." 56 j 

St. Teter tells us, hath been once done already, 
namely, at the Deluge : oA-jJerfe dixit hoc 
c/lpofio!u6 TetruSj Cosli erarit olim gjf Terra^ 
de aq^uk £if l^er aqxiani conftittiti^ Dei verho ; 
-^er quod qui faclm eft mitndws^ aquk i7imidatm 
d(^feriit ; Terra autem £5? C(^li qui nimc funt^ 
igni re[erva7itttr. 'Jam ergo dixit feriijje Coslos 
^er 'iJiluvium. 

Thefe Places fliew us, that St. oAuftin under- 
flood St. ^?eter\ Difcourfe toaim at the Natural 
World, and his feriit ov^periife (ver. 6.) to be of 
the fame Force as ^mZ^^if//^ in the Pfalms, when 
'tis (aid the Ht^vens fiall ferip; andconfequent- 
ly that the Heavens and the Earth, in this Fa- 
thers Opinion, were as really changed and 
transformed at the time of the Flood, as they 
will be at the Conllagration. But we muft 
notexpeft from St. oAtijU^h or any of the An- 
cients, a diftinci Account of this Apoftolical 
DoCcrine, as if they knew and acknowledg'd 
the Theory of the Firfl: World ; that does not 
at all appear, but what they faid was either 
from broken Tradition, or extorted from them 
by the Force of the Apolile's Words and their 
own Sincerity. 

There are yet other Places In St. G.4//y?/;/ 
worthy our Confideration upon this Subject ; 
efpecially his Expofition of this 3d Chapter of 
St. Teter, as we find it in that fame Treatife, 
de Civ. T)ei^ caf. 18. There he compares 
again, the Deftruftion of the World at the 
Deluge, with that which fl:iall be at the Con- 
flagration, and fuppofcth both the Heavens 
and Earth to have periflied : oApftolus com- 


'364 14 REVIEW of 

?nem'orans faFttim ante T)ihivium^ videtur ad" 
momiijje quodammodo quate7ius in fine hiijas 
feculi mundum Ilium ferkiinim ejje credamm. 
Nam ^ illo te77iJ)ore ferilfje dixit^ qtii tunc 
erat^ mundum ; fiec folum orhem terra^ verhn 
etiam coelos. Then giving his ufual Caution^ 
That the Stars and Starry Heavens ftoukl 
not be comprehended in that mundane De- 
ftru£tion, He goes on, o^Atque hoc modo (pene 
totus aer ) cum terra ferierat ; ctqus Terra 
titique frior fades ( nempe ante-diluviana ) 
fuerat deleta T)iluvio, Q^d autem nunc (tint 
cadi iy terra eodem verho refofti funt ig-ni re- 
fervajidi\ Troinde qui Ccsli i^ qu^ Terra id 
eft^ qui mundm^ fro eo mundo qui T^iluvio fe- 
riit^ ex eadem aqua re-pofitm ef^ ipfe igJii no- 
vifjimo refervatur. Here you fee St. ^'lufin^ 
Senfe upon the whole m.atter ; which is this, 
That the Natural World, the Earth with the 
Heavens about it, was deftroyed and changM 
at the Deluge into the prefent Heavens and 
Earth; which fhall again in Hke manner be 
deftroyed and changM by the laft Fire. Ac- 
cordingly, in another place, to add no more, 
he faith, the Figure of the (fublunary) World 
fhall be changed at tlie Conflagration, as it 
was changM at the Deluge : Tu?ic figura hujus 
mundi^ &c. ca^. 16. 

Thus you fee, we have St. oAnftin on our 
fide, in both parts of our Interpretation ; that 
St. Teter\ Difcourfe is to be referrM to tlie 
natural inanimate World, and tjiat the prefent 
Natural World is diftincl and di.ferent from 
tliat whi:h w^as before the D;:lu5e. And 


the Theory of the E a r t h; ^65 

St; oAuflin having applytd this exprefly to 
St. Teter's Dodrine by way of Commentary, 
it will free us from any Crime or AfFeftatioa 
of Singularity in the Expofition we have given 
of that Place. 

Venerable 'Bede hath followed St. o^iufdn^s 
Footf[eps in this Doftrine ; for, interpreting 
St. Teter's Original World ( Ar^^To-. Koaix^i ) 
% Tet, 2. 5. he refers both that and this 
{Chaf, 5. 6.) to the natural inanimate \Vorld, 
which he fuppofeth to have undergone a 
Change at the Deluge. His Words are thefe. 
Idem ipfe nntndus eit (nempe quoad materiam) 
in quo nunc humantim genios hahitat^ quern in- 
habit avermit hi qui a7ite diluvium fuerunt^ fed 
teamen re etc Originals Mundus^ quaft allies di- 
citur ; quia ficut in confequejitibm hujti/s Epi- 
fioU fcripum conti^ietur^ Ille tunc rnimdus 
r.quH inundatiis periit, Cculis videlicet qui 
erant friws^ id ef^ cunciis aeris hujus terhulentz 
fpaciis^ aquarum accrefcentium altitudine con- 
Jumf^tiSj ac Terra in alteram faciem^ exce- 
dentihus aquis^ vrnmutatL Nam etfi montes 
^iliqui at que convalles ah initio faHi creduntur^ 
non tamen tanti qnanti nunc in orhe cer?tuntur 
ufiiverfo. ^Tis the fame World ( namely, as 
to the Matter and Subflancc of it ) which 
Mankind lives in nois:^ and did live i?i before 
the Floods but yet that is truly called the OKI- 
G INoA L WO R UVj being as it zz^ere ano- 
ther from the ^relent. Tor it is faid in the 
fequel of this Epifile^ that the World that "ji^as 
then^ ■perifl)ed in the 'Deluge : na^nehj The 
ReQ^ions of the e4/> zvere confumed by the 


^66 lA R EVIEW of 

Height and Excefs of the Water ; ajtd ly the 
fame Waters the Earth was changed into ano- 
ther Form or Face. For altkotigb [o?72e Moun- 
tains and Valleys are thought to have leen 
made from the leginning^ yet not jnch great 
07ies as now we fee throtighout the whole 

You fee this Author does not onlv ovvn a 
Change made at the Deluge, but offers at a 
further Explication wherein that Cliange con- 
fifted, viz. That the Mountains and Inequah*- 
ties of the Earth were made greater than they 
'u^ere before the Flood; and fo he makes the 
Change, or the Difference betwixt the two 
Worlds gradual, rather than fpecifical, if I 
may fo term it. But we cannot wonder at 
that, if he had no Principles to carry it fur- 
ther, or to make any other fort of Change in- 
telligible to him. 'Bede [T)e 6 dier. creat.'] 
alfo purfues the fame Senfe and Notion in his 
Interpretation of that Fomitain^ Gen. 2. 5. that 
watered the Face of the Earth before the Flood. 
And many other Tranfcribers of Antiquity 
have recorded this Tradition concerning a 
Difference, gradual or fpecifical, both in the 
Ante-diluvian Heavens (Glof. Ordin. Gen, 9, 
cle Iride, Lyran. ibid. Hift. Scholafi. c. ^5. 
Hal. Maurus i^ GlojJ] Inter. Gen. 2. 5, 6, 
cAlcuin. Qu^ft. in Gen. inter. 155.J and 
in the Ante-diluvian Earth, as the fame 
Authors witnefs in other Places : As Hift. 
Schol. c. ^4. Gloff. Ord. in Gen. 7. oAlcnin. 
Inter. lA^^c. Not to inftance in thofe that 
tell us the Properties of the Antediluvian 


the Theor) of the E a r t h." 567 

World under the name and notion of Pa- 

Thus much concerning this remarkable 
Place in St. Teter^ and the true Expofition 
of it ; which I have the more largely in- 
fifted upon, becaufe I look upon this Place as 
the chief Repofitory of that great Natural 
Myftery, which in Scripture is communicated 
to us concerning the Triple State or Revolu- 
tion of the World. And of tliofe Men that 
are fo fcrupulous to admit the Theory we 
have propos'd, I would willingly know% 
whether they believe the Apofrle in what he 
fays concerning the A^ew Heavens and ths 
A^ew Earth to come'^ ver. 15. and if they do, 
why they Iliould not believe him as much con- 
cerning the Old Heavens and the Old Earth 
pad: ? ver. 5 6if 6. which he mentions as for- 
mally, and defcribes more diftinclly than the 
other. But if they believe neither paft nor to 
come, in a natural fenfe, but an unchange- 
able State of Nature from the Creation to its 
Annihilation, I leave them then to their Fel- 
low-Eternal ifts in the Text, and to the Cha- 
rafter or Cenfure the Apoltle gives them, 

Kct7T< TWj ///fltj cLVjav ^^^vyJAi vTOf SVO^Vc/, MeH that 

go by their own private Humour and Paf- 
iions, and prefer that to all other Evidence. 

They deferve this Cenfure, I am fure, if 
they do not only disbelieve, but alfo feoff, at 
this Prophetick and Apolfolick Doftrine con- 
cerning the ViciiTitudes of Nature and a Tri- 
ple World. The Apoftle in this Difcourfe 
does formally dillinguifli Three Worlds (for 


568 bA R E V I E W of 

'tis well known that the Helrews Jiave no 
Word to fignihe tlie Natural Vvorld, but ufe 
that Periphrafis, The Heavens^ and the Earthy 
and upon each of them engraves a Name and 
Title that bears a Note of DiUrnclion in it ; 
He calls them the 0]d Hea-ceiis and Earthy 
the "^relent Heavens raid Earthy and the New 
Heavens and Earth. 'Tis true, thefe Three 
are one, as to Matter and Sutrftance ; but thty 
muft differ as to Porm and Properties ; ciher- 
wife what is the". Ground of this Diftinftion 
and of thefe three different Appellations ? Siip- 
pofe the "Jews had e>:pcS:ed EzekiePs Temple 
for the Third, and^Xaft, and moft perfeft ; 
and that in the time of tlie Second Temiple 
they had fpoke of them with this Diftinciion, 
or under thefe different Names, The OldTen:^ 
fie J the TrefeM Temple^ and tlie jWew TemfJe 
WQ expefl: : Would any liave underftood thofe 
Three of one and the {2\mQ Teriiple ; never 
demolidj'd, never changed, never rebuilt ; al- 
ways the fame, both as to Materials and Form ? 
No, doubtlefs, but of Tliree fcveral Temples 
iiicceeding one-another. And liave we net 
the fame Reafon to uiiderftand this Tem.ple of 
the World, whereof St. Ttter fpeaks, to be 
threefold in Succeffion : feeing he does as plain- 
ly diftinguifli it into the Old Heavens and 
Earth, the Trejent Heavens and Earth, and 
the New Heavens and Earth. And I do the 
more willingly vSo; this Comparifon of the 
Temple, becaufe it hath been thought an Em- 
blem of the outward World, 

I know 

the Theory of the E A.R t h« ^6() 

I know we are naturally averie to entertam 
any thing that is inconfillent with the general 
Frame and Texture, of our own Thoughts ; 
That's to begin the World again ; and we 
often reject fuch things without Examination, 
Neither do I wonder that the genera h'ty of Inter"^ 
prefers beat down the Apoffle's Words and Senfe 
to their own Notions :They had noof her Grounds 
to go upon, and Men are not willing, efpecially 
in natural and comprehenfible things^ to puc 
fiich a Meanig upon Scripture, as is uriintel- 
h'gible to themfelves ; They rather ven- 
ture to offer a little Violence to the Wordsji 
that they niay pitch the Senfe at fuch a con- 
venient Heigth, as their Principles will reach 
to. And therefore though fome of our modem 
Interpreters, v/hom I mentioned before, have 
been fenfible of the natural Tendency of this 
Difcourfe of St. Teter% and have much ndo 
to bear off the Force of the Words, Co as not 
to acknowledge that they imiport a real Diver- 
fity betwixt the two Worlds fpoken of; yet 
Jiaving no Principles to guide or fupport them 
in following that Trad, they are forc'd to 
ftop or divert another vv'ay* 'Tis like entering 
into the Mouth of a Cave, we are not willing 
to venture further than the Light goes. Nor 
are they much to blame for this; the Fault is 
only in thofe Perfons that continue wilfully 
in their Darknefs^^ and When they cannot other-^ 
wife refill: the Light, fliut their Eyes againft 
it, or turn their Head another way.- — But I 
am afraid I have (laid too long upon this Ar- 
B b gumenti 

570 'nA KEVIEU^ of 

gument ; not for m}^ own fake, but to fatisfie 

You may pleafe to remember that all that I 
have faid hitherto, belongs only to the firll Head : 
To prove a 'Viverfity in general betwixt the 
Antediluvian Heavens and Earth, and the 
prefent; not expreffing what their particular 
Form was. And this general Diverfity may 
be argued alfo by Obfervations taken from 
Mo[es his Hiftory of the World, before and 
after the Flood. From the Longevity of the 
Ante-diluvians : The Rain-bo'^ appearing af- 
ter the Deluge; and the breaking open an 
Abyfs capable to overflow the EartL The 
Heavens that had no Rain-bow, and under 
whofe benign and fteddy Influence, Men liv'd 
feven, eight, nine hundred Years and up- 
wards, [See Theor, "Book 2. cb, <;.] mult have' 
been of a difi^erent Afpeft and Confl:itution 
from the prefent Heavens. And that Earth 
that had fuch an Abyfs, that the Difruption 
of it made an univerfal Deluge, mufl: have 
been of another Form than the prefent Earths 
And thofe that will not admit a Diverfity in the 
two Worlds, are bound to give us an intefiible 
Account of thefe Pha:nomena : How they 
could poflTibly be in Heavens and Earth, like the 
prefent. Or if they were there once, why 
they do not continue fo ftill, if Nature be the 

We need fay no more, as to the Ante-di!u- 
vian Heavens: but as to the Earth, we mull 
now, according to the fecond Part of the firft 


The Tldenry of the E a r t h." J71 

Head, enquire, 1^ tb^t T art: ad ar For^, which 
we hare afTign'd it before the Flood, be agree- 
able to Scripture. You know how we have 
dcfcribM the Form and Situation of that Earth : 
namely, That it was built over the Abyfs, as 
a regular Orb, covering and incompafling the 
Waters round about, and founded, as it were, 
upon them. There are many Paffages of 
Scripture tliat favour this Defcription : Some 
more exprefly, others upon a due Explication. 
To this purpofe there are two exprefs Texts 
in the Pfalms ; as Tfal, 24* i, 2. The Earth is 
the Lords^ a?id the fuhiefs thereof: The habi- 
table Worlds and they that dwell therein. 
FOR he h /IS founded it tifon {^) the Sea ^ and 
eftabli(l)ed it u^on the Floods. An Earth 

(*) I know fomc vould malce this Place of no effect by ren- 
dering the Hcbrcro P.irticle '71; ;».TfiJ, hy or ritar to j fo they 
^v•oulJ read it thus, Hf hath founded the Enrtb h the Sea-fide^ ahd 
cftabliftM it by the Floods. Whac is there wonderiul in this, 
thac the Shores fiiould lie by the Sea-lide ? Where could they 
lie eUc i What Realbn Or Argument is this, why the Earth 
Hioiild be the Lord's? The Earth is the Lord's, fur he hath 
founded it n^ar the Seas, Where is the Confcqucncc of this? 
IJuc if he ft>undcd it upon the S:as, which could not be done by 
any other Hand but his, it fliows both the Worlcpjanand the Ma- 
Aer. And accordiiL^ly in that othc, }'/'■!' I3^« 6. if you render 
it, iid /irctchcd out the Earth near the Waters, how is that one 
of God's great Wonders ? as it is tlicrc reprefentcd to be. Be- 
caufe in fonie few places this Particle is rendcr'd otherwife, 
where the Senle will bear it, muft we therefore render it fo 
%vhen we plcsfe, and where the 5enfc will not bear it ? This 
bjing th;i mol\ ufual Signification of ir, and there being no other 
Word that lignilics rt/'.Tc' more frequently or derernjinatdy than 
:hi;. do;s, vrliy muft it ligniii: otherwife in thi> Place ? Men 
f/iil \vrijc;le any way to get from under the Force of <\ Texr^ 
y.ui.: do:5iiOL f.iic to their own Notjc;^J. 

B b 2 founded 

^72 ' (^4 R EVIEW of ' ^ 

founded upon the Seas, and eftablifliM upori 
the Waters, is not this the Earth we have de- 
fcrib'd ? the firft Earth, as it came from the 
Hands of its Maker. Where can we now 
find in Nature, fuch an Earth as the Seas and 
the Water for its Foundation ? Neither is this 
Text without a Second, as a Fellow-Witnefs 
to confirm the fame Truth : For in TfaL 136, 
ver, 4, <, 6. we read to the fame eiTecl:, in 
thefe Words, To him voho alone does great 
iP:07iders : To him that hy wifdom made the Hea- 
vens : To him that ftretched out the Earth 
above the Waters, We can hardly exprefs that 
Form of the Ante-diluvian Earth, in Words 
more determinate than thefe are; Let us then 
in the fame Simplicity of Heart, follow the 
Words of Scripture ; feeing this literal Senfe 
is not repugnant to Nature, but, on the con- 
trary, agreeable to' it upon the ftrifteil: Exa- 
mination. And we cannot, v/ithout fome 
Violence, turn the Words to any other Senfe. 
What tolerable Interpretation can thefe admit 
of, if we do not allow the Earth once to have 
'encompafsM and over-fpread the Face of the 
"Waters ? To be founded upon the Waters, to 
be efiaUifl)^du^on the Waters, to be extended 
upon the Waters, what rational or fatisfaftory 
Account can be given of thefe Fhrafes and 
Expreffions from any thing we find in the 
prefent Situation of the Earth ? or how can 
they be verified concerning ic ? Ccnfult In- 
terpreters, ancient or modern, upon thefe two 
Places : fee if they anfwer your Expc61ation, or 


the Theory of }he ET.a n t h. 373 

nnfvver the natural Importance of the Words, 
imlefs they acknowledge another Form of the 
Eaitli, than the prefent. Becaufe a Rock 
h,mi2;s its Noie over the Sea, miid: the Body 
of the Earth be faid to be ftretcbed over the 
waters ? Or, becaufe there are Waters in fome 
fubterraneous Cavities, is the Earth therefore 
foHJided upon the Sens? Yec fuch lame Ex^' 
plications as thefe you will meet with ; and 
while we have no better Liglu, we muft con- 
tent our felves with them ; but when an Ex- 
plication is offerVI, that anfwers the Propriety, 
Force and Extent of the Words, to' rejed it, 
only becaufe it is not fitted to our former Opi- 
nions, or becaufe we did not firft think of it, 
is to take an ill Method in expounding Scri- 
pture. This Foundation or EftablijJmjent 
of the Earth upon the Seas, this Extenjiort 
of it above the Waters, relates plainly to 
the Body, or whole Circuit of the Earth, 
not to Parcels and Particles of it ; as ap- 
pears from the Occafion, and its being joind 
with the Heavens, the other Part of the 
Wo'ld. Befides, T>avid is fpeaking of the 
Origin of the World, and of the Divine Pow- 
er and Wiidom in the Conftruclion and Situa- 
tion of our Earth, and thefe Attributes do not 
appear from the Holes of the Earth, and bro- 
ken Rocks ; which have rather the Face 
of a Ruin, than of Wifdom ; but in that won- 
derful Libration and Expanlion of the firfl: 
Earth over the Face of the Waters, fuftained 
B b J by 

574 ^ REVIEW cf 

hv its own Proportions, and the Hand of his 


Thefe two Places in the Pfalms being duly 
confider'd, we fliall more eafily underftand a. 
third Place, to the fame effeft, in the Troverhs \- 
delivered by WISDOM^ concerning the Ori- 
gin of the World, and the Form of the firfl: 
Earth, in thefe Words, Chap, 8. 27. When. 
he prepared the Heavens I was there^ whe?t 
HE SET and Orb or Sphere upon the face of 
the cAhf^, We render it, when we fet a 
Compafs upon the Face of the Abyfs : but 
if we have riglitly interpreted the Prophet 
T)avid^ 'cis plain enough what compafs is 
here to be underftood ; not an imaginary 
Circle, (for why fhould that be thought one 
of the wonderful Works of God) but that ex- 
teriour Orb of the Earth that was fet upon 
the Waters. That was the Maiter-piece of 
the Divine art in framing of the firft Earth, 
and therefore very fit to be taken notice of by 
Wifdom. And upon this occafion, I defire 
you to refleft upon St. Teter\ expreffion, con- 
cerning the firft Earth, and to compare it 
with Solo?non''s^ to fee if they do not anfwer 
one another, St. Teter calls it, ♦>« X6t93r«c7a ^t 
t^xTwy, oAn Earth confifiing^ ftanding^ or [nf- 
tabled iy the Waters, And Solomon calls it 
GZiriH ■:£ "^y yrs'oAn Orb drawn -upon the Face 
of the eAbjfs. And St, Teter fays, that was 
done r(7 ?/oyfj tS 0i«. by the wijdo?n of God : 
which is the fame A«>'(3f or wifdom^ tliat here 
declares her ielf, to have been prefent at this 


The Theory of the E a r t h. 575 

Work. Add now to thefc two Places, the two 
forcmention'd out of the Pfalmift ; oAn Earth 
founded upon the Seas^ (Pfal. 24. 2.) and an 
Earth fir etched out above the Waters : i^faL 
156. 6.) Can any body doubt or queftion, 
but all thefe four Texts refer to the fame 
Thing ? And feeing Sc. Teter\ defcriptioa. 
refers certainly to the Ante-diluvian Earth, 
they mull: all refer to it ; and do all as cer- 
tainly and evidently agree with our Theory 
concerning the Form and Situation of it. 

The pendulous Form and Pofture of that 
firfl Earth being prov\i from thefe four Places, 
'tis more eafie and emphatical to interpret ia 
this fenfe that paffage in Jah ch, 26. 7. He 
flretpheth out the North over the Tohu^ (for 
fo it is in the original) andhangeththe Earth 
upon fiothing. And this ftrange Foundation 
or no Foundation of the exteriour Earth feems 
to be the Ground of thofe noble Queftions pro- 
pos'd to ^oh by God Almighty, Ch, 58. Where 
wafi thou when I laid the Foundations of the 
Earth ? 'Declare if thou hafl nnderftandiftg^ 
Whereupon are the foundations thereof faftnedy 
and who lad the coriier-ftone ? There was 
peither Foundation, nor corner-ftone, in thac 
Piece of Architedure ; and that was it which 
made the Art and \yonder of it. But I have 
ipoken more largely to thefe Places in the 
Theory it felf, 'Hook i. f. 119. And if the 
four Texts before-mention'd be confiderM 
without prejudice, I think there are few Mat- 
fers pf patiiral Speculation tl^t can be fo 


576 oAKEVIEW of 

well -prov'd out of Scripture, as the Form 
which we have given to the Ante-diluvian 

But yet it niay bethought a juft, if not a 
neceffary appendix to this difcourfe, concern- 
ing the Foim of the Ante-diluvian Earth, tq 
give ^n account alfo of the oAnte'dtluvian ^ 
eAhfsj and the fituation of it according to 
Scripture ; for the Relation which thcfe two 
have to one another, will be a further mean§ 
to difcoyer if we have rightly determine 
the Form of that Earth. The e/lbyfs or Tehow- 
Rabhah is a Scripture Notion, and the Word 
is not us'dj that I know of, in that djilinO: 
and peculiar fenfe in Heathen Authors. 'Tis 
plain that in Scripture it is r^ot always taken 
for the Sea (as G^;^. i, 2. 6jf 7. 11. &if 49. 25, 
per^t. ??. 13. Job 2B. 14. ef 38. 16. Tfal. 
35. 7. (ff 71. 20. ij' 78. i5.£if 155. 6. oApoc, 
120. I? 5.) but for fome other Mafs of Wa- 
ters, or fubterraneous ftore houfe, And thi$ 
being obferv'd, we may eafily difcover the 
Nature, and fet down the Hiftory of the Scrip- 

' The Mother- Abyfs is no doubt that in the 
beginning of Genefis^ v, 2. which had nothing 
but darknefs upon the Face of it,Qr a thick cali- 
ginous Ain The next J^ews we hear of this 
Abyfs is at the Deluge, (Gen. 7, 11.) where 
'tis faid to be broke open, and the Waters^ qf 
-it to have drowned the World. It feems then 
this Abyfs was clos'd up fome Time betvyixt 
the Cfeation and the Deluge, and had got 
' another 

the Theory of the E a r t h. J77 

another cover than that of Darknefs. And . 
if we will believe Wifdo?n^ (Trov. 8. 27.) who 
was there prefent at the Formation of the 
Eartli, an Orb was fet ui^on the face of the 
eAhfs at the beginning of the World. 

That thefe three Places refer to the fame,. 
Abyfs, I think, cannot be queliioned by any 
that will compare them and confider them. 
That of the Deluge, MoJ'es calls there Tehom-: 
Rahlah^ the Great QAh}fs ; and can there be. 
any greater than the forementioned Mother- 
Abyfs ? And WISDOM, in that Place in the 
Troverhsj ufeth the fame Phrafe and Words 
with Mofes, Gen, i. 2. cr^n ^^2. '7y ufofi 
the Face of the "Deep or of the oAhifs ; chang- 
ing darhiefs for that Orb of the exteriour Earth 
which was made afterwards tp inclofe it. 
And in this Fault it lay, and under this cover, 
when the Pfalmift fpeaks of it in thefe Words, 
TjaJ. 3^. 7. He gathereth the Waters of 
the Sea J as In a ^ bag ; he layeth up the oAbyfs 
in ftore-houfes. Laftly, we may obferve that 
'twas this Mother- Abyfs whofe Womb was 
burft at the Deluge, when the Sea was born, 
and broke forth as if it had iffued gut of a 
Womb; as God expreffeth it to "Job^ ch. j8. 
8. in which Place the Chaldee Paraphrafe 
rends ir, when it broke forth, coming out of 
the eAhjfs. Which difruption at the Deluge 

* TFis reading or ty inflating Is generally foUoxted J (Thtor. Book I. 
p. 80.) though tke Englifli Trarjlation read on a heap, unfuitably 
to the Matt-.r and to tkcfnfc, 


37? <A REVIEW of 

feems alfo to be alluded to Job. 12. 14, 
:^5. and more plainly, Trov, ^. 20. by his 
knowledge the eAbyjJes are broken up. 

Thus you have already a threefold flate of 
the Abyfs, which makes a fliort Hiftory of ic ; 
firft, Open^ at the beginning ; then covered 
till the Deluge. Then broke of en again, as it 
is at prefent. And we purfue the Hiftory of 
it no further ; but we are told, oAfoc, 2c. j. 
That it fliall be fhut up again, and the great 
Dragon in it, for a Tlioufand Years. In the 
mean tim.e we may obferve from this Form 
and Pofture of the Ante-diluvian Abyfs, how 
fuicable it is and coherent with that Form of 
the Ante-diluvian Earth which St. Teter and 
the Tjalmifi had defcrib'd, ftiftahi'^d by the 
Waters ; founded ufon the Waters ; ftretcFd 
above the Waters ; for if it was the cover of 
this Abyfs (and it had fome cover that was 
broke at the Deluge) it was fpread as a 
Cruft or Ice upon the Face of thofe Waters^ 
and fo made an Orbis Terrarum^ an habitable 
Sphere of Earth about the Abyfs. 

SO much for the Form of the Ante-diluvian 
Earth and Abyfs ; which as they aptly 
correfpond to one another, fo, you fee, our 
Theory anfwers and is adjufted to both ; and^j 
t think, fo fitly, that we have no reafon hitlier- 
to to be difpleas'd with the fuccefs we have 
had in the examination of it^ according tq 
Scripture. We have difpatchM the t^NO main 


Tide Theory of the E a r. t n. 379 

Points in Qucftion, firfl:, to prove a diVerfity 
in general betwixt the two natural Worlds, 
Or betwixt the Heavens and the Earth before 
and after the Flood. Secondly, To prove where- 
in this diverfity confifted ; or that the par- 
ticular Form of the Ante-diluvian Heavens 
and Earth was fiich according to Scripture, 
as we have defcrib'd it in the Theory. You'll 
fay, then the Work is done, wdiat needs more, 
all the reil: follows of courfe ; for if the Ante- 
diluvian Earth had fuch a Form as we have 
propos'd and prov'd it to have had, there could 
be no Deluge in it but by a dilTolution of its 
Parts and exteriour Frame : And a Deluge 
To made, would not be in the Nature of a 
{landing Pool, but of a violent agitation and 
commotion of the Waters. This is true ; 
Thefe Parts of the Theory are fo cemented, 
that you muft grant all, if you grant any. 
However we will try if even thcfe two par- 
ticulars alfo may be prov'd out of Scripture^ 
That is, if there be any Marks or Memoran- 
dums left there by the Spirit of God, of fuch 
a FraQion or Dilfolution of the Earth at the 
Deluge. And alfo fuch cha rafters of the 
Deluge it felf, as (how it to have been by a 
Flu6hiation and impetuous commotion of the 

To proceed then ; That there was a Frac- 
tion or Diflblution of the Earth at the De- 
luge, the Hiftory of it by Mofes gives us the 
firll account, feeing he tells us, as the princi- 
pal Caufe of the Flood, Thit the Fountains of 


^^8o \A REVIEW of 

the Gveat oAbyfs were cloven or lurfl afu7ider ; 
and upon this difruption the Waters gufliM 
out from the Bowels of the Earth, as from 
the widen'd Months of fo many Fountains. 
I do not take Fountains there to fignifie any 
more than Sources or Stores of Water ; no- 
ting alfo this manner of their eruption from 
below, or out of the Ground, as Fountains 
do. Accordingly in the Troverls^ (chap. j. 
20.) 'tis only faid, the oAhjJes were Iroken 
of en. I do not doubt but this refers to the 
Deluge, as '^ede^ and others underfland it,; 
the very Word being us'd here^ both in the 
JielrewdJid. Septuagint, ^xfo'zi^. Vfoiry^actv that ex- 
prefs'd the' Difruption of th^ Abyfs at tlijs 
Deluge. ," 

And this breaking up of the Earth at thai 
time, is elegantly exprell: in Jjb, by tfte 
burfting of ^he Womb of Nature, when thp 
Sea was firft brought to light ; ch. 58, when 
after many. Pangs and Throes and dilaceratiori 
of her body. Nature was delivered of a' Bur- 
then which fhe had born in her Womb Sixreen 
Hundred Years. 

Thefe three Places I take to be memorials 
.and Proofs of the Difruption of the Eartli, 
or of the Abyfs, at the univerfal Deluge. 
And to thefe we may add rnore out of the 
Prophets, Joh^ and the TfaJmSy by way of 
allufion (commonly) to the ftate of Nature 
'at that Time. The Prophet IJaiah in defcrib- 
ing the future deftrufilion of the World, chaf. 
24. 18, 19. feems plainly to ailude and have 


the Theory of the E a r t h." 581 

rcfpeO: to the paft deftruftion of it at the De- 
lude ; as appears by that leading exprefli- 
on, the Windows from an high are o^eny 

(Tc/y, taken rhanifeftly from Gen. 7. 11. Then fee 
how the defcription goes on^ the Windows from 
an high are o^en^ and the foundations of the 
E^rrtb do fhake^ The Earth is utterly Iroken 
down^ the Earth is quite dijjolv^dj the Earth 
is exceedingly moved. Here are Concuflions, 
and Fractions, and diflblutions, as there were 
in the Mundane Earth-quake and Deluge; 
which we had expreft before only by Ireak-^ 
ing open the oAbjfs. By the Foundations of 
the Earth here and el fw here, I perceive many 
iinderftand the Centre ; fo by moving or 
paking the Foundations, or putting them out 
of courfe, muft be underftood a difplacing 
of the Centre ;" which was really done at 
the Deluge, as we have fliewn in its 
proper Place, Theor, "Book 2. Chaf^. 3. 
If we therefore. remember that there was both 
a diQocation, as I may fo fay ; and aFradioa 
in the Body of the Earth, by that great fall; 
a Diflocation as to the Centre, and a Fraftion 
as to the Surface and Exterior Region, it will 
truly Anfwer to all thofe Expreffions in the 
'^Prophet, that feem fo ftrange and extraordina- 
ry. 'Tis true, this Place of the Propet re- 
fpccts alfo and foretels the future deftruflion 
of the World ; but that being by Fire, when 
the Elements fiall melt with fervent heatj a?id 
the Earth with the Works therein JJjall be hurfit 

jSi e^ 2^ EFlEtV of 

7if^ thefe expreffions o^. fracltons andconcufH* 
ons^ fecm to betaken originally from the man- 
ner of the World's firfl deftruclion, and to be 
transferred, by way of application, to repre- 
fent and fignifie the iecond dcftruction of it, 
though, it may be, not with the fame exact- 
nefs and Propriety. 

There are feveral other Places that refer tp 
the diffolution and fubverfion of the Earth at 
the Deluge : oAmos 9. 5, 6. The Lord of Hcfis 
is he that toucheththe Earthy and itjhall melt^ 

or he dilJolv\L a?d itj})dl rife uf wholly 

like a Floods and pall he drowned as hy the 
Hood of Eg}ft. By this and by the next 
verfe the Prophet feems to allude to the De- 
luge, and to the dilToIution of the Earth that 
was tli^n. This in Joh feems to be call'd 
breaking down the Earthy and overtur?ting the 
Earthy Chap. 12, 14, 15. 'Behold he hreahtb 
down and it cannot he Inilt again^ He flnttteth 
tt^on man^ and there can he no o^eni?/g. 'Be-- 
hold^ he with'holdeth the Waters^ and they 
dry itf ; alfo he fendeth them out^ and they 
overturn the Earth: Wliich Place you may 
fee Paraphrased, Theor. 'Book i. P. 124,125* 
We have ahcady cited, and ihall hereafter 
cite, other Places out of Joh ; And as that 
Antient Author (wlio is thouglit to have liv'd 
before the Judicial Oeconomy, and nearer to 
Nohah than Mofes) feem.s to have had the 
*Pr^cepta Noachidarti7?%^ fo alfo he feems to 
have had the 'Dogrnatc Noachidarum ; wh.icli 
were delivered by Noah to his Childi'en an<i 


the Theor) of the E a r t h*" jS^ 

Pofterky, concerning the Myfteries of Natu- 
ral Providence, the originc and fate of the 
World, the Deluge and Ante-diluvian ftate, 
iSc, and accordingly we find niany ftriftures 
of thefe Doflrines in the Book of Job. Laftly, 
In the Pfalms there are Texts that mention 
the Jlmking of the Earthy and the Fotinda-' 
tions of the World, in reference to the Flood, 
if we judge aright ; whereof we will fpeak 
under the next Head, concerning the rag- 
ing of the Waters in the Deluge. 

Thefe Places of Scripture may be note(J, 
as left us to be remembrancers of that ge- 
neral Ruine and Difruption of the Earth ac 
the Time of the Deluge. But I know it 
will be faid of them, That they are not 
ftrid Proofs, but allufions only. Be it fo ; 
yet what is the Ground of thofe Allufions ? 
fomething mufl: be alluded, and fomething 
that hath paft in Nature, and that is re- 
corded in Sacred Hiftory ; and what is that, 
Unlefs it be the univerfal Deluge, and that 
change and diflurbance that was then in 
all Nature. If others fay, that thefe and 
fuch like Places are to be underftood mo- 
rally and allegorically, I do not envy them 
their interpretation ; but when Nature and 
Rcafon will bear a literal Senfe, the Rule 
is, that we ftould not recede from the Let- 
ter. But I leave thefe Things to every 
one's Thoughts ; which the more calm they 
are, and the more impartial, the more ca- 
(ily thcv wili feel the impreffions of Truth. 


584 '<^ REFIEJV^f 

In the mean Time, I proceed to the lafl 
particular mentioned, The Form cf the 'JDe^ 
luge it felf. 

' . This we fuppofe to have been not in the 
^way of a ftanding Pool, the Waters making 
an equal Surface, and an equal Hei^hth every- 
where ; bat that the extreme H eighth of the 
Waters was made by the extreme Agitation 
of them 5 causM by the Weigh.t and Force of 
great Maffes or Regions of Earth filling at 
once into t!ie Abyfs ; by which Means, as the 
.Waters in fome Places were prefs'd out, and 
thrown at an exceffive Height into the Air, 
lb they would alfo in certain places gape, and 
lay bare even the bottom of the Abyfs; which 
would look as an open Grave ready to fwallow 
up the Earth, and all it bore. WJiillt the Ark, 
in the mean tim^e, falling and rifing by thefe 
Gulphs and Precipies, fometimes above Water, 
and fometimes under, was a true Type of the 
State of the Church in this World ; And to 
this Tim.e and State T)avul alludes in the 
name of the Church, Tfal. 42. 7. Q.4bjfs calh 
tinto oAhyfs at the 7ioij'e of thy Cataracts or 
Water-Scouts ; oAll thy waves and billows 
Tdave gone over me. And again, ^\al. 46. 2. 3. 
in the name of the Church, Therefore will 
-not we fear ^ tho'' the Earth he removed^ and 
thd* the mouvtaifis he carried into the inidft of 
the Seas, The zvaters thereof roar and are 
trouhledj the Mountains pake with the fweU 
ling thereof 


the Theory Qf the Earth. 585 

But there is ndDefcription more remark- 
able or more eloquent, than of that Scene of 
things rcprefented, 'FfaL 18. 7, 8, 9, ifc. 
which ftill alludes, in my Opinion, to the De- 
luge-Scene, and in the name of the Church. 
We will fet down the Words at large. 

Ver. 6. In my diftrefs I called upon the Lord j 
and cryed unto my God \ He heard my voice 
out of his Temple^ and my cry came he fore him 
into his ears. 

7. Then the Earth fI;ooh and tremhled^ the 
foundations alfo of the hills moved and were 
fiaken^ hecaufe he was wroth. 

8. There went uf a frnoke from his nofrrils^ 
and fire out of his mouth devoured \ Coals 
were kindled hy it. 

9. He bowed the Heavens alfo and came 
down^ and darknefs was under his feet. 

10. oAnd he rode upon a Cheruh and did 
flie^ he did fiy upon the wings of the wind. 

11. He made darknefs his fecret pi /ice ; his 
pavilion round about him was dark waters and 

thick clouds of the sky. 

12. ^t the brightJiefs before him the thick 
clouds pafjedj hail and coals of fire. 

I J. The Lord alfo thundefd in the Heavens^ 
and the Higheft gave his voice ^ hail a?id coals 
of fire. 

14. Tea^ he fent out his arrows^ and feat * 
tered them : and he fiot out lightnings and dif 
comfit ed them. 

C c 15. Then 

j86 nA REVIEW of 

15, Then the Channels of waters were feen^ 
and the foundations of the World were difco- 
vered ; at thy rebuke^ Lord^ at the hlaft of 
the breath of thy noflriJs. 

Hefent from above ^ he took me ^ he drew 
tne out of great waters. U'T) O'.Q 

This^is arough Ithmkdraughtof theface^f 
the Heavens and the Earth at the Deluge, as 
the laft Verfes do intimate ; and 'tis apply'd 
to exprefs the Dangers and Deliverances of 
the Church : The Expreflions are far too 
high to be apply'd to "David in his Perfon, and 
to his Deliverance from Saul ; no fuch Agonies 
or Diforders of Nature as are here inftanc'd in, 
were made in T)avid\ time, or upon his Ac- 
count ; but 'tis a Scheme of the Church, and 
of her Fate, particularly, as reprefented by 
the Ark, in that difmal Diftrefs, when all 
Nature was in Confufion. And though there 
may be fome things here intermixt to make 
up the Scene, that are not fo clofe to the Sub- 
jed as the reft, or that may be referred to the 
("uture Deftrudion of the World ; yet that is 
not unufual, nor amifs, in fuch Defcriptions, 
if the great Strokes be fit and rightly placed^' 
That there was Smoke, and Fire, and Water, 
and Thunder, and Darknefs, and Winds, 
and Earthquakes, at the Deluge, we cannot 
doubt, if we confider the Circumftances of it: 
Waters dafhM and broken make a Smoke and 
Darknefs, and no Hurricano could be fo vi- 
olent as the Motions of the Air at that time : 


The Theory of the E a r t h.' jSy 

Then the Earth was torn in pieces, and 
its Foundations fhaken. And as to Thunder 
and Lightning, the Encounters and Collifions 
of the mighty Waves, and the Cracks of a 
falling World, would make Flafhes and Noi- 
fes, far greater and more terrible, than any 
that can come from Vapours and Clouds. 
There was an Univcrfal(^)Tempeft, a Conflift 
and Clafhing of all the Elements ; and David 
feems to have reprefented it fo ; with God 
Almighty in the midft of it, ruling them all. 

But lam apt to think fome will fay, all 
this is Poetical in the Prophet, and thefe are 
Hyperbolical and Figurate ExpreflTions, from 
which we cannot make any Inference, as to 
the Deluge and the Natural World. 'Tis 
true, thofe that have no Idea of the Deluge, 
that will anfwer to fuch a Scene of things, as 
is here reprefented, muft give fuch a flight 
Account of this Pfalm. But on the other 
hand, if we have already an Idea of the De- 
luge that is rational, and alfo conlbnant to 
Scripture upon other Proofs, and the Defcrip- 
tion here made by the Prophet anfwer to that 
Idea, whether then is it not more reafonable to 
think that it {lands upon that Ground, than 
to think it a mere Fancy and Poetical Scene of 
things. This is the true State of the Cafe, 
and that which we muft judge of. Methinks 
'tis very harfh to fuppofe all this a bare Fie. 

(*) S« Pbilo Judtcm his Delcripcion of the DL.*Iuge, both as to 
the Commotions of the Heavens, and the Fravfiions of the 
£irth. In his firft Treatife de Abrabamoy nubi, p, 270, 

C c z tion^ 

^S§ <A REVIEW of 

tion, grounded upon no Matter of FaiS, uporr 
no Sacred Story^ upon no Appearance of God 
in Nature. If you fay it hath a moral Signi- 
fication, fo let it have, we do not deftroy 
that ; it hath reference, no doubt, to the 
Dangers and Deliverances of the Church : but 
the queftion is, Whether the Words and natu- 
ral Senfe be a Fancy only, a bundle of random 
Hyperboles ? or, whether they relate to the 
Hiftory of the Deluge, and the State of the 
Ark there reprefenting the Church ? This 
makes the Senfe doubly rich, Hiftorically and 
Morally ; and grounds it upon Scripture and 
Reafon, as well as upon Fancy. 

That violent Eruption of the Sea out of the 
Womb of the Earth, which Joh fpeaks of, is^ 
in my Judgment, another Defcription of the 
Deluge: 'Tis Chap, 58 8,9,10,11- Who JImt 
tip the Sea with doors^ "uohen it hroke forth^ 
as if it had ijjued out of a Womb ; When I 
made the cloud the garment thereof and thick 
darhiefs a fwadUng hand for it. oAnd hroke 

up for it my decreed place hitherto fialt 

thou come^ &rc. Here you fee the Birth and 
Nativity of the Sea, or oWceanu^y defcrib'd ^ ; 
how he broke out of the Womb, and what his 
firft Garment and Swadling-Cloaths were ; 

■ * Vtt coinparatio pr£cedens^ Ver. 4, 5, <$. de ortu Telluris, fumitur 
ah £dijicioj itd altera de ortu mar is ^ Jumitur a partu *. ^5* exbibe- 
tUr Oceanus^ prhrltm^ ut frtus iticlufus in utcro, dtin ut crumpens l^ 
prod.-uns-, denique ut fafcVis ^ primis fuls pitniiis ir.-vilutus. Atque ex 
aperfo Tirr£ utt'ro prorupit aquarum moiesy ut- prolutlcs iU£^ qua^n. 
.fimul turn foicu profunda re Jhkt puerp.ra.,- 


the Theory of the Earth. 3S9 

•namely, Clouds and thick Darknefs. This 
cannot refer to any thing, tliat I know of, but 
to the face of Nature at the Deluge ; when 
the Sea was born, and wrapt up in Clouds 
and broken Waves, and a dark impenetrable 
Mift round the Body of the Earth. And this 
feems to be . the very fame that David had 
exprefsM in his Defcription of the Deluge, 
TfaL iS, II. He made darknefs his fecret flace^^ 
bis -pavilion round ahout him were darh waters 
and thick clouds of the skies. For this was 
truly the Face of the World in the time of the 
Flood, though wc little reflect upon it. And 
this dark Confufion every whe:*e, above and 
below, arofe from the viplciat and confus'd 
Motion of the Abyfs ; which was dafh'd-in^ 
pieces by the falling Earth, and flew into the 
Air in mifty Drops, as Duft flies up in a great 
Ruin. ISQtTheor. "Book i.f. 136.] 

But I am afl'aid w^ have ftay'd too long 
upon this Particular,' the Form of the 'Deluge ; 
feeing 'tis but a Corollary from the precedent 
Article about the DilTolution of the Earth. 
However, Tim.e'is^not ill fpent about any 
thing that relates to natural Providence, where- 
of the two mofl: fignal Inftances in our Sacred 
Writings, are, the Deluge and the Confiagra^ 
tlon. And feeing Job and David do often 
refleO: upon the Works of God in the external 
Creation, and upon the Adminilirations of 
Providence, it cannot be imagin'd that they 
flaould never reflefl: upon the Deluge ; the 
moft remarkable ("hange of Nature that ever 

C c 3 hath 

590 cb4 REVIEW of 

hath been, and the mofi: remarkable Judgment 
upon Mankind. And if they have reflefted 
upon It any where, 'tis, I think, in thofe 
Places and thofe Inftances which I have no- 
ted ; and if thofe Places do relate to the De- 
luge, they are not capable, in my Judgment, 
of any fairer or more natural Interpretation 
than, that which we have given them ; which 
you fee, how much it favours and confirms 
our Theory. 

I have now finifh'd the Heads I undertook 
to prove, that I might fhew our Theory to. 
agree with Scripture in thefe three principal 
Points ; Firft, in that it fuppofeth a Diverfity 
and Difference betwixt the Ante-diluvian 
Heavens and Earth, and the prefent Heavens 
and E^rth : Secondly, in affigning the par- 
ticu'ar Form of the Ante-diluvian Earth and 
Abyfs : Thirdly, in explaining the Deluge by 
a Diffolution of that Earth, and an Eruption 
of the Abyfs. How far I have fucceeded in 
in this Attempt, as to others, I cannot tell ; 
but I am ^ure I have convinced my felf, and 
am fatisfiiid that my Thoughts, in that Theo- 
ry, have run in the fame Trad with the 
Holy Writings ; with the true Intent and Spi- 
rit of them. There are foma Perfons that are 
wilfully ignorant in certain things, and others 
that are willing to be ignorant as the Apoftle 
phra^eth it ; fp^aking of thofe Eternalifts that 
denied the DoCtrinsof the Change and Revo- 
lutions of the Natural World : And 'tis not to 
be expefted but therq are many ftill of tlie 


The Theory of the Earth. 591 

fame Humour ; and therefore may be called 
willingly ignorant^ that is, they will not ufe 
that Pains and Attention that is necelTary for 
the Examination of fuch a Doftrine, nor Im- 
partiality in judging after Examination ; they 
greedily lay hold on all Evidence on one fide, 
and willingly forget, or (lightly pa fs over, all 
Evidence for the other. This I think is the 
Charafter of thofe that 2iXt willingly ignorant-^ 
for I do not take it to be fo deep as a down- 
right wilful Ignorance, where they are plainly 
confcious to themfelves of that Wilfulnefs; 
but where an infenfible Mixture of human 
Paflions inclines them one way, and makes 
them averfe to the other ; and in that Method 
draws on all the confequences of a willing 

There remains ftill, as I remember, one 
Propofition that I am bound to make good ; 
I faid at firft, that our Hypothefis concerning 
the Deluge was more agreeable not only to 
Scripture in general, but alfu to the particu- 
lar Hiftory of the Flood left us by Mofes ; 
I fay, more agreable to it than any other 
Hypothefis that hath yet been proposed. This 
ypay be niade good in a few Words. For in Mo- 
Jh's Hiftory of the Deluge, there a re two prin- 
cipal Points, The extent of the Deluge, and 
the Caufes of it ; and in both thefe we do 
fully agree v/ith that facred Author. eAs to 
the extent ofit. He makes the Deluge uni- 
verfal ; qAU the high hills under the whole hea- 
ven were cover'* d fifteen cubits upwards. We 
^Ifo mak^ it uuiverfal, over the face of the 
C c 4 whole 

J92 gA review of 

whole Earth ; and in -fuch a manner-as muft 
needs raife the Waters above the top of the 
higheft Hills every v^here. As to the Caufes 
of it J Mofes makes them to be the Difruption^ 
of the G/^^j/x, and the Rains^ and no more it 
and 10 this aifo we exaftly agree with him •/ 
we know no other Caufes, nor pretend to any 
Other* hut thofe two. -' Diftinguiftiing therc:^ 
fore Mofes his Narration as to the Subftance' 
and Cincumftances of it, it mud: be allowed 
that thefe .two Points, make the Subftafiee of 
it, and that an Hypothefis. that diffdrsr^frpm it 
in either of thefe two, differs from it more 
than ours ; which at the worft, cart^biit'differ 
in matter of Circumftance.'Now fedftg^h^'great? 
Difficulty, about the Deluge is the t^jantky' 
of Water required for it, there have >been two 
Explications propofed, belVdes ours, to remove 
or fatisfi.q this Difficulty ^ .one whereof makes 
the Deluge not to have' been univerfal, or tci 
have re^ch'd only Judea^nd fome neighbour- 
ing Countries and therefore lefs Water-'wouM; 
fuffice ; the other owning the Deluge to be 
univerfal, fupplies it felf with Water froili the 
Divine. Omnipotency, and fays ;/^w Waters 
were created then for the nonce^ and 
again annihilated when the Deluge \las to 
eeafe. Both thefe Explications you feej (and 
I know . no , more of Note that are not ob- 
noxious to the fame Exceptions) differ from 
Moffs in the Subflance, or in one of the two 
fubftantial Points, and confequently more than 
ours doth. The firft changeth the Flood into 
a kind of National Inundation ; and die fecond 


the Theory df'the E a rth^ 195' 

a (Tigris other Caiifes of it than Mofes had af- 
fign'd. And as they both differ apparently from 
the Mofaical Hiffory, ^0 you mavTee them 
refuted upon other Grounds alfo, in the 
third Chapter of theFirft Book of the Theory. 

This may be Sufficient as to the Hiftory 
of the Flood by Mofes, But poffibly it mavr^ 
be faid, the principal Obieftion will afife from 
Moj'es his Six Days Creation in thefirft Chap- 
tei' of Genejis:, where another fort of Earth, 
than what we have form -d from the Chaos is 
reprefented to us; namely, a Terraquedus' 
Globe, fuch as our Earth is at prefent. 'Tis- 
indeed very apparent, that Mofes hath accom- 
modated his Six-days Creation to * the prefefit 
Fofna^^of the E^rth, or ta' that' which was be-j 
fore the Eyes of the People aV hen he writ,- 
But it is a great Queftion whether that was 
e\^^r intended for a true Phyfical account of 
the^ origine of the Earth : or w^hether Mofes 
did either Philofophize or Aftrononiize in that' 
defcfiptiori. The Antient Fathers, when they 
anfwer the Heathens, and the adverfaries of 
Ghriftlanity, do generally deny it; as I am 
ready to make good upon another occafion. 
And the thing it felf bears in it evident Marks 
of an accommodation and condefcention to 
the vulgar Notions concerning the Form of 
the World. Thofethat think otherwife, and 
would m?!ke it literally and phyfically true 
in all the Parts of it, I deHre them, without 
entring upon the ftrift Merits of the Caufe, to 
determin thefe Preliminaries. Firft, whether 
the whole unlverfe rife froip a Terreftrial 


594 e^ REVIEW of 

Chaos. Secondly, what Syftem of the World 
this Six-days Creation proceeds upon : whe- 
ther it fuppofes the Earth, or the Sun, for the 
Center. Thirdly, whether the Sun and Fixt 
Stars are of a later Date, and a later Birth, 
than this Globe of Earth. And laftly, where 
is the Region of the Super-celeftial Waters*- 
When they have determined thefe Fundamen* 
tals, we will proceed to other obfervations up- 
on the Six-days Work, which will further 
afllire us, that 'tis a narrafion fuited to the 
capacity of the People, and not to the ftrift 
and phyfical nature of Things. Befides, we. 
are to remember, that Mofes mufl: be fo inter- 
preted in the firft Chapter of Genefis^ as not 
to interfere with himfelf in other Parts of his 
Hiftory ; nor to interfere with St. Teter^ or 
tlie Prophet T^^t'/^, or any other Sacred Au- 
thors, when they treat of the fame matter,- 
Kor laftly, fo, as to be repugnant to clear and 
uncontefted Science. For, in things thatcon-^ 
cern the Natural World, that muft always be 

With thefe precautions, let them try if they 
can reduce that narrative of the Origin of 
the World, to phyfical Truth ; fo as to be con* 
fiftent, both with Nature, and with Divine 
Revelation every where. It is eafily reconcile^ 
able to both, if we fuppofe it writ in a Vulgar 
ftyle, and to the conceptions of the People : 
And we cannot deny that a Vulgar ftyle is 
often made afe of in the holy Writings. Hov/ 
freely and unconcernedly does Scripture fpeak 
of God Almighcy, according to the opinions 


The Theory of the Earth; 395 

of the Vulgar? of his Taffions^ heal Motions^ 
Tarts and Members of his "Body. Which all 
are things that do not belong, or are not^com- 
patible with the Divine Nature, according to 
truth and Science. And if this liberty be 
taken, as to God himfelf, much more may it 
be taken as to his Works. And accordingly 
we fee, what motion the Scripture gives to 
the Sun: what figure to the Earth: what 
figure to the Heavens : All according to the 
appearance of Senfe and popular credulity ; 
without any remorfe for having tranfgrefTed 
the Rules of intelleftual truth. 

This vulgar flyle of Scripture in defcribing 
the Natures of Things, hath been often mifta- 
ken for the real Senfe, and fo become a ftum^ 
bling-block in the Way of Truth. Thus the 
oAnthrofomor'^hites of old contended for the 
humane fliape of God, from the Letter of Scrip- 
ture ; and brought many exprefs Texts for their 
purpofe : but found reafon at length, got the 
upper hand of Literal authority. Then feve- 
ral of the Chriftian Fathers contended, that 
there were no oAntipodes: and made that 
doftrine irreconcileable to Scripture. But thi$ 
alfo, after a while, went off, ana yielded to rea-^ 
fon and experience. Then, the Motion of the 
Earth muft by no means be allowed, as being 
contrary to Scripture : for fo it is indeed, accor- 
ding to the Letter and Vulgar ftyle. But all 
intelligent Perfons fee thorough this Argument, 
and depend upon it no more in this cafe, than 
in the former. Laftly, The original of the 


^'^g6 iA REVIEW of 

'Eartli from a Chaos, drawn according to the 
rules of Phifiology, will not be admitted : be- 
caufe it does not agree with the Scheme of the 
Six-days Creation. But why may not this be 
"writ in a Vulgar ftyle, as well as the reft? Cer- 
tainly there can be nothing more like a Vulgar 
ftyie, than to fet God to work hy the day^ and in 
Six-days to finifh his task : as he is there repre- 
fented. We may therefore probably hope that 
air thefe difguifes of truth will at length fall off, 
and that we fhall fee God and his Works m a 
pure and naked Light. 

.^^Thus I have finifh'd what I had to fay la 
confirmation of this Theory from Scripture. 
I mean of the former Part of it, which 
depends chiefly upon the Deluge, and the 
Ante-diUivian Earth. When you have colla- 
ted the Places of Scripture, on either fide, and 
laid them in the balance, to be. weighed one 
againft another; If you do but find them 
equal, or near to an equal poife, you know 
in whether Scale the Natural Reafons are to 
to be laid : and of what weight they ought 
to be in an Argument of this kind. There is 
a great difference betwixt Scripture with 
Philofophy on its fide, and Scripture with 
Phil ofophy againft it; when the Quefl:ion k 
concerning the Natural World. And this is 
our Cafe: which I leave now to the con- 
fideration o^ the unprejudiced Reader, and 
proceed to the Proof of the Stcond Part of 
the Theory. 


the Theory of the Earth. j 97 

THE later Part confifts of the Con/la. 
gration of the IVorldy and the A^ew 
Heavens and New Earth, And feeing there 
is nodifpute concerning the former of theie 
two, our task will now lie in a litte compafso 
;&eing only this, To prove that there will be 
New Heavens, and a New Earth, after the 
Conflagration. This, to my Mind, is fufficf- 
ently done already, in the firft fecond and 
third Chapters of the ^th Book, both from 
Scripture and Antiquity, whether Sacred or 
Prophane : and therefore, at prefent, we will 
only make a fhort and eafie review of Scrip- 
ture-Teftomonies, with defign chiefly to ob- 
viate and difappoint the Evafions of fuch, as 
would beat down folid Texts into thin Meta- 
phors and Allegories. 

The Tefl:imonies of Scripture concerning 
the Renovation of the Worlds are either ex- 
prefs, or implicit. Thofe I call exprefs, that 
mention the New Heavens and New Earth : 
And thofe implicit that fignifie the fame 
Thing, but not in exprefs Terms. So when 
our Saviour fpeaks of a Talingenefia^ or Re- 
generation, (M^//^/-. 19.28, 29.) Or St. Teter 
of an Qyipocataftajis or Refticution, (pAB, j. 
21.) Thefe being Words us'd by all Au- 
thors, Prophane or Ecclefiaftical, for the Re* 
novation of the World, ought, in reafon, to 


J98 fiA R E FIE IV of 

he interpreted in the fame fenfe in the Ho- 
ly Writings. And in like manner, when 
St. ^aul fpeaks of his future Earthy or an 
'habitable World to come ^ Hebr. 2. 5. jMix«|u«f»f 
j?7>t5>xao-ct. or of a Redemption or melioration 
of the prefent ftate of Nature, Rom. 8. 
21, 22. Thefe lead us again, m other 
Terms, to the fame Renovation of the World. 
But there are alfo fome Places of Scripture, 
that fet the New Heavens and New Earth 
in fuch a full and open view, that we 
muft fliut our eyes not to fee them. St. 
"John fays, he faw them, and obferv'd the 
Form of the New Earth, oA^oc. 21. i. 
7/i. 65. 17. The Seer Ij'aiah fpoke of them 
in exprefs Words, many hundred Years be- 
fore. And St. "Peter marks the Time when 
they are to be introduced, namely, after the 
Conflagration, or after the Diffolution of 
the prefent Heavens and Earth, 2 Pet. j. 
12, ij. 

. Thefe later Texts of Scripture, being fo 
exprefs, there is but one Way left to elude the 
force of them ; and that is, by turning the 
Renovation of the World into an Allegory : 
and making the New Heavens and New 
Earth to be Allegorical Heavens and Earth, 
not real and material, as ours are. This is a 
bold attempt of fome modern Authors, who 
chufe rather to ftrain the Word of God, than 
than their own Notions. There are Allego- 
ries, no doubt, in Scripture, but we are not 


the Theory of the E a r t h; 599 

to allegorize Scripture without fome warrant : 
either from an Apoftolical Interpretation, or 
from the necefTity of the matter : and I da 
not know how they can pretend to either of 
thefe, in this cafe. However, That they 
may have all fair Play, we will lay 
afide, at prefent, all the other Texts 
of Scripture, and confine our felves wholly to 
St. "Peter's Words : to fee and examine whe- 
ther they are, or can be turned into an Alle- 
gory, according to the beft Rules of Interpre- 

St. Teterh words are thefe : ^ Tet. j. 
II, 12, I J. Seeing then all thefe Things 
Jhall be dijjolv^d^ what manner of Terfons 
ought ye to he^ in holy converfation and 
godlinejs ? Looking for, and hafling the 
coming of the T)ay of God : wherein the 
Heavens leing on Tire flmll he diffoWdy 
and the Elements jhall melt with fervent 
heat. Neverthelefs, we, according to hit 
fromife, look for New Heave?ts and a New 
Earth ; wherein Righteoujnefs jl)aU dwell. 
The Queftion is concerning this laft Verfe^ 
Whether the New Heavens and Earth here 
promis'd, arc to be real and material Hea- 
vens and Earth, or only figurative and alle- 
gorical. The Words, you fee, are clear: 
and the general Rule of Interpretation is 
this, That we are not to recede from the 
letter, or the literal fenfe, unlefs there be 
a neceflTity from the Subjecl matter; fuch 
a necelTity, as makes a literal Interpretatioa 


4o6 fA R EVIEm of 

abfurd, ;. But where is that neceffity In this 
Cafcr? Cannot God make New Heavens 
and ;a New. Earth, as eafily as he made 
the Old ones : Is his ftrenth decay'd fmce 
that; Time, or is matter grov/n more difo- 
bedient? Nay, does not Nature offer her 
felf voluntarily to raife a New World from 
the Second Chaos, as well as from the 
Firft : and, under the conduct of Providence, 
to make it as convenient an habitation as 
the. Primaeval Earth. Therefore no neceffi- 
ty can be pretended of leaving the literal 
fenfe, upon an incapacity of the Subjed 

The Second Rule to determine an In- 
terpretation to be Literal or Allegorical, is, 
The ufe of the fame Words or Phrafe in 
the Context, and the fignification of them 
there. Let's then examine our cafe accor- 
ding to this rule. St. Teter had us'd the 
fame Phrafe of Heavens and Earth twice 
before in the fame Chapter. The Old Hea-^ 
vjens ani Earthy ver, 5. TJie Trefent Hea- 
vens and E^arth^ ver^ 7. and now he ufes 
it again, ver. ij. The New Heavens and 
Earth. Have we not then reafon to fup- 
pofe, that he takes it here in the fame 
fenfe, that he had done twice before, for 
real and material Heavens and Earth ? 
There is no mark fet of a New Significa- 
tion, nor why we fliould alter the Senfe 
of the Words. That he us'd them ahvays 
before for the material Heavens and Earth, 


the Theory of the E a R t h. 401 

1 think none will queftion ; and therefore, 
unlefs they can give us a ilifficient reafon, 
why we fl-iould change the fignification of 
the Words, we are bound, by this Second 
Rule alfo, to underfland them in a literal 

Laftly, The very Form of the Words, 
and the manner of their depcndance upoa 
the Context, leads us to a literal Senfe, 
and to material Heavens and Earth. A^^- 
verthelefsy fays the Apoftle, jz^e exfcB tieisi) 
Heavens^ i^c. Why Neverthelefs ! that is, 
jiotwichilanding the difTolution of the prefent 
Heavens and Earth. The Apoftle forefavv^, 
what he had fiid, might raife a doubt in 
their Minds, whether all things would not 
be at an end : Nothing more of Heavens 
and Earth, or of any habitable World, after 
the Conflagration ; and to obviate this, he 
tells them, Notwithjiandi?ig that wonder- 
ful defolation , that I have defcrib'd, w^e do, 
according to God's promifes, expefl: New 
Heavens and a Nevv Earth, to be an habi- 
tation for the Righteous. 

You fee then the New Heavens and Nevv 
Earth, which the Apoftle fpeaks of, are 
fubftituted in the Place of thofe that were 
deftroy'd at the Conflagration; and would 
you fubftitute Allegorical Heavens and Earth 
in the Place of Material ? A fliadow for a 
fubftance ? What an Equivocation would it 
be in the Apoftle, when the doubt was 
about the Material Heavens and Earth, to 

D d make 

402 0.4 R EVIEW of 

make an anfwer about Allegorical. Laftly, 
The Timeing of the Thing determines the 
fenfe. When (hall this New World appear ? 
after the Conflagration, the Apoftle fays : 
Therefore it cannot be underftood of any 
Moral Renovation, to be made at, or in the 
times of the Gofpet, as thefe Allegorifts' 
pretend. We muft therefore, upon all ac- 
counts, conclude that the Apoftle intended a 
literal fenfe : real and material Heavens, to 
fucceed thefe after the Conflagration : which 
was the thing to be prov'd. And I know not 
what Bars the Spirit of God can fet, to 
keep us within the compafs of a literal Senfe, 
if thefe be not fufl^cient. 

Thus much for the Explication of St. Te^ 
ter\ Doftrine concerning the New Heavens 
and New Earth : which fecures, the Second 
Part of our Theory. For the Theory ftands 
upon two Pillars, or two Pedeftals, The An- 
te-diluvian Earth and the Future Earth : or, 
in St. Teter^s Phrafe, The Old Heavens and 
Earth, and the New Heavens and Earth : 
And it cannot be fhaken, fo long as thefe 
two continue firm and immoveable. We 
might now put an end to this Review, but 
it may de expefted pofTibly that we fliould 
fay fomething concerning the Mille?inhim : 
which we have, contrary to the general Sen- 
timent of the Modern MiUenftavies^ plac'd m 
the Future Earth. Our Opinion hath this ad- 
vantage above others, that, all fanatical pre- 
tenfions to power and empire in this World, 


the Theory of the E a r T h. 40 j 

are, by thefe means, blown away, as chafF 
before the Wind. Princes need not fear to 
be dethron'd, to make way to the Saints : 
nor Governments unhing'd, that They may 
rule the World with a rod of Iron. Thefe 
are the efFeds of a wild Enthufiafm ; feeing 
the very ihte which they aim at, is not to 
be npon this Earth. 

But that ourfenfe may not be miftakenor 
mifapprehended in this particular, as if we 
-thought the Chriftian Church would never, 
upon this Earth, be in a better and happier 
pofture than it is in at prefent : We muft di- 
ftinguifli betwixt a Melioration of the World, 
if you will allow that word : and a Millen- 
nium, We do not deny a reformation and 
improvement of the Church, both as to Peace, 
Purity, and Piety. That knowledge may in- 
creafe, mens minds be enlargM and Chriftian 
Religion better underftood : That the Power 
of Antichrift fliall be dimiaifhM, Perfecution 
-ceafe, Liberty of Confcience allowM, amongft 
the Reformed : and a greater union and har- 
mony eftablifh'd. That Princes will mind 
the publick good, more than they do now ; 
and be themfelves better Examples of Vertue 
and true Piety. All this may be, and I hope will 
be, eVe long. But the aApocaljftical Millen- 
nitmj or the New Jerufalem^ is ftill another 
matter. It differs not in degree only from the 
prefent ftate, but is a new order of things : 
both in the Moral World and in the Natural ; 
and that cannot be till we come into the New 

Dd 2 Heavens 

404 c^ R EVIEW of 

Heave?ts znd New Earth, Suppofe what Re^ 
formation you c^n in this World, there wiH 
ftill remain many Things inconfitlent with the 
true Millennial ftate. Antichrift, tho' weak^ 
ned, w^ill not be finally deftroy^d till the corn- 
ing of our Saviour, nor Satan bound. And 
there will be alw^ays Poverty, Wars, Difcafes, 
Knaves and Hypocrites, in this World : which 
are not confiftent w^ith the New JenifaJem^ as 
St. JoJdji defcribes it, isAfGC. 21. 2, 5, 4, i$c\ 

You fee now what our notion is of the Mil- 
lennium, as we deny this .Earth to be the Seat 
of it. 'Tis the ftate that fucceeds the firft 
Refurreftion, when Satan is lockt up in the 
bottomlefs pit. The ftate when the Martyrs 
are to return into Life, and wherein they are 
to have the firft lot and cliief fhare. A ftate 
which is to laft a thoufancl Years, oyind 
^■lejjed and Holy is he^ that hath a fart m 
it : on fuch the fecond death hath no Tower ^ 
hit they jljall he Triefts of God and Chrifl^ and 
fiall reign with him a thoujand years. ' If you 
would fee more particular reafonsof our Judg- 
ment in this cafe, why fuch a Millennium is 
not to be expected in this World : they are fee 
down in the %th Chap, of the ^th Book, and 
we do not think it necejiary that they fliouid 
be here repeated. 

As to that differtation that follows the Mil- 
lennium, and reaches tq the Confumm^ation of 
all Things, feeing it is but problem.atical, we 
leave it to ftardor fall by the evidence already 
given, And fhould be very glad to fee the 


the Theory of the E,a r T h. '405 

conjcclures of others, more learned, in Spe- 
culations foabftrufe and remote from common 
J^nowledge. They cannot farely be thouglic 
unworthy or unfit for our Meditations, feeing 
they are {uggefted to us by Scripture it felt^ 
And to what end were they proposed to us 
there, if it was not intended that they fliould 
be underftood, fooner or later? :V' 

I have done w^ith this Review : and fliall 
only add one or tw^o refleftions upon the whole 
difcourfe^ and fo conclude. You have feen 
the fratcpf the Theory of the Earth, as to th'3 
Matter^ Form^ and Proofs of it : both Natu- 
ral and Sacred. If anyone will fubftitutea 
better in its place, I fhall think my felf more 
obliged to him, than if he had fliew'd me the 
Qi-iadrature of the Circle. But it is not enough 
to pick quarrels here and there : that may be 
done by any Writing, efpecially when it is of 
fo great extent and comprchenfion. They 
mult build up, as well as pull dow^n; and give 
us another Theory infiead of this, fitted to the 
fame Natural Hiftory of riie Earth, according 
as it is fet dowMi in Scripture : and then let the 
World take their choice. He that cuts down 
a Tree, is bound in reafon to plant two, becaufe 
there is an hazard m their growth and thri- 

Then as to thofe that are fuch rigorous Scrip- 
turifts, as to require plainly demonftrative and 
irrefiitible Texts for every Thing they enter- 
tain or believe ; They would do well to refleO: 
and confiderj whether, for every article in the 


4o6 14 REVIEW of, 8cc. 

Three Creeds (which havenofupportfrom natu- 
ral reafon) they can bring fuch Texts of Scrip- 
ture as they require of others : or a fairer and 
jufter evidence, all things confider'^d, than we 
have done for the fubftance of this Theory. We 
have not indeed faid all that might be faid, 
as to Antiquity : that making no part in this 
Review, and being capable ftill of great ad- 
ditions. But as to Scripture and Reafon I have 
no more to add. Thofe that are not fatisfied 
with the Proofs already produced upon thefe 
Two Heads, are under a fate, good or bad^ 
which is not in my Power to overcome. 

F T N I S. 

A N 


T O T H E 



Mr. Erasmus Warren, 

Againft the Sacred 


O F T H E 


The Second Edition, 


Printed for j. Hooke, at the Flower ie 
Luce in Fket/lrea, MDCCXIX. 


A N 


To the 



jlf?^ Erasmus Warren, 

Againft the 


F it be a Civility to return a fpeedy 
Anfvver to a Demand or MefTage, I 
will not fail to pay that Refpeft to the 
late Author of The Exceptions againjh 
the Theory of the Earth. I knovs'', 
fhort Follies, and fhort Qiiarrels, are 
the k^ft : And to offer Satisfaction at 
the firft Opportunity, is the f^iirell 
Way to put an End to Con trover fies Befides, fuch 
perfonal Altercations as theie, are bat Res peritura.^ 
which do not deferve much Time or Study, but, like 
Repartees, are bell; made off hind, and never thought 
on more, I only defire that Friwadlinefs, that fome 

A i Allow- 

2 oAn oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

Allowance may be made as to Unaccuracy of Style: 
Which is always allow'd in hafty Difpatches. 

I fhall make no Excurdons from the Subje^l, nor 
ufe any other Method than to follow the learned Ex- 
ceptor from Chapter to Chapter, and obferve his Steps 
and Motions, fo far as they are contrary to the Theo- 
ry. But if he divert out of his Way, for his Pleafure, 
or other Reafons bell: known to himfelf, I may take No- 
tice of it perhaps, but fnall not follow him any further 
than my Bufmefs leads me \ having no Defign to abridge 
his Liberty, but to defend my own Writings where 
they are attackt. Give me leave therefore, without 
any other Preface or Ceremony, to fall to our Work, 


Chap. I. 

THIS Chapter is only an Introduflion, and treats 
of other Things, without any particular Oppofi- 
tion to the Theory. And therefore I fhall only give 
you the Conclufion of it, in the Author's own Words : 
So much for the firji Chapter '^ which may he reckon- 
ed as an Introduction to the following Difcourfe, 
Which if any fl) all look upon as a Collet ion of Note s^ fome- 
what confufedly put together^ rather than a formal^ well 
digejied Treatifc, they will entertain the heft or trucft Idea 
of it, A fevere Cenfure: But every Man beft under- 
ftands his own Works. 

Chap. II. 

HE R E he begins to enter upon particular Excepti- 
ons: and his firft head is againd the Formation of 
the Earthy pag. 45. as explained by the Theory. To this 
he gives but one Exception in this Chapter: Namely, 
Th ct It -would have taken up too }nuch Time. The World 
being made in fix Days, Whereas many Separations of 
the Chaoband of the Elements, were to be made, ac- 
cording to the Theory, which could not be difpatch'd in 
fo fliort a Time. To this Exception, x\\^ general An- 


made againft the Theory of the Earth. 5 

fvv't-; may be this*, either you take the HypotheHs of 
a'i o inciry Providence, or of an extraordinary, as to 
x}^:^ rime allowed for x\\^ Formation of the Earth: If 
yoa p'-oceed according to an ordinary Providence, the 
Formation of the Earth vs^ould require much more Time 
than Six Days: But if according to an extraordinary, 
you m:\y fuppofeit made in Six Minutes, if you pleafe. 
'Twas plain Work, andafimple Procefs, according to 
the Theory :, confifling only of fuch and fuch Separati- 
ons, and a Concretion : And either of thefe might be 
accelerated, and difpatch'd in a longer or fhorter Time, 
as Providence thought fit. 

However, this Ob)e<fi:ion does not come well from 
the Hands of this Author, who makes all the Mountains 
of the Earth, fthe moftoperofe Part of it, as one would 
think) to be rais'd in a fmall Parcel of a Day, by the 
Heat and Aftion of the Sun : As we (hall find in the 
loth Chapter, hereafter. He feems to proceed by natu» 
ral Caufes, for (jich are the Heat and A£lion of the 
Sun : And if fo, he will find himfelf as much ftraiten'd 
for Time, as the Theorift can be. But if he fay, the 
Work of Nature and of the Sun was accelerated by art 
extraordinary Power, he mufl: allow us to lay the fame 
thing of the Separations of the Chaos, and the firft Con- 
cretion of the Earth. For he cannot reafonably debar 
us that Liberty which he takes himfelf, unlefs we have 
debirr'd and excluded our felves. Now 'tis plain the 
Theorift never excluded an extraordinary Providence, 
in the Formation and Conftru£lion of the Earth \ as 
appears, and is openly expreft in many Parts of the The- 
ory, Eng, Theor,p. 88. See, if you pleafe, the Conclufion 
of xhififthCh.ipter^ which treats about the Formation of 
the Earth. The laft Paragraph is this : Give me leave 
cnly^ before we proceed any further^ to annex here a 
flyort Advert I fement^ concerning the Caufes of this won"^ 
derful StruElure of the jirft Earth: *Tis true^ we 
have proposed the natural Caufes of ity and I do not know 
ivherein our Explication is falfe or defective'^ hut in 
Things of this kind we may cafily he too credulous : j4nd 
this StruBurc is fo marvellous^ that it ought rather to he 
conpider'd as a particular EjfeEl of the Divine Art^ than 
as the Work of Nature, The whole Globe of the Water 
vaulted over^ and the exteriour Earth hanging abo^ue the 

A 3 Deep^ 

4*^ oA'ri (Afffwer to the Excepions 

Deep^^ fuftaln'd by nothing hut its own Meafures and man* 
ner of Conftruction : A Building without Foundation or 
Gorner ft one. This feejns to he a piece of Divine Geome- 
try or ArchlteEiure :, a-ndto thls^ Ithink^ is to be referred 
that magnificent Challenge which God Almighty made to 
Job •, Where was thou when 1 laid the Foundations of 
the Earth ? Declare, &c, Mofes alfo^ when he de- 
fcrih'dthe ChaoSj falth^ The Spirit of God mov'd upon, 
cr fat brooding upon the Face of the Waters •, without all 
doubt ^ to produce fome E^ecis there. And, St, Peter, 
when he fpeaks of the Form of the Ante-diluvian Earthy 
how it ftood^ In reference to the Waters^ adds^ By the 
Word of God, or by the Wifdom of God it was made 
fo. And this fame Wifdom of God^ in the Proverbs, as 
we ohferved before^ takes Notice of this very piece of 
Work in the Formation of the Earth : When he kt an 
Orb over the Face of i he Deep, I was there. Where- 
fore to the g'-eat ArchiteH:^ who ynade the boundlefs Vni- 
^^yfc' out of nothing^ and formed the Earth out of a ChU'- 
^sl let t':" Prajfe of the whole Work^ and particu- 
larly^ ■ ^f this Mafter-Piece^ for ever.^ with all Hon^ 
6ur^ he given. In like manner, there is a larger 
Accoutic of Providence, both Ordinary and Extra- 
O'f'dinary, as to the Revolutionsof the Natural World, 
\v tae laft Paragraph of the 8th C:iapter *, and like Re- 
fleftions are made in other Places, v,'hen Occafion is 

W^e have not therefore, any where excluded the In- 
fluence and Benefit of faperiour Caufes, where the Cafe 
Requires it: Efpeciallv, when 'tis only to modify the 
EfFe(fl, as to Time and Difpatch. And in that Cafe, 
none will have more need of it than himfelf •, as we Oiall 
find in the Examination of his loth Chapter, about the 
Oriscin of Mountains. 

The reft of this Second Chapter is fpent in three Ex- 
curfions". One in juftifying the Cartefian way of form- 
ing Light and the Son, as agreeable to Mofes. The Se- 
cond about the Jew i^/j Cabala.^ and Cahauji leal Inter pre- 
\ations. And the Third about Alyjilcal Numbers. But 
tH^ Theory not being cbncern'd in tiiefe Things, 1 leav« 
th^^Av^<^-^He Authorand his Readers, to enjoy the Plea- 
fjil-e in d" Profit of them. And proceed to the Third 
Ciiaptei\ L"-:' --'"^ ' - 

^ C H A P, 

7riade againjl the Theory oftheUkVi'Tvi. 5 


IN this Chapter a Second Exception a^ainft the For- 
mation of the Earth, as propos'd in the Tbeo- 
ry, isalledg'd: And 'tis this, The FluOuation of the 
Chaos, or of that firft watery Globe, would hinder, he 
fays, any Concretion cf Earth upon its Surface. Is^ot 
that there were Winds or Storms then, to agitate thofe 
Waters-, neither would the Motion of the Earth, or 
the Rotation of that Globe, diftarb them, as he allows 
there ^ but the Dill arbance would have rife from Tides, 
p. 74. lin. 18, 19. or l\\Q Ebbings and Flowings of that 
great Ocean, which, he fays, muil have been then as 
well as now : And the Reaibn he gives is this, Becaufe 
tvi^ Flux and Reflux of the Sea depend upon the Moon ^ 
and the Moon was then preient, as he fays, in our Hea- 
vens, or in our Vortex : And therefore, would have the 
lame Eff^ft then, upon that Body of VVaters which lay 
under it, that it hath now upon the Sea. 

That the Moon was in the Heavens, and in our Neigh- 
bourhood, when the Earth was form'd, he proves from 
the Six-Days Creation •, and fpends two or three Pages 
in Wit and Scolding upon this Subject, p. 77, 78, 79. 
But, with his leave, when all is done, his Argument 
will be of no Force, unlefs he can prove that the Fourth 
Days Creation was before the Third, I confefs, I have 
heard of a Wager that was loR upon a like Cafe, name- 
Iv, Whether Henry the 8th was before Henry the 7th? 
But that was done by complot in the Company, to 
whom it was referr'd to decide the Queftion. We have 
no Plot here, but appeal fairly to that Judge the Excep* 
tor hath chofen, namely to Scripture, which tells us, 
that the Moon was made the 4th Day, and the Earth was 
form'd the 3d. Therefore, unlefs the 4Ch D\y was be- 
fore the 3d, the Moon could not hinder the Formatioa 
of the Earth. 

But, I hope, fay you, this is a Mifreprefentation. 
The Animadverter fare would not put the matter upon 
this Iffue. Yes, he does. For when he had oppos'd to 
our Formation of the Earth, the Fluctuation of the 
Waters, caused, 4S he phrafes it, bj the bulky Prefence 

A 4 of 

6 eAn oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

of the Moon, He concludes with thefe Words, (/?. 77. 
Paragr, ^.') But in reference to this matter^ there is a 
Doubt made by the Theorifl^ which muji be confider'd and 
removed •, otherwife moft of what hath been fald^ touching 
the In Jt ability and FluB: nation of thefe Waters^ will be 
vain and Groundlefs : The Doubt is^ Whether the Moon 
rtere then in our Neighbourhood, You fee that matter is 
put upon this IlTue, Whether the Moon was in the 
Neif^hbourhood of the Earth, at the time of its For- 
mation. We fay (he was not*, and prove it by this 
plain Argument, If fhe was not in Being at that time, 
ihe was not in our Neighbourhood: But unlefs the 
Fourth Day was before lY^t Third^ fhe was not in Be- 
ing. Ergo, ) 

But after all, If the Moon had been prefent then, and 
there had been Tides, or any other Fluctuation towards 
the Poles, we have no Reaibn to believe, according to 
the Experiences we have now, that that would have hin- 
der'd the Formation of the Earth, upon the Surface of 
tht Chaos. For why fhould they have hinder'd that 
more, than they do the Formation of Ice upon the Sur- 
fice of the Sea ? We know, in cold Regions, the Seas 
are frozen, notwiftanding their Tides', and in the 
Mouths of Rivers, where there is both the Current 
and Stream of the River on one Hand, and the Coun- 
ter-Current of the Tides on the other •, thefe, together, 
cannot hinder the Concretion that is made on the Sur- 
face of the Water : And our Water is a Subftance 
more thin, and eafily broken, than that tenacious Film 
was, that cover'd the Chaos. WHEREFORE, upon 
all Suppofitions, we have Reafon to conclude, that no 
Flucluations of the Chaos could hinder the Formation 
of the Firft Earth. 

Laftly, The Obfervator oppofes the Reafons that are 
given by the Theorift, why the Prefence of the Moon was 
iefs needful in the firft World. Namely, becaufe there 
were no long Winter- Nights \ nor the pre at Pool of the 
Sea to ?nove or govern. As to the Second Reafon, 'tis on- 
ly Hypothetical :, and if the Hypothecs be true. That 
there was no open Sea at that time, (which muft be 
elfewhere examined) the Confequence is certainly true. 
Butas to the firil Reafon, He will not aiiow the Con- 
fequenccj tho' the Hypothefis bs admitted. For he 


made againfl the Theory oftheEi'RTH. y 

(ays, p. 79 As there were no long Winter- Nights then^ 
fo there were no fi;ort Summer dnes neither : So that fet 
but the one again}} the cther^ and the Pre fence cf the Moon 
7nay feem to have been as needful thcn^ in regard of the 
length of Nights^ as Jhe is now. This looks like a witty 
Obiervation, but it does not reach the Point. Is there 
as much need oF the Moon in Spain^ as in Lapland^ or 
the Northern Countries ? There is as much Nijht in 
one Place as another, within the Compafs of a Year, 
but the great Inconvenience is, when the Kight falls 
upon the Hours of Travel, or the Hours of Work ani 
Bufmefs^ for if it fall only upon Hours of Sleep, or 
of Reft and Retirement, as it does certainly more in 
Spain^ and in thofe Climates that approach nearer to an 
Equinox:, the Moon i? there lefs necefTary in that Re- 
fpec^ : We can fleep without Moon-fhine, or without 
Light, but we cannot travel, or do Bufinefs abroad, 
without Hazard and great Inconvenience, if there be 
no Light. So that the Reafon of the Theorill: holds 
good, viz. That there would be more Neceflity of 
Moon-fhine in long W^inter-Nights, than in a perpetu- 
al Equinox. 

. We proceed now to the reft of this Chapter, which 
is made up of fome fecondary Charges againft this Part 
of the Theory, concerning the Chaos and the Forma- 
tion of the firft Earth. As firft, That it is, p. 80, 8t. 
Precarious : Secondly, p. 83. Vnphilofophical : And 
Thirdly, Antifcriptural-^ which we fhall anfwer in or- 
der. He feems to offer at three or four Inftances of 
Precarioiifnefs^ as to the Ingredients of t\\t Chaos, their 
Proportions and Separations :, but his Quarrel is chiefly 
with the oily Particles : Thefe he will fcarce allow at 
all', nor that thev could ieparate themfelves, in due 
time, to receive the Terreftrial ^ at leaft in due Pro- 

Firft, He would have no oiley Particles in the Chaos. 
But why fo, I pray? What Proof or juft Exception is 
there againft them ? Why may there not he original 
Oily Particles, as well as original Salt Particles? Sucit 
as yo'jr great Mafter Des Cartes fuppofes, 4. 
^^. 84. Aleteor c. 7. §. 8. He who confiders that vait 
Qiimtity of Oleagineous matter that is difperft every 
where ^ in Veg-tables, in Annimals, and in many forts 


8 (An oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

of Earths : And that this muft have been from the Begin- 
ning, or as foon as the Earth had any Furniture*, will 
feeReafon to believe that iuch Particles muft be thought 
Original and Primeval: Not forg'd below the Abyfs, 
and extra£led from the inferiour Regions of the Earth : 
For that would require a Procefs of many Ages •, where- 
as, thefe being the Principles of Fertility, itisreafona- 
ble to fuppofe, that a New World abounds with them 
more than an Old one. Laftly, If we iuppofe Oily 
Particles to be tenuious and branchy, as your Philofo- 
pher does, too grofs to be Air, and too light for Wa- 
ter *, Why (hould we imagine that in that vaft N'lafs and 
variety of Particles, whereof the Chaos confifted, there 
fhould not be any of this Figure, as well as of others ? 
Or, What Reafon is there to fuppofe, that there are 
none of that Figure, but what are brought from the 
inferiour Regions of the Earth ? For, of all others, 
jhefe feem to be the mod unlikely, if not incapable, of 
being extra^ed from thence. And if there be only a 
gradual Difference, in Magnitude and Mobility, be- 
twixt the Particles of Air and Oil, as that Philolbpher 
feems to fuppofe, Priri, phil. I. 4. §. 76. W^hy mufl we 
exclude thefe Degrees, and yet admit the higher and 

The Second thing which he charges with Frecariovf- 
nefs^ is the Separation of this Oily matter, in due time, 
fo as to make a Mixture and Concretion with the ter- 
reftrial Particles that fell from above. This Objedioa 
-was both made and anfwered by the Theorifl ^ Eng, 
Theor, p. 79. which the Obfervator might have vouch fif'd 
to have taken Notice of *, and either confuted the An* 
fwer, or fpar*d himfelf the Pains of repeating the Ob- 

The third Trecarioufnefs is, Concerning the Quantity 
and Proportion of thefe Particles : And the Fourth, 
Concerning the Quantity and Proportion of the Water. 
The Exceptor, it feems, would have had the Theorift 
to have grig'd thefe Liquors, and told him the jufi: Mea- 
fure and Proportion of each*, But, In what Theory or 
Hypothecs is that done ? Has his great Philofopher, in 
his Hypothefis of Three Elements^ (which the Excepter 
makese ufe of, p. 52. ) or in his feveral Regions of ih*^ 
unform'd Earth, in the Fourth Book of his Trincipissy 
; defin'd 

made againfl the Theory of the Earth, t) 

deRn'd the QLiantity and Diinenfionsof each? Or in the 
Mineral Particles-and Juices, which he draws from the 
lower Regions, Does he determine the Quantity of 
them ? And yet thefe, by their Excefs or Defecfl:, might 
be of great Inconvenience to the World : Neither do I 
cenfure him for thefe things, :is precarious. For, when 
the Nature of a thing admits a Latitude, the original 
Qiiintity of it is left to be determined by the Effe«5ls^ 
and the Hypothefis ftandsgood, if neither any thing an- 
tecedent, nor any prefent Ph£?Jome?ia can be alledged 
againft it. 

But if thefe Examples, from his great Philofopher, 
be not fufHcient, I will give him one from an Author 
beyond all Exceptions: And that is from himfelf. Does 
the Animadverter, in his new^ Hypothefis concerning 
the Deluge, ch. 15. give us tha juft Proportions of his 
Rock- Water, and the juft Proportions of his Rain- Wa- 
ter, that concurred to make the Deluge ? I find no Cal- 
culations there, but general Exprefllons, that the one 
WaS far greater than the other ^ and that may be eafily 
prefumed, concerning the oily Subflance, and the 
watery Chaos: What Scruples therefore, p. 80, 81. 
he raifes in reference to the Chaos, againft the Theorift, 
for not having demonftrated the Proportions of the 
Liquors of the Abyfs, fall upon liis own Hypothefis; 
for the fame or greater Reafons. And you know what 
the old Verfe fays, 

Turpe cjl DoEiori^ cum culpa redargult ipfum» 

r ■• -7 --- ^- . ^ ^j 

But however. He will have fuch Exceptions, p, 81.^ 
to ft and good againft the Theorift, though they are not 
good againft other Perfons ;, becaufe the Theorift ftands 
upon ^ Terms of certainty, and in one Place of his 
Book, has this Sentence, Ego (^uidem^^c. Thefe Words, 
I think, are very exceptionable, if they be taken with 
the Context: For this Evidence and Certainty, which 


* Ego qu'idan in ea fum Jcntcntia-, fi in barum rerum de quibus ag'i- 
tur^ cngnitionem^ aid aliarum quarumcunqiie^ qu£. momcnU finite vifum 
futf'.t D?o aut N'atur.c ut paterct bommibus rcttio pcrveniejidi^ ratio ilia 
Certa r/?, ^ in al'upin clara l^ inv'i5.\ evidentlX fuvdJia: Non con-' 
jc8/ralis^ vag4^ ^ diihia. Quakm ncmpc ii^ qui optime utuntur lihcT' 
tate fua^ ^ qui maxinie fibi cavcnt ab erroribuSj tiua-quam ampUife' 

to qAu oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

the Theorift fpeaks of, is brought ia there in Oppofition 
to fuch uncertain Arguments, as are taken from the 
Interpretation of Fahies and Symbols •, or from Etymo- 
logies and Gratnmatical Crlticifms^ which are exprefly 
mentioned in the preceding Difcourf^i : And yet this 
Sentence, becaufe it might be taken in too great an Ex- 
tent, is left out in the zd Edition of the Theory, and 
therefore, none had reafon to infill upon it. But I fee 
the Exceptor puts himfelf into a State of War, and 
thinks there is no foul Play againft an Enemy. 

So much for his Charge of PrfC/^r/<7Z(/??(?/;. We now 
come to the 2^, which is cali'd Vnphilofphicalnefs. And, 
Why is the Theorift, in this Cafe, unphilofophical ? 
Becaufe, fays the Excepter, He fuppofes Terreftrial 
Particles to be difperft through the whole Sphere of the 
Chaos, as high as the Moon : And why not, pray, if it 
bea meer Chaos? Where, antecedently to Separations, 
all things are mixt and blended without Diftin^lion ot 
Gravity or Levity ; otherwife it is not a meer Chaos : 
And when Separations begin to be made, and Diftin6li- 
on of Parts and Regions, fo far it is ceafing to be a 
meer Chaos. But then, fays the Obfervator, why did 
not the Moon come down, as well as thefe Terreftrial 
Particles? I anfwer by another Qu^ftion, Why does 
not the Moon come down now? Seeing (he is ftill in 
our Vortex, and at the fame Diftance^ and ^o the 
fame Reafon which keeps her up now, kept her up then : 
Which Reafon he will not be at a Lofs to underftand, 
if he underftand the Principles of his great Philofopher. 
.' 'We come now to the laft Charge. That the Theory, 
in this Part of it, is Antlfcriptural. And why fo ? be- 
caufe it fuppofes the Chaos <^^r/^, whereas the Scripture 
fays there was Light the firft Day. Well, But does thQ 
Scripture fay that the Chaos was throughly illuminated 
the fir ft Day ? The Excepter, /?. 52. as I remember^ 
makes tKe primigenial Light to have been the Rudiment 
of a Sun-, and calls it there, Irn, ij. a faijjt Light^ 
zndi feeble Light'^ and in this- Place, lin, 27. ^ falril 
Glimmering, If then the San, in all its Strength and 
Glory, cannot fometimes difpel a Mift outof the Air,' 
What CQuld this fr*int^ feeble Glimmeri?ig do, towards 
the Diffipatioa of fuch a grofs callginous Opacity, as. 
that was? This Light might be fufficient to make fome 


made againfl the Theory of the E a r T hJ i i 

Dlftin£lion of Day and Night in the Skies \ and we do 
not find any other Mark of its Strength in Scripture, 
nor any other Ufc made of it. 

So we have done with this Chapter. Give me leave 
only, without Offence, to obferve the Style of the Ex- 
cepter, in reference to Scripture and the Theory. He 
is apt to call every th'iu^ an tifcriptural^ that fuits not 
his Senfe •, neither is that enough, but he muft alfo call 
it, p, 78. a bold Affront to Scripture. He confeffes, he 
hath made, /?. 299. pen. a little bold with Scripture 
himfelf, in his new Hypothefis *, how much thdit little 
will prove, we fhall fee hereafter. But however, as to 
that hard Word, Affront^ a difcreet Man, as he is not 
apt to give an Affront, fo neither is he forward to call 
every crofs Word an Affront : Both thofe Humours are 
Extremes, and breed Quarrels. Suppofe a Man fhould 
fay boldly, God Almighty hath no Right Hand, Oh, 
might the Animadverter cry. That's a bold Affront to 
Scripture : For I can ihew you'many and plain Texts of 
Scripture, both in the Old Tejiament^ and in the Nero 
Teftament *, where exrrefs mention is made of God-s 
Right Hand, And will you offer to oppofe Reafon and 
Philofophy to exprefs Words of Scripture, often repea- 
ted, and in both Teflraments ? O Tempora^ O Mores I 
So far as my Obfervation reaches, weak Reafons com- 
monly produce flrong Paffions. When a Man hath 
clear Reafons, they fatisfieand quiet the Mind ^ and he 
is not much concern'd whether others receive his No- 
tions or no : But when we have a ftrong Averfion to 
an Opinion, from other Motives and Confiderations, 
and find our Reafons doubtful or infufficient, then, ac- 
cording to the Courfeof humane Nature, the Paffions 
rife for a further Afiifirance ^ and what is wanting, ia 
point of Argument, is made up by Inve^flives and Ag- 

Chap. IV. 

THIS Chapter is chiefly concerning the Central 
Fire J and the Origin of the Chaos ^ of both 
which, the Theorift had declared he would not 
treat: And 'tis an unreafonable Violence to force aa 
Author to treat of what things we pleafe, and not allow 


f 2 oAn oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

liim to prefcribe Bounds to his own Difcourfe. As to 
thefirftof thefe, fee what the Theorift hath faid, EngL 
Theor, p. 451, and 86, 67. By which PafTages it is 
evident, that he did not meddle with the Central Parts 
of the Earth , nor thought it necelTary for his Hypo- 
thefis : As is alfo more fully expreft in i\\q Latin The- 
ory, p. 45. For, do but allow him a Chaos from the 
bottom of the Abyfs, upwards to the Moon, and hede- 
fires no more for the Formation of an habitable Earth : 
Neither is it the Part of Vv^ifdom, to load a new Sub- 
jeft with unnecefTiry Curiofiries. 

Then as to the Origin of the Chaos, fee how the 
Theorift bounds his Difcourfe as to that, Engl. Theor, 
p. 451. / did not think it neceffary to carry the Story and 
Original of the Earthy higher than the Chaos ^ as Zoro^ 
after and Orpheus fee^n to have done *, but taking that for 
our Foundation^ which Aritiquity^ f acred and profane^ 
does fuppofe *, and natural Reafon approve and confirm j 
Tve have forrnd the Earth from it. To form an habita- 
ble Earth from a Chaos given, and to fhow all the great 
Periods and general Changes of that Earth, throughout 
the whole Courfe of its Duration, or while it remain'd 
an Earth, was the adequate Defign of the Theorift. 
And was this Defign fo ftiort or fhallow, that it could 
not fatisfie the great Soul of the Excepter? p. 88. but 
it muft be a Flaw in the Hypothefis, that it did go high- 
er than the Chaos. We content our felves with thefe 
Bounds at prefent. And when a Man declares that he 
will write only the Ro7nan Hiftory, Will you fay his 
Work's imperfe£^, becaufe it does not take in the Ver- 
fian and Ajfyrian /" 

Thefe things confider'd, to fpeak freely of this Chap- 
ter, itfeemsto me, in a great meafure,- impertinent. 
Unlefs it w^asdefign'd to ftjow the Learning of the Ob- 
fervator, who loves, I perceive, to dabble in Philofo- 
phy, though little to the Purpofe : For, as far as I fee, 
his Difquifitions generally end in Scepticifm *, He dif- 
putes firft one w^ay, then another, and, at laft, deter- 
/ . 

* si admittamui infuper Jgncm Centralun^ five Majfam Ignis hi centro 
Terr£ \ quod quidem. non ejl bujus argumenti. tfcque partem intitnam 
chaos ^ nift obitt-r ^3* pro forma ^ confideravi^ Cnm ad rem nojiram non 
fpe&et, Vid. etiam p. i35. edit. 2. 

made againfi the Theory of the "E a ^r hJ i 5 

mines nothing. He rambles betwixt Des Cartes and 
Afofes^ the Rabbles^ the Septuagint^ the Flatomfls^ Mag^ 
netifme^ firiate Particles^ and praexijierice of Souls: 
And ends in nothing as to the Formation of the Earth, 
which was to be the Subje<fV of the Chapter. We pro- 
ceed therefore to the next, in hopes to meet with do- 
fer Rea foiling. 

C H A P. V. 

FROM the manner of the EartVs Formation, the 
Excepter, p. 106. now proceeds to the Form of it, 
if com pleated. And his firft Exception is, That it 
would want Waters^ or Rivers to water it. He fays 
there would either be no Rivers at alJ \ or none, at 
leaft, in due time. 

The Theorifi hath replenifht that Earth with Rivers,' 
flowing from the extreme Parts of it towards the mid* 
die, in continual Streams*, and watering, as a Garden, 
all the intermediate Climates. And this conftant Sup- 
ply of Water was made from the Heavens, by an un- 
interrupted Stream of Vapours, which had their 
CouiTe through the Air, from the middle Parts of the 
Earth towards the extreme ^ and falling in Rains, re- 
turn'd again upon the Surface of the Earth, from the 
extreme Parts to the middle: For that Earth being of 
an Oval or fomething Oblong Figure, there would be a 
Declivity all along, or Defcent, from the Polar Parts 
towards the Equinoctial *, which gave Courfe and Mo- 
tion to thefe VVaters. And the Vapours above ne- 
ver falling in their Courfe, the Rivers would never fail 
below •, but a perpetual Circulation would be efta- 
bliih'd, betwixt the Waters of the irleavens and of the' 

This is a fhort Account of the State of the Waters 
in the Primeval Earth. Which you may fee reprefent- 
and explain'd more at large, in the zd Bool: of the The- 
ory^ Chap, 5. And this, I believe, is an idea n^oreeafily 
conceiv'd, than any we could form concerning the 
Waters and Rivers of the prefent Earth, if we had not 
Experience of them. Suppofe a Stranger, that had 
never feea this Terraqueous Globe, where we live at 


i4 ioAuoAufwerto the Exceptions 

prefent, but was told the general Fcrm of it^ how the 
Sea lieSjhow the Land, and what was the Conftirution 
of the Heavens: If this Stranger was ask'd his Opinion, 
Whether fach an Earth was h.^hirable -^ and parriculariy. 
Whether they could have Waters commodioufiy in fuch 
an Earth, and how the Inland Countries would be 
fupplied ? I am apt to think, he would find it more diffi- 
cult fupon an Idea only, without Experience) to pro- 
vide Waters for fuch an Earth, as ours is. atprefent, 
than for fuch an one as the Primeval Earth was. 'Tis 
true. He would eafily find Rains, poilible and natural, 
but with no Conftancy or Regularity*, and thefe, he 
might imagine, would only make tranfient Torrents, 
not any fixt and permanent Rivers. But as for Foun- 
tains derived from the Sea, and breaking out in higher 
Grounds, I am apt to believe, all his Philofophy would 
not be able to make a clear Difcovery of them: But 
things that are familiar to us by Experience, we think 
eafy in Speculation, or never enquire into the Caufes of 
them. Whereas, other things that never fall under 
our Experience, though more fimple and intelligible 
in themfelves, we reject often as Paradoxes or Roman- 
ces. Let this be applied to the prelent Cafe, and we 
proceed toanfwer the Exceptions. 

Let us take that Exception firfl, as moll: material, 
p. 114. that pretends there would have been no Rivers 
at all in thePrimoeval Earth,if it was of fuch a Form as 
the Theorift had defcrib'd. And for this, He gives one 
grand Reafon, Becaufe the Regions towards the Poles, 
where the Rains are fuppos'd to fall, and the Rivers 
to rife, would have been all frozen and congeaPd : And 
confequently, no fit Sources of Water for the reft of the 
Earth. Why we fhould think thofe Regions would be 
frozen, and the Rains that fell in them, he gives two 
Reafons, the Diftance, and the Obliquity of the Sun. 
As alfo the Experience we have now, of the Coldnefs 
and Frozennefs of thofe Parts of the Earth. But as to 
the Diftance of the Sun, He confefTes, p, 118. that is 
not the thing that does only or chiefly make a Climate 
cold. He might have added, particularly in that Earthy 
where the Sun was never at a greater Diftance than the 
Equator, Then, as to the Obliquity of the Sun, neither 
was that fo great, nor fo confiierable, in the firft 


made againp^ the Theory of: the E a n t h. 15 

E.irtb, 2s in the preftnt. Beciufe ths Body of that lay 
in a dh'ic): Pofirion to the Sun, whereas the prefent 
Earth lies in an Oblique. And though the'Polar Cir- 
cles or Circumpolar Parts of that Earth, did not lie fo 
perpendicular to the Sun as the Equinoftial, and confe- 
quentlv were cooler, vet there was no Danger of their 
being frozen or congeal'd. It was more the Moiftur^ 
and excefTive Rains of thofe Parts that made them unin- 
habitable, than the extreme Coldnefs of the Climate, 
of it felf. And if the Excepter had well confider'd the 
. Differences betwixt th^^ prefent and primitive Earth, 
as to Obliquity of Pofition, and that which follows from 
it, the Length of Nights, He would have found no Rea- 
fon to have charg'd that Earth with nipping ^nd freez^ing 
Cold\ where there was not, I believe, one Morfel of 
Ice, from one Pole to another : But that will better 
appear, if we confider the Caufes of Cold. 

There are three General Caufes of Cold : The Di- 
flance of the Sun, his Obliquity, and his total Abfence ^ 
I mean in the Mights : As to Diftance, that alone 
muft be of little Effecl, feeing there are many Planets, 
Ovhich muft not be lookt upon as meer Lumps of Ice) 
at a far greater Diftance from the Sun, than ours : And 
as to Obliquity, you fee it was much lefs confiderable 
in the refpedive Parts of the Primitive Earth, than of 
the prefent. Wherefore, thefe are to be confider'd but 
as fecondary Caufes of Cold, in refpeft of the Third-, 
the total Abfence of the Sun in the Night Time: And 
where this happens to be long and tedious, there you 
muft exped excefs of Cold. Now, in the Primitive 
Earth there was no fuch thing, as long Winter Nights, 
but every w^here, a perpetual Equinox, or a perpetual 
\^\y. And confequently, there was no Room or Caufe 
ofexceftive Cold in any Part of it. But on the contrary, 
the Cife is very difR^rent in the prefent Earth*, for in 
our Climate, we have not the Prefence of the Sun, in 
the Depth of Winter, half as long as he is abfent ', and 
towards the Poles they have Nights that laft feveral 
Weeks or Months together : And then 'tis, that the 
Cold rages, binds up the Ground, freezes the Ocean, 
and makes thofe Parts, more or lefs, uninhabitable. 
But where no fuch Caufes are, you need not fear any 
-llich Efteas. 

B Thus 

i6 eAn fiAnfwer to the Exceptions 

Thus i-j^uch to (hew that there might be Rains, Wa- 
ters, and Rivers, in the primigenial Earth, and towards 
the extreme Parts of it, without any Danger of free- 
zing. But however, fays the oth-er Part of the Ex- 
ception, Thefe Rivers would not he made in due Time, 
That's wholly according to the Procefs you take •, if 
you take a meer natural Procefs, the Rivers could not 
flow throughout the Earth, all on a fudden *, but you 
may accelerate that Procefs, as much as you pleafe, by a 
Divine Hand. As to this Particular indeed of the Ri^ 
vers, one wanld think their fliould be no Occafion for 
their fudden flowing through x}n^ Earth, becaufe man- 
kind could not be fudden ly propagated throughout the 
Earth: And if they did but lead the Way and prepare 
theGrouitd in every Country, before mankind arrived 
there, tliat feems to be all that would be neceflary upon 
their Account: Neither can it be imagin'd, but that 
the Rivers would fiowfafttr than mankind could follow ^ 
for 'tis probable, in the firfl Hundred Years, Men did 
not reach an Hundred Miles from home, or from their 
firft Habitations : And we cannot fuppofe the Defluxioa 
of Water, upon any Declivity to be half fo (low. As to 
the Channels of thefe Rivers, the manner of their Pro- 
grefs, and other Circum fiances, Thofe things are fet 
down fully enough in the 5^/; Chapter of the id Book of 
the Englifi) Theory^ and it would be needlefs to repeat 
them here. 

But the Anti-Theorift fiys. This flow^ Produ^ion and 
Propagation of Rivers is contrary to Scripture \ both 
becaufe of the Rivers of Paradife, and alio, becaufe 
Fifhes were made the Sixth Day. As to that of the 
Fifties, He muft firft prove that thofe were River-FiH-ies*, 
for the Scripture, Gen. i. 22. and 22. makes them Sea- 
Fifh, and in fiances in great Whales. But he fiys, 
(p. 115, 114.) it will appear in the Sequel of his Dif- 
courfe^'thit the Abyfs could be no Recepracle of Fifhes. 
To that Sequel of his Difcourfe therefore we mufi: refer 
the Examination of this Particular. Then as to Para- 
dife, that was but one fmgle Spot of Ground, ch. 13. 
according to the ordinary Hypothefis *, which he feems 
to adhere to : And Rivers might be there as foon as he 
pieafes, feeing its Seat is not yet determia'd. ' But as 
for the Lands which they are faid to traverfe or encom- 


made againjl the Theory of the E 

rs« that misht be the Work of Tim 

ARTH. 17 

pafs, that might be the Work of Time, when their 
Channels and Courfes were extended and fettled •, as 
they would be donbtlefs long before the Time that 
^:^/>j writ that Defcriptlon: But as to the Rivers of 
Paradife^ it would be a long Story to handle that DiP 
pute here. And 'tis fit the Authors ilionld firfl: agree 
amongft: themfelves, before we determine the Original 
of its River, or Rivers. 

Chap. VL 

TX7E come now to t\it Deluge, where the great 
V V Exception is this, /?. 121. That according to the 
Theory, the Deluge would have come to pafs, whether 
mankind had been degenerate or no. 

Wcknow mankind did degenerate, ajid 'tis a dange- 
rous thing to argue upon falfe Suppofitions •, and to tell 
what would have come to pafs, in cafe fuch a thing had 
not come to pafs : Suppofe jfdam had not finn'd, what 
would have become of the AfeJJiahj Eph, i. 4. i Per. i. 
20. ^pQC. 15. 8. and the Difpenfation of the Gofjpei? 
which yet is faid to have been determined more early 
than the Deluge. Let the Anti-Theorift anfwer him- 
felf this Queftion, and he may anfwer his own. 

But to tAke a gentler Inftance, Suppofe Adam had 
not eaten the forbidden Fruit, Hovs^ could He and all his 
Poflerity have liv'd in Paradife? A few Generations 
would have fill'd that Place, and fhould the reft have 
been turn'd out into the w^ide World, w^ithout any 
Sin or Fault of theirs. You fuppofe the Ante-diluvian 
Heavens and Earth to have been the fame with the 
prefent, and, confequently, fubje^l to the fame Acci- 
dents and Inconveniences. The A£lion of the Sun 
w^ould have been the fame then, as now, according to 
your Hypothefis : The fame ExcefTes of Heat and Cold, 
l^ the feveral F^egions and Climates , The fame Vapours 
and Exhalations extra£led out of the Earth : The fame 
Impurities and Corruptions in the Air : And in Conle- 
quence of thefe, the fune external Difpofition to Epi- 
demical Diflempers. Befides, there would be the fime 
Storms and Tempefts at Sea, the fame Earth-Qiukes 

B 2 and 

i8 eAn tiAnfwer to the Exceptions 

and other Defolations at Land. So that had all the Som 
and Dazightcrs of mcn^ to nfe the Excepter's elegant 
Style, p. 122. been as pure and bright as they could pojjl- 
bly have dropt out of the Mint of Creation^ They Jh on Id 
flUl have been fubjecfb to all thefe Inconveniences and 
C.damities. If mankind had continued fpotlefs and un- 
degenerate 'till the Delude, or for fixteen hundred 
year?, they might as well hsve continued fo for Sixteen 
Hundred more. And in a far lefs Time, according to 
their fruitfulnefs and inultiplication, the whole Face of 
the Earth would have been thick covered with inhabi- 
tants: every Continent and every Ifland, every Moun- 
tain and every Defert, and all the climates from Pole 
to Pole. But could naked imocency have liv'd happy 
in t\i^ frozen Zones ! where Bears and Foxes can fcarce 
fubfifi:. In the midft of Snows and Ice, thick Fogs, 
and more than /Egyptian darknefs, for fome Months 
together. Vv^ould all this have been a Paradife^ or a 
Paradifiacal State, to thefe virtuous Creatures? I think 
it would be more advifeable for the Excepter, not to 
tnter into fuch Difputes, grounded only upon Suppo- 
fitions. God's prefcience fs infallible, as his Counfels 
are Immutable. 

But the Excepter farther fuggefts, p. I2i. that tlie 
Theory does not allow a judicial and extraordinary 
Providence in bringing on tlie.Deluge, as a Punifhment 
upork Mankind. Vs'laich, I mA;ill: needsiay, is an untrue 
and uncharitable fii^gefl'ion. As any one may fee, 
both in the Latin Theory ^ Chap. 6fh. and in the En- 
gli(b, in feveral places: So at the entrance upon the 
Explication of the Deluge (Thcor. p, 'g2.) are thefe 
Wo'rds, Let vs then fuppofe^ that at a Time appoin- 

.. * Notatidutn rero^ quarnvh miwdi z':teris diffjlutioncm ^ rationes D/- 
ftivii fccitndum ordin^m caujlrrum naturalnim expl'iccmus., quod co modo 
^ijg'u clars \!j diJi'mBe intelligantur ,\ mm idc'o in pknam humanl gciieris 
ordmatunt.fitijfe diluvium^ fin ^uUfquc "ipftiis motihus pY^fuiJfe proz'idcntiam, 
inficiamiif : imo in eo eliicet maxhne Sapientia divina, quod niundinn na- 
tttrafem moraii ita coaptet y jttcmpent, ut hnjus ivgcnio^ illiiis ordo Iff 
difpiifitio femper refpondeat : Iff amhomni libratis tmmetitis^ fimul concur- 
rant \ff pi cantur ut-riufque tempora ^ vicijffjtudines, ipfe ctiam. 
Apojtolus Petrus diluvu kS excidii miiiidani caujlis uaturaks c^Jp.gnat^ cUm 

0it, /} iy^ Sec, .^ : 


made cigainft the Theory of the Earth. 19 

ttd by Divine Vrovldcr7C€j a/id frotn caufes made ready to 
do th:it great execution vp^n a fwfv.l World ^ that this 
^h\fs was opend^ and the Frame of the Earth broke^ Sec. 
And accordingly in the conclufion of that difcourfe 
about the Deluge, are thefe Words, (Theor. p. 144.) 
In the mean time I do not know any more to he added 
in this part^ unlefs it be to conclude with an advertifement 
to prevent any mifiake or miJccnJlrnFtion^ as if this Theory 
by explaining the Deluge in a natural Way^ or by natural 
cavfcs^ did detrad: fromthe Power of God^ by which that 

THE World, in a proi^idential and 

MIRACVLOVS MANNER. And in the three fol- 
lowing Paragraphs, {Jheor, p. 144, 145, 146.) which 
conclude that Chapter, there is a full account given 
both of an ordinary and extraordinary Providence in 
reference to the Deluge, and other great revolutions of 
the Natural World. 

But it is a v^-eaknefs however to think, that, when a 
train is laid in Nature, and Methods concerted, for the 
execution of a Divine Judgment, therefore it is not 
Providential, God is the Author and Governor of the 
Natural World, as well as of thQ Moral : and He fees 
thorough the Futuritions of both, and hath ib difpos'd 
the one, as to ferve him in his juil Judgments upon the 
other. Which Method, as it is more to the Honour of 
his Wifdom, fo it is no way to the prejudice of his 
Power or Juftice. Aod what the Excepter fuggefts con- 
cerning Atheilts, and their prefum'd cavils at fuch an 
explication of the Deluge, is a thing only {M at ran- 
dom and without Grounds. On the contrary, fo to 
reprefent the Senfe of Scripture, in natural things, 
as to make it unintelligible, and inconfiftent with Science 
and Philolbphick Truth, is one great Caufe, in my 
opinion, that breeds and nourifhes Atheifm, 


THIS Chapter is about the Places of Scripture, al- 
ledgd in confirmation of the Theory. And chiefly 
concerning that remarkable Difcourfe in St. Feter^ 
:» £^7r. 3. which treats of the difference of the Ante- 
B 3 diluviaa 

10 oAn oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

diluvian World and the prefent World. That DiT- 
courfe is fo fully explain'd in the Review of the Theory, 
that I think it is plac'd beyond all exception. And thQ 
Animadverter here makes his exception only againft 
the firft Words, Ver. 5. Aeti'^t^m ydf crtr«j7«To ^ihov' 
Ttff* which we thus render, For this they willingly are 
ignorant of. But he generally renders it, wilfully igno- 
rant of^ and lays a great ftrefs upon that word wilfully. 
But if he quarrel with the Englij}) Tranflation, in this 
particular, he mud alfo fault the Vulgate^ and Bez^a, 
and all others that I have yet met wMthal. And it had 
been very proper for him, in this Cafe, to have given 
us fome Inftances or Proofs, out of Scripture or Greek 
Authors^ where this Phrafe fignifies a wilful and ohjlinate 
ignorance. He fays it muft have been a wilful igno- 
rance, otherwife it was not blameable : whereas St. 
Peter gives it a (harp repoof. I anfwer. There are 
many kinds and degrees of blameable ignorance, a 
contented ignorance, an ignorance from prejudices, 
from non-attendance, and want of due examination, 
Thefe are all blameable in fome degree, and all deferve 
fome reproof-, but it was not their ignorance that St. 
Teter chiefly reproves, but their deriding and fcofjlng 
at the Doftrine of the coming of our Saviour, and the 
Conflagration of the World. And therefore he calls 
them Scoffers ^walking after their own Lujis, 

But the Excepter feems at length inclinable to ren- 
der the forementioned Words, thus, p. 137. They are 
willingly mindlefs or forgetful. And I believe the TranP 
lation would be proper enough. And what gentler 
reproof can one give, than to fay, you are willing to fir^ 
get fuch an Argument or fuch a Confideration. Which 
implies little-more than non-attention, or an inclina- 
tion of the Will towards the contrary opinion. We 
cannot tell what evidence or what Traditions they 
might have then concerning the Deluge, but we know 
they had the Hiftory of it by Mofes^ and all the Marks 
in Nature, that we have now, of fuch a DiiToliuion. 
And they, that pretended to Philofophize upon the 
Works of Nature and the immutability of them, 
might very well deferve that inodefr rebuke. That 
they were willing to forget the fir it Heavens and firft 


made againfl the theory of theEAKTH. 21 

Earth, and the definition of them at the Deluge, when 
they talkt of an immutable (late of Nature. 

Neither is there any thing; in all this, contrary to 
what theTheorifl: had fud, Theor.c. i, concerning the 
Antient Pnilofophers. That none of them ever invented 
or demonft rated from the Caufes, the true ftate of 
the firlt Earth. This muft be granted ^ But it is one 
thing to dcmonftrate from the Caufes, or by way of 
Theory, andanother thing to know at large: whether 
by Scripture, Tradition, or Colieflion from effefts. 
The mutability and changes of the World, which thefe 
Pfeudo-Chriftians would not allow of, was a knowable 
thing, taking all the means which they might and 
ought to have attended to : At leafl, before they fhould 
haveproceeded fofar as to rejeft the Chrilb'an doiftrine 
concn'ning the future Changes of the World, with 
fcorn and derifion. Which is the very thing the 
Apoftle fo much cenfur'd them for. 

So much for what is faid by the Excepter concerning 
this place of St. Peter. To all the reft he gives an 
eafie anAver, (in the Contents of this Chapter) viz,. 
That they are Figurative^ a>id fo not argumentative. 
The Places of Scripture upon which the Theory depends 
are dated did indly and in order, in the REVIEW: 
and, to avoid repetitions, we muft fometimes refer to 
that : Review^p. 371, 372. particularly,as to two remark- 
able places, Pfai. 24. 2. and Pfal. 136. 6. concerning the 
Foirr:dation and Extenfion of the Earth upon the Seas, 
Which the Excepter quickly difpatches by the help of 
a Particle and a Figure, ^y 

The next he proceeds to, is, Pfd. 33.7. He gather^ 
eth the Waters of the Sea^ as in a Bagg : He Inyeth up 
the Abyfs in jiore-Hovfes. But, he fays, it fhould be 
render 'd, as(??z an heap : which is the Engli/Ij Tranllation. 
W^hether the Authorities produced, in this caie, by the 
Theorift, Eng, Theor. p. 117. or by the Excepter, are 
more confiderable, I leave the Reader to judge. But 
however, he cites another place, Pfal. 78. 13. where 
the lame word is us'd and apply'd to the Red-Sea, which 
could not be enclos'd as in a Bagg. Take whether 
Tranflation you pleafe for this fecond place ^ it is no 
prejudice to the Theory, if you render it on an heap: 
for it was a thing done by Miracle. But the other place 

B 4 fpeaks 

22 . e4i^ oAufwer to the Excefthns 

fpeaks of the ordinary pofture and conftitution of the 
Waters, which is not ca.a beap^ but in a level or fpheri- 
cal convexity with the reft of the Earth. ThisReafon 
the Animadverter was not pleas'd to take notice of, 
tho' it be intimated in that fame place of the Theory 
which he quotes, p. 86. But that w^hich I might com- 
plain of moft, is his unfair citation of the next Para- 
graph of the Theory, Excep. p. 140. which he applies 
peculiarly to this Text of PfaL 33. 7. whereas it be- 
longs to all the Texts alledg'd out of the Pfalms^ and 
is a modeft refieftion upon the explication of them. 
As the Reader may plainly fee, if he pleafe to look the 
Theory, and compare it with his citation. 

The next place he attacks, is, Job 26. 7. He ftr etches 
the North over the Tohu^ or, as w^e render it, over the 
empty places : and hangeth the Earth tipon nothing. 
Here he fays, p. 141. Joh did either accomodate himfelf 
to the vulgar, or elfe was a perfeft Tlatonift, Methinks 
Plato fhould rather be a Jobift y\xyo\x would have them 
to imitate one another. Then he makes an Objeflion, 
and anr\\'ers it himfelf: Concluding however, that Job 
could not but mean thisof the prefent Earth, becaufe 
in the next Verfe he mennons Clouds. But how does 
it appear, that every thing that Job mentions in that 
Chapter, refers to the lame time. 

The next place, is, Job 38. 4, 5, 6. Where rvafi thou 
when I laid the Foundatior.s of the Earthy &c. Thefe 
eloquentexpoftulations of the Almighty, he applies all 
to the prefent Form of the Earth : w^here he fays, there 
are the Emhujfwgs of Mountains^ the E.namellir.g of lejfer 
Seas^ the open-work of. the vaft Ocean j and the fret Work 
<?/ Rocks^ &'c. ; Thefc; make a great noife, but ihty 
might all be applv'd to the ruins of an old Bridge, 
fallen. into the Water. .Then he makes a large ha- 
rangue in commendation of Mountains and of the prefent 
Form of the Earth : w\nich, if you pleafe, you mav 
compare vyith the 10/^/7. Chap, of the Latin'Theory^ and 
then make your judgment upon both. 

But it is not enough for the Excepter to admire the 
beauty of iVloufitains, but he, p. 146. will make the 
T'heoriii to do To too, brCajfe he hath expreft himielf 
much ploafe'd with the* fight of them. Cm we be 
pleas'd wijhiii)thi.n2 iaan-ofejea,: but the.buauty of it? 

■ ■' ' ' : • doss 

made againft the Theory of the Earth, i j 

does not the Theorift fay there, in the very Words 
cited by the Excepter, S^^pe lociipfius l^folef^tiaG^ fpecla* 
culorum novltas dele tt at magis quam venKJias in rebus 
notls & comnmnwus. We are pUas'd in looking upoa 
the Ruins of z. Roman Amphitheater, or a Triumphal 
Arch, tho' time have defac'd its beauty. A man may 
be pleas'd in looking upon a Monfter, will you con* 
elude therefore that he takes it for a Beauty ? There ars 
many things in objecls, befides beauty, that may pleafe 
but he that hath not fenfe and judgment enough to fee 
the difference of thofe cafes, and whence the pleaCire^ 
arifes, it would be very tedious to beat it into him by 
multitude of Words. 

After his commendation of Mountains, he falls upon 
the commendation of Rain : making thofe Countries, 
that enjoy it, to be better water'd than by Rivers \ 
and confequently the prefent Earth better than that 
Paradifiacal Earth defcrib'd by the Theorift. And in 
this he fays, he follows the rule of Scripture, for thefe 
are his Words, p. 14S. And that thefe Rules wherehy 
we meafure the nfefuldejs of this Earthy and JJjowit to. be 
morc;CXcellent than that 0} the Theory ', are the moji true 
and proper Rules : is manifefi frctn God's snaking ufc of the 
fame^ in a cafe not unlike : For he comparing z^gypt and 
Falcjline^ prefers the later before the former \ becaufe 
in <t/£gypttheSted fovon was watered with the Foot, as 
a Garden of Herbs ^ but Palcjtine was a Land of Hills 
^nd Valleys, and drank Water of the Rain of Heaven, 
JJeut, II. 10, II. 

Let this reft a while: \n the mean time let us take 
rotice how unluckily it falls out tor the Obiervator, 
that a Country, that had no rain, (hould be compared 
in Scripture, or joyn'd in priviledge, with Paradife it 
felf, and the Garden of God. For fo is this very 
ty£gypt^Gen, 13. 10. tho' it had no rain, but was wa* 
ter'd by Rivers. The Words of Scripture are thefe, 
And Lot lifted up his eyes ^ and beheld all the plain of 
Jordan^ that it was well watered every where^ (before the 
J^ord dcftroyed Sodom and Gomorraha) even as the Gar" 
den of the Lord^ like the land of ^cypt. The Plain of 
y^/^^ti.;;? you fee is commended for its fruitfulnefs and 
being well watered : and as the height of its commen- 
cation, itiscomp.u'd with ^gypt^ and with the P^/rj- 


24 G^^ (Anfwer to the Exceptions 

dife of God. Now in ^L/£gypt we know there was 
kittle or no rain : and we read of none in Paradife : 
but they were both water'd by Rivers. Therefore 
the greateft commendation of a Land, for pleafure 
and fertility, according to Scripture, is its being well 
waterM with Rivers : which makes it like a Paradife. 
Surely then you cannot blame the Theorift, h/.viaf^ 
this Authority befides all other Reafons, for making 
the Paradifiacal Earth to have been thus water'd. 

Now let the Excepter confider how he will interpret 
and apply his place in Deuteronomy^ and make it con- 
fident with this in Genefis. Till 1 fee a better Inter- 
pretation, I like this very well, tho' quite contrary 
to his: Namely, That they were not to expe*.^ luch 3 
Land as ey^^j/pf , that was a Plain naturally fruitful, as 
being well water'd :, But the Lmd they were to poiTefs, 
depended upon the benedicl:ion of Heaven : And there- 
fore they might expeft more or lefs fertility, according 
as they kept God's Commandments. And ib much for 
thofe two texts of Scripture. 

^ Laftly, The Excepter p. 149. in the conclufion of 
his difcourfe about that place in Job^ makes a refieftion 
upon the impropriety of thofe exprefllons made in Joh^ 
about Foundations and Cornerfiones^ if they be apply'd 
to the firft Earth defcrib'd by the Theorift. But this 
feenls to me an Elegancy in that difcourfe, which he 
makes a fault: whether it be underftood as an Ailufioa 
only to our manner of building, by deep Foundations, 
and ftrong Corner-flones : Or an Ironical interrogation, 
as it feems to me *, implying, that there was no Foun- 
dation, (ftriftly fo call'd) nor Corner-ftone, in that 
great Work, tho' we cannot build a cottage or little 
bridge without fuch preparations. 

He proceeds then to the following Verfes in that 38^^ 
chap. Who Jhut vp the Sea with doors^ when it broke 
forth as if it had ifj'ued out of a Womb /* This the Theo- 
rift underftands of the Difruption of the yibyfs at the 
E)eluge, when the Sea broke forth out of the Womb of 
the Earth : or out of that fubterraneous Cavity, where 
it was enclofed as in a W^omb. 'Tis plainly imply 'd 
in the Words of the Text, That the Sea was (hut up in 
fome iVombj before it broke forth. I defire therefore 
to know in what IVomb that was. Yo\i will find Inters 

» preters 

made agahift the The or) oftheEhi^r h. 15 

preters much at a lofs to give a fair anfwer to that 
Qu'^ftioa: What was that enclos'd ftate of the Sea? 
and what place, or part of Nature, was that Receptacle 
where it lay s" But the Excepter hath found out a new 
anfwer. He (ays it was that IFomh of Non-entit/- 
Tnefe are his Words, It jyjl then (at its creation) 
giijhed out of the Womb of nothing^ into ex'ijle7jcc. This 
is a fubtle and far-fetcht notion. Methiriks the Womh 
of nothing^ is much what the fame as no Womb, And 
io this is no anfwer. Bat however let us confider how 
far it would fait this cafe, if it was admitted. If you 
uaderftand the Womb of Non- entity^ Gen, i. 2. the Sea 
broke out of that womb the firft day, and had no 
bars or doors fet toit, but flow'd over all the Earth 
without check or controul. Therefore that could not 
be the time or ftate here fpoken of. And to re- 
fer that reftraint, or thofe Bars and Doors, to ano- 
ther Time, which are fpoken of here in the fame 
verfe, would be very inexcufablein the Excepter: p. 150- 
Seeing he will not allow the Theorift to fuppofe thofe 
things that are fpoken of in diiTerent Verfes, to be un- 
derftood of different Times. To conclude, this Me- 
taphyfical notion of the PF(?/5^^ ofnothlrg^ is altogether 
impertinent, at leaft in this cafe : For the Text is plainly 
f^-jeaking of things Local and Corporeal, and this prifoa 
of the Sea m.uft be underftood as fuch. 

He proceeds now to the laft place aliedg'd, Frov. 2. 
27, 28. When he prepared the Heavens^ I was there : 
when he fet a compafs upon the face of the deep. The 
wordA-n which we render compafs^ he fays, fignifies 
no more than the rotundity or fpherical figure of the 
Abyfs. And fo the fenfe will run thus, When God fet 
a rotundity^ or fpherical figure^ upon the face of the Abyfs. 
But whereas the Word may as well fignifie a Sphere 
orO/Z', the Theorift thinks it more reafonable that it 
fhoiUd be fo tranflated : and fo the fentence would run 
thus, When God fet an Orb upon the Face of the Deep, 
And this Difcourfe of Solomons^ referring to the begin- 
ning of the World, he thinks it rational to underftand 
itot xhzfirfi habitable Farth: which was really an (9r^ 
fet over the Face of the Deep. 

One cannot fwear for the fignification of a Word 
in every particular place, where it occurs : but when 


25 qAh oAnfwer to the Exceplons 

there are two fenfes whereof it is capable, and the 
one is much more important than the other, it is a 
fair prefumption to take it in the more important fenfe •, 
elpecially in fuch a place, and upon fuch an occalion, 
where the great Works of the Divine Wifdom- and 
Power are celebrated: as they are here by Solomon, 
And it cannot be deny'd, that our fenfe of the Words 
is more important than the other : For of what confe- 
quence is it to Qy, God made the Body of the Abyfs round. 
Every one knows that Fluids of their own accord run 
into that figure. So as that w^ould be a fn^all remark 
upon a great occafion. 

The conftrudion of this Orb we fpeak of, minds me 
of an injuflice which the Excepter hath done the Theory, 
XQ. the precedent part of this Chapter, by a falfe accuCa- 
tion. For he (ays, the Theory makes t\\Q conftrudion 
of the firfl Earth to have been meerly Mechanical, At 
ieaft his words feem to fignifieas much, which are thefe, 
p. 1.43. Andfo its formation^ fpeaking of the firft Earth, 
had been meerly Alechanlcal^ as the Theory fitakes it. 
That the conftruclion was not m.eerly Mechanical, In 
the opinion of the Theorift, you may fee, E?jg, Thear, 
p, 88. which, becaufe we have cited it before, we will 
not here repeat. The Theorifl: might alfo complain' 
that the Excepter cites the firft Edition of the Theory 
for fuch things as are left out in tlie fecond : which yet 
was printed a twelvemoth before his Animadverfions, 
And therefore in fiirnefs he ought always to have con- 
fulted the laft Edition and laft knk of the Author, 
before he had cenfured him or his Work. But this" 
unfair Method, it feems, pleas'd his humour better : 
p. 81. p. 100, laft part, as you may fee in this Chapter, 
p, 154. p. 227, 228. p. 244. and in feveral other 
places^ where palTiges are cited and infifted upon, 
that are no where to be found in the fecond Edition. 
Npt to mention his defective citations-, omitting that 
p^rt that qualifies the fentence,, as p. 99. Lift citation, 
JV^d elfe-where. p. 279? 2S0. p. 288. 1 make this notQ 
t^at the Reader may judge, how well this anfwers that 
./f^t^nV;/, with which he profcft he would examine this 
Work. Only as a friend and fervant to Truth. And 
tperfore mith fuch Candour^ .Ale cknefs and ^ Modcfiy^ as 
Becomes one who. ajfumes a»dglori^i info fair aQjarac- 

made againft the Theory of the E a r t h. 2 7 

The reft of this Chapter is a general Cenfure of cita- 
tions out of Scripture, that are only Tropical or Figu- 
rative Scheams ot vSpeech. Thefemuft be made To in- 
deed, if our fenfe of them be not allow'd. But what 
necefiity is there of a figurative interpretation of all 
thefe Texts? The Rule we go by, and I think all good 
Interpreters, is this. That we are not to leave th^ 
literal fenfe, unlefs there be a neceflity from the fubje£l 
matter. And there is no fuch neceflity in this cafe, 
upon our Hypothefis : for it fuits with the literal fenfe. 
And 'tisto bes; the Qaeftion, to fay the literal fenfe is 
not to be admitted, becaufeit complies too much with 
the Theory. But as for that Text of his own, which 
he inftances in. The Pillars of the Earth Tremble^ th^t 
cannot be underftood (by the fame Rule) of Pillars lite'* 
rally •, becaufe there are no fuch Pillars of the Earthy 
upon any Hypothefis. 

Chap. VIIL 

THIS Chapter is concerning that grand property 
of the Antediluvian Earth, a perpetual Equinox^ 
or a Right pofirion to the Sun. This perpetual Equi- 
nox the Excepter wil! by no means admit. But I'm 
afraid he miftakes the notion : for as he explains it int 
the two firft Se<fl:ions of this Chapter, he f^emsto have 
a falfe Idea of the whole matter. He thinks, I perceive, 
that when the Earth chang'd its fituation, it was tran- 
fla ted from the Equator into the Ecliptick: and that 
before that change, in x\\q Antediluvian ftate, it mov'd 
direaiy under the iEqnator. For thefe are his words, 
p. 158. So that in her annual motion about the Surij 
namely, the Earth before that q\\2,w%q^ f})e was carried 
dircclly under the Equinox: ial: without any manner df 
obliquity in her fit e^ or declination towards either of the 
Trop'cks in her courfe \ And therefore could never cut 
the EqiiinoElial^ h P-^ffi''^^ (.^^ nowjbeisprefumedtodo) 
fiom one Trcpick to the other. By which words, yo« 
fee he imagins that the Earth mov'd perpetually under 
th.Q Equator, when it had a perpetual Equinox. And 
when ic came out of that ftate, into this wherein it is 
inow, it did not only change its pofition, and the 


28 a^^ Q,4?ifwer to the Exceptions 

poftureof its Axis, bat was alfo really tranflated from 
one part of the Heavens into another, namely, froni 
under the Equator to the Ecliptick, and To took ano- 
ther road in its annual courfe about the Sun. This is 
a great miflake : iVnd I cannot blame hiin, if he was To 
averfe to admit this change, feeing it lay fo crofs in his 
imagination. For what Pullies or Leavers fhould we 
employ to remove the Earth out of the Equator into 
]the Ecliptick? Archimedes pretended, if he had ground 
to plant his Engines upon, that he would mo^^e the 
Earth out ot its Place •, but that it^ was done before, 
I never knew, nor heard of: And if the Excepter had 
confider'd what is faid in the Theory upon that occafion, 
Lat. Theor, li, 2. c. 4. he might eafily have prevented 
his miftake. But we ihall meet with the fame Erroar 
again in another place •, Let us confider now what Ar- 
guments he ufes againft this change. 

He fays, p. 159. If there had been frich a change^ either 
Providence or Mankind would havepreferv'd the memo- 
ry of it. How far the memory of it hath been pre- 
ferv'd, we fhall fee hereafter. In the mean time, we 
will give him inftancesof other things to refie£l upon-, 
that are loft out of memory, unlefs he be the happy 
Man that fhall retrieve them. The Age of the World 
hath not been preferv'd, either by the memory of Man, 
or by the care of Providence. And was not that both 
a thing of importance, and of eafle pref^rv.ition ? 
Noah could not but know the Age of the World, for 
he was contemporary with (ive or fix Generations, that 
were contemporary with Adam, And knowing the 
Age of the World himfelf, he could not eafily for- 
bear, one would think, to tell it to his Sons and Po- 
fterity. But, to this day, we do not know what the 
true Age of the World is. There are three Bibles, if 
I may fo fay, or three Pernateuchs^ the Hebrew^ Sama' 
r/f.7?7, and Greek: which do all differ very confiderably 
in their Accounts, concerning the Age of the World : 
and the moft Learned men are not yet able to determine 
with certainty, which of the three accounts Is mofl 
authentick. Then, what think you of the Place of 
Paradife ? How well is the memory or knowledge of 
that preferv'd ? Could A^oah be ignorant of it : and was 
itnotafitSubi?£t todifcourfQof, andentertain hisSoQS 


made againft the Theory oftheE art h. 29 

and Nephews, and by them to communicate it to Po- 
flerity ? Yet we feek it ft ill in vain. Jhtjews were as 
much at a lofs as we are : p. 263, 264, 265. and the 
Chriftiau Fathers, you think, were out in their opinions, 
both about the place and conditions of it : neither da 
you venture to determine them your felf : fo that Para- 
dik is loft in a mann<ir out of the World. What won- 
der then if this fingle property of it be loft ? If the 
Excepter had wellconfider'a {Eng, Theor. p. 4C0, 40i.> 
what the Theorift has faid concerning the Providential 
condua of knowledge in the World, this doubt or ob-^ 
jeclion might have been fpar'd. 

After a long excurfion, little to the purpofe, but to 
fhow his reading : p. 166. He tells us next, that Scrip- 
ture does not favour this notion of a perpetual Equinox 
before the Flood: And cites G'f??. 8.22. which the Theo- 
rift had cited as a place that did fuggeft to us that vicif- 
fitude of Seafons that was eftablifti'd after the Flood. 
Tiie words indeed are not fo determinate in themfelves, 
but that they may be underftood, either of the^ reftau- 
ration of a former order in the Sea^^ns of the Year, or 
of the eftabliftiment of a new one. And in whether 
Ccnk they are to be taken, is to be determin'd by colla- 
teral Reafons and Confiderations. Such the Theorift 
had fetdovs^n, to make it probable, that they ought to 
be underftood as a Declaration of fuch an Order foii 
the Seafons of the Year, as was brought in at that time, 
and was to continue to the end of the World. The 
Excepter hath not thought fit to take notice of, or 
refute, thofe Reafons, and therefore they ftand good, 
as formerly. Befides, the Excepter muft remember 
that this Text ftands betwixt two remarkable PhxnQ- 
mena, the Longevity of the Antediluvians in the Old 
World, and the appearauce of the Rainbow in the 
New. Both which were marks of a different ftate of 
nature in the two Worlds. 

He further except?, p. i68. againft that perpetual 
E^^ainox before the Flood, for another Scripture-reafon : 
Fiz.. Becaufe the Earth was curft before that time, 
and confcquently, he fays, had not a perpetual Equinox. 
But if that curfc was fupernatural, it might have its 
eff-61: in any pofition of the Earth. For God can 
make a Land barren, if he thiiik fit, in fpl.e of tbe courfe 


^o eAn oAnfwer to the Exceptons 

of Nature, And fo he alfo mufi: fuppofe it to have 
been in this cafe. For, upon all fiippofirions, whether 
of a perpetual Equinox, or no, the' Earth is granted to 
have been very fruitful at firfl: : and fo would have con- 
tinued, if that curfe had not interven'd. 

Laftly, He mikes that an argument, p.idp. that the 
Air was cold and intemperate in i^iradife, and confe- 
quently no conftant Equinox, becaufe Adam and Eve 
made themfelves Aprons to cover their nahednefs. So, he 
confefTes, Interpreters generally underfland thatit was 
to cover their nahdnefs. But he wii! not allow that 
to be the true fenfe, but fays thofe Fig-leaves were to 
keep them w^irm. And the other Interpretation of 
covering their nakednefs^ he will not admit, for three 
reafons. Firfi, becaufe the Scripture, as he pretends, 
does not declare it fo. See, pray, Gen, 3.7. Secondlv^ 
What [hame^ fays he, need there have been betrrixt Huf- 
hand and Wife ? Thirdly, If it was modefty , when they 
were innocent^ they J/jould, have been more ?nadeji. Some 
arguments anfwer themfelves, and I do not think thefe' 
deferve a confutation. But, he {ays, p. 170. ho\vever 
God made them Coats of Skins afterwards, and that was 
to be a defence agalnfl cold. He mud tell us in wh:it 
Climate he fappofes Paradife to have Hood : and which 
way, and how far Adam and Eve were banifht from 
it. When thofe things ai*e determined, we fhall know 
what to judge of this argument, and of Coats of Skins. 
After Laftly^ I expelled no more : but he hath two 
or three reafons after the Laft, As rirft, he fays, p. 171. 
upon our Hypothecs, one Hemifphere of the Globe 
inufi: have been unpeopled : becaufe the Torrid Zone 
was unpafTdble. And was not the Ocean as unpaiTable, 
upon your Hypothefis? How got they into America ? 
and not only into America^ but into all the lOands of 
the Earth, that are remote from Continents. Will 
you not allow us one Miracle, for your many? I'm 
fure the Theorift never excluded the Mialftery of An- 
gels *, and They could as eafily carry them thorough 
the Torrid Zone, as over the Oceau. But Secondly, 
he {aysr There could be no Rains to make the Flood, 
if there wms a perpetual Equinox. Were not thofe 
F^ins, that made the Flood, extraordinary, and out of 
the courfe of Nature ? you would give one angry words 


made againfl the Theory of the Earth. 31 

that fhould deny it. Befides, the Flood-gates of Heaven 
were open'd when the Great Deep was broken up, 
(Gen. 7. II.) and no wonder the Difruption of the 
Earth fhould caufe feme extraordinary Commotions in 
the air: Eng, Theor. p. 135. and either comprefs the 
vapours, or flop their ufual courfe towards the 
Poles, and draw them down in Streams upon feveral 
parts of the Earth. But the Excepter fays, this could 
not be, becaufe thQ Theorift makes the Rains fall before 
the diiruption of the Abyfs. But he does not fuppofe 
the Catara^s of Heaven to have been open'd before, 
which made th^e grand Rains. And how unfairly that 
paflage of -the Theory is reprefented, we fhali fee here- 
after in the i^th chapter. 

Laftly, He concludes all with this remark : p. 176. 
That all forts of Authors have difputed, in what feafon 
of the Year the Deluge came, and in what feafon of the 
Year th^ World began : therefore they thought there 
were men diOerent Seafons of the Year. Thefc difputes, 
he coiifefTes, did mamfcjlly proceed from inadvertency^ 
or fomething worfe : Becaufe there could not be any one 
feafon throughout all the Eartli at once. He might have 
added, unlefs upon the fuppofition of the Theory, 
which makes an univerlal Equinox at that time. And 
why may not that have given occafion to the general 
belief, That the V/orld begun in the Spring ? and when 
the true reafon of the Tradition was loft, they fell into 
thofe impertinent queftionj. In what Seafon of the Tear 
the World began. Bun however, we do not depend upon 
the belief, either of tln^ Antients or the Moderns, as to 
the generality: for we know they had other notions 
of thefe things than what the Theory propofes •, other- 
wife it would have been a needlefs Work. But notwith- 
lianding the general error, that, Providence did pre- 
ferve fome Traditions and Teftimonies concerning that 
ancient Truth, we fhall fee in the next following dif- 

So much for Scripture and Reafons. He now com«s 
to examin Authorities : Namely fuch Teftimonies as 
are alledg'd by the Theorift, to (hew that there was a 
Tradition amongft the Antients, of a change that had 
been^ as to the pofition of the Earth : and consequently, 
as to the form and feafoas of the Year. The firft Tefti- 

C iiiony 

32 G/4;^ oAf/fwer to the Exceptions ' 

mony that he excepts againfl is, that of Diogeries and 
^nnaxagoras '^ who witnefs plainly, p. 177. That there 
had been an Inclination of the Earth, or a change of 
poflure, fince it was form'd and inhabited. Bat the 
Excepter fays they have not aflign'da true final caufe^ 
nor ilich as agrees with the Theory. The fecond 
Teftimonyis that of Empcdocles^ p. 178. which he ex- 
cepts againft, becauiehe hath not given a good Efficient 
Caufe of that change. The third witneis is Lencippus : 
Ctgainft whom he makes the fame exception, p. 179. 
that he does not afiign the Caufes a-righr. The fourth 
witnefs is Democritus : whom he p. 180 quarrels with 
upon t\\^ fame account. But is this a lair hearing of Wit- 
nefTes? Or are thefe jult and legal grounds of rejtcting 
their Teftimony, as to matter of Fa^l, becaufe they 
are unskilful in giving the caufes and reafons of that 
matter of Faft? That is not requir'd in witnefTes : 
and they are often impertinent when they attempt to do 
it. The Theorifl does not cite thefe Authors to learn 
of them the caufes, either Eixicient or Final, of that 
Inclinaticn^ or change of pofture in the Earth, but only 
matter of Fa61. To let you fee, that, according to 
their Tefiimony, there was a'Tradition in that Time, 
which they took for true, concerning a change made 
in the pollureof the Earth. And thiejs all we require 
from them. If you pretend to invalidate their Tefti- 
mony, becaufe they do not Philofophize well about 
that change : That's as if you (hould deny that there 
was fuch a War as the Feloporiefia?j War, becaufe the 
Hiflorian hath not alligned the true caufes and reafons 
of it. Or as if a Man fhouldgive you the Hiflory of 
a Comet, thatappear'd in fuch a Year, was of fuch a 
form, and took fuch a courfe in tat Heavens •, and 
you iliould deny there was any fuch Comet, becaufe 
th^ fame Author had not given a good account of the 
generation of that Comet, nor of l\\t Caufes of its 
For;r. and Motion. The Exceptions made againft the 
Teftimonies'of ih^k PhilofopheiS,.feem to me to be no 
kis iniudiLious. 

• After thefe Teflimooies, Fie p. 181. makes three or 
four Remarks or.R.efleftions upon them. But they all 
^oacerjs,, eiiherthe time of this Change, or the Caufes 
-*■•' T -lih s/^T . . of 

made ^galnfl the Theory of the Earth. 55 

of it. Neither of which the Theorift either engag'd 
or intended to prove from thefe WitneiTes. 

There is (lid one TefUmony behind, which the Ex- 
ceptor h:ith fepirated from the reft, that he might en- 
counter it fmgly. *Tis another pafTige from Anaxa^ 
goras^ which both notes this Inclination^ and the pofture 
of the Heavens and Earth before that Inclination. 
But here the Excepter quarrels, firft, with the word 
^QKotH^<oi\ beca«fe >^/«/7;"o_/7i«5j the Monk, would have it 
to be ^oAsf&Tf. but without "Cn.^ Authority of any Ma- 
luifcript: and, as Cvr/^z?//?/?,^ fays, male. Then, he fays, 
Aldohraudinns tran(Lites it ttirbulente^ but gives norea- 
fon for thit tranflition, in his Notes. Therefore he 
cannot relr in this, but in the third place, he gives 
another fcnfe to (?of cc .S-oaohcTw;. And if that will not 
pleafe you, he has flill a fourth Anfwer in referve. 
I do not like when a Man fhifrs Anfwers ^o often, 'tis 
a fign he has no great confidence in any one. But let 
lis have his Fourth Anfwer, *Tis thie, That Anaxagoras 
WMS a kind of heterodox Philofopher, and what he fays 
is not much to be heeded. Thefe are the words of the 
Excepter, p. 184. If this mil not fatisfie^ I have one 
thing 7nore to offer. Grant that hnd^'^^^orz.s JJwiild 7nean. 
that very Declination^ which the Theory would have hint, 
yet this truly would co'atribute little towards the Proof of 
the thing. For he was a Man as like to be Het.erodox : 
as like to broach and tnantain falfe a^nd groundlefs Opin- 
ions^ as any of the learned Antients. Had he made this 
Exception againft thisWitnefs at firft, it might have fav'd 
both himfelf and us a great deal of Pains. For we do 
allow, if you can prove a witnefs to ht perfona infamis 
tjr non compos mentis^ 'tis fufficient to invalidate his 

Bat this is a rude and groundlefs confute *, Shall that 
famous A'laxagoras^ that was calPd AtENS^ x,u,t l^ox^iVy 

of him, that there was not a more confiderable Man. 
amongft the A^ntients, for noblenefs of Mind and natu- 
ral Knowledge. I could bring the teftimonies of many 
antient ^Authors, and of many Chrlftian Fathers, t'o 
C 2 clear 

54 e/^^^ eAnfwer to the Exceptions 

clear his Reputation, and place it above Envy. 'Tis 
generally acknovvledg'd, that he firft introduc'd an in- 
telleftual principle, in the formation of t\\t Univerfe : 
todifpofe and order confas'd matter. And according- 
ly Eufcbius §iv€S him this fair chara<fler Pr'^p, Evan. I* 
lO. cult, p. 504. Col. Ir©- cTj) Tf^T®* tO»f^:ftj^5, Src. 
He firji r edified the dottrine cf Principles : For he did not 
only difcourfe about the jnatter or fuhjia?ice of the Vnlverfe^ 
as other Philofophers : but alfo of the caufe and prin- 
ciple ^f its motion. And the fame Author, in his 14^/7, 
Book, ch, 14. p, 750. repeats and enlarges this Cnar- 

I wonder the Excepter, of all Men, fhould lefTen 
the name of Anaxagorai, For, befides his Orthodoxy 
as to the intelle£lual World : He was one that eftab- 
lilh'd the notion of Fortices^ in liie Corpore:ii. As 
you may fee in Clem, Alexandrinus^ Strom, 2, p. 364. 
and in Plato's Phado. Phxd. p. 99. And tho' the Father^ 
and Socrates J (who never was a Friend to natural Phi- 
lofophy) both blame him for it, yet the Excepter, vvho 
isdefervedly pleas'd with that Syftem 01 Notices. .ought 
to have fhevv 'd him fome favour and efleem for ihQ fake 
of this doftrinj. Laflly, as to his moral temper ^ his con- 
tempt of the World, and his love of Contemplation *, 
you have many inflances of it in the fhovt ftory of his 
hif*^ In Laertitfs. And I fhall alwas remember that ex- 
cellent faying of his in Clem, Alexandri/ius.^ Strom, p. 416. 

That the end of Life is Contemplation "^ and that liberty., 
that accompanies it., or flowf from it. 

But we are not to imagine, that all the Opinions of 
the antient Philofophers, are truly conveyed or repre- 
fented to us. l^either can we in reafon or juftice be- 
lieve, that they could be guilty of fuch abfurd notions, 
as are fometimes fathered upon them. The Excepter 
inftances in an extravagant aflcrtion, (as the ftory is 
told to us) afcrib'd to Anaxagoras : of a fione that fell 
from the Sun. This cannot be literally true, nor literal- 
ly the opinion of A>jiaxagoras^ if he believ'd Fortice\ 
therefore methinks fo witty a Man as the Excepter, and 
fowell vers'd in the modern Philofophy, fhould rather 
intepret this of the Incruftation of a ftxc Star, and its 


made d^ainfl the Theory of the 'E A kt n. J5 

defc^^nt il!^o the IcA^er World : That a Star fell frcgii 
ihQ Ethercil Region?, and became an Opake and Ter- 
reiliial Bc'dv. Efpecially feeing Diogenes^* as he fays, 
fbppofes it ct Star. Some things were iEniginaticall/ 
rpor.en :\t firft: and fomo things afterwards fo much 
corrupted, in pafiing thorough unsi^iiful hands, that 
we fhuuld be very injurious to the memory of thofe 
great Men, if w^e fliould fuppofe every thing to have 
come ib crudely from them, as it is now delivcr'd to us. 
And as to this Philofopher in p.irricular *, \s x\\q lonick 
Phyfiology, in my opinion, was the moft confiderable 
amongft the Antlents:, fo there was none, of that or- 
der, more confiderable than Anaxagoras, Whom,tho* 
you fhould fuppofe extravagant, quoad hoe^ that would 
not invalidate his tefrimony in other things. 

Upon the whole jiiatter, let us now fum up the 
Evidence, and fc^e what it will amount to. Here are 
five or fix Teftimonies of confiderable Philofophers : 
^4-dnxagoras^ Diogenes^ Empedocles^ Deucippus and Demo- 
critus. To which he might have added ?/^f(7, both in 
his Pclltkiis and Ph^do^ Li, 2. c, lo.p. 274. if he had 
pleas'd to have lookt into the id Edition of the Latin 
Theory. Thefe Philofbphersdo all make mention of 
a change that hatli been in the pofture of the Earth and 
the Heavens. And tho* they differ in afTigning Caufes, 
or other Circumftances, yet they all agree as to matter 
of Faft : that there was fuch a thing, or, at leafl, a 
Tradition of fuch a thing. And this is all that the De- 
fendant defir'd or intended to prove from them, as 
witneffes in this caule. 

To thefe PhUofopheys^ he might have added the 
Teftimonies of the Poets^ who may be admitted 
as WitnefTes of a Tradition, though it be further 
queftioned, whether that Tradition be true or fal(e, 
Thefe Poets when they fpeak of a Golden u^ge^ 
or the Rei,sn of Saturti^ tell us of a perpetual 
Springy or a Year without change of Seafons. This 
is exprcfly f\id by Ovid^ f^er erat ^y^terfjum^ &c. 
And upon the expiration of the Golden Age, he 

C I Jupiter 

36 oAn oAnfwer to the Excerptions 

Jupiter Antiqiil comrtxlt ternpora Feris^ 

Terque Hyemcs^ a^Jiufquc^ & in^quales Autumnosl 

Et breve l^er^ fpuiiis exegit quatuor a?mum» 

Ovid liv'd in the Time of oar Saviour. And the Tra- 
dition, it feems, was then a foot, and very exprefs too. 
Tlaro^ who w^is much more Antient, bath faid the fdme 
thing, in his Politlcus^ concerning the Rclgn of Satuvri, 
And if we may have any regard to Afyhology^iy'id. 
Theor, Lat. li, 2. c 10. in fine.^ and mahe ^jafius the 
fame with Noah^ which is now an Opinion generally 
received .* That Power that is given him by the Antients, 
of changing Times and Seafons^ cannot be better expoun- 
ded, than by that grea.t change of Time, and of the 
Seafonsof the Year, that happen'din the Days of A^?^/;. 
Neither muft we count it a meer Fable, what is faid 
by ihe Antients, concerning the inhabitability of the 
Torrid Zo;?e : and yet that never w^as, if the Earth 
was never in any other poiiure, than what it is in 

Laftly, As the Philofophers and Poets are witneffes 
of this Tradition, fo m.any of the Chi:ifllan Fathers 
have given fucha Charader oi Paradife^ as cannot be 
underitood upon any other fuppofition, than of a Per- 
petual Equinox,' This Card. Beilermine ^ hath noted to 
our hands^ and alfo obferv'd, that there could not be 
a perpetual Equinox in the Countries of Ajia^ nor in- 
deed in any Topical P-aradife, (unleis it flood in x^a'i 
middle of the Torrid Zone) nlfi alius tunc fuerit cur jus 
folis.^ quamnu7iC efi \ uhlefs the courfe of the Sun^ or, 
which is all one, the poflufe'of the Earth, rvas other- 
wife at that Time than what it is now: which is a true 
obfervation. Tho. Jewijb Doiftors airo:,.a5 well as the 

^ * De Grat. print, bom. c. 12. 

"Accedit ad k'£:, quod Fciradifus hit defcrihituisln Tctiicto B.'-fi!io, in Li- 
hrdds^Paradifo', a Jpar.. DanicAccno , Ltho jic^nndoy de ^de, atpite 
undeamo^'^a Sar.Bo AugufciiJO Jihro decirm quarto de cizhate Dciy 
capit. ,10.:- Ah Alchimo^ Avito^ ^ Claud. Mario viciore, ^ aliis fupra 
citcttis.- Ifidoro lihro dscimo quarto Etym^log: capltc tertio, l£; <iiiis 
communiter \ ut fuerit in eo ver perpctuum^ nulla fr':g'>ra^ nulli ttduSy 
rMll£ pluvi£y nivesy grdndincs^ ?iul!£ ctiam nukes \ cjuod ipfiim ftgnificat 
fcr:y':',ira-- cum dicit primos bomiucs In Fsrudifj fi<'jje nudos. 

Ch rift Ian 

made againfi the Theory of the Earth. 37 

Chriftian, feem to go upon the fame fuppofition, when 
they place ParadiTe under the Equinoftial '^ See Eng, 
Thcor. p. 351. Becaufi rhey fuppos'd It certain, :is Aben 
.£c,rrt tells us, that thj Days and Nights were alwfys 
equal in Paradife. 

We have n(jw done with the examination of Wit- 
ncHes: Philofophers^ Poets^ J^tvs^ and Chrijilans, From 
all thefe we coIle(n:, That there was an Opinion, or 
Tradition, amon^ft: the Antients, of a change made in 
the ftate of the Natural World, as to the diverfity of 
S.^afons in the Year : And that this did arife from the 
change of the poflure of the Earth. Whether this 
Opinion, or this Tradition, was de jnre^ as well as de 
falto^ is a queftion of another Nature, that did not 
lie before us at prefent. But the thing that was only 
in debate in this Chapter, was matter of Fa(fl:, which 
I thinK we have fufficiently prov'd. 

lathe clofe of this Chapter, The Exccpter makes 
two Qieries : flillby way of obje^lion to the Ante- 
diluvian Equinox. The Firfl: is this, p. 185. Suppofwg 
an Equ'mox in the heginnhig of the IVorld^ would it 
Qri llkc'lyhoGd^ have continzLed to the Flood, If you grant 
t\\^ firil Part, I believe few will fcruple the fecond. 
For why Inould we fuppofe a change before there ap- 
pear any caufe for it. He fiys, the Waters might 
poilibly have wei2,'hd more towards one Pole, than 
towards another. Bat why the Waters more than the 
Air ? The Waters were not more rarified towards one 
Pole, than towards another, no mere than the Air : for which the Excepter, p. 180. had juuly blam'd 
Leucippus before. But however, fays He^ that Earth 
would be very unftable, becaufe, in procefs of Time, 
there would be an empty fpace betwixt the Exterior 
Region of t\\^ Earth, and the i^byfs below\ But that 
enipty fpace would be fill'd with fuch grofs Vapors, 
that it would be little purer than W^ater : and would 
{i'K\ to x]it Earth much clofer than its Atmofphere that 
is carried about with it. We have no reafon to change 
t\\t poflure of the Earth, till we fee fome antecedent 
change that may be a c.Lur:;of \l. And we fee not any, 
till tFie Earth broke. But then indeed, whetliei itspo- 
fliure depended barely upon its Equilibrium^ or upon 
its Magnetifme^ either, or both of them, when its parts 

C 4 \Yere 

'38 eAu oAnfwer to the Exceftiom 

were thrown into another fituation, might be changed." 
For the Parts of a ruine feldom lie in the fame libra- 
tion the Fabrick ftood in. And as to the Magnetifme 
o^the Earth, that would change, according as the 
Parts and Regions of the Earth chang'd their fitua- 

Th^fecond Query is this. Granting there was fuch 
an Equinox in the firft World, p. 187. Wovld not the 
natural World^ towards the later end of that World^ 
have been longer^ than in the former periods of the fame, " 
Suppofe this was true, which yet we have no reafon 
to believe, That the Days were longer tov^^ards the 
Flood, than towards the beginning of the World : 
why is this contrary to Scripture ? He tells you how, 
inthefe Words, p. 188. That the days ji-ffi before the 
Flood were of no unufual lengthy is evident in the 'very 
ftory of the Flood '^ the duration of which we find computed 
by Months^ confijiing of thirty Days apiece. Whereas 
had Days been grown longer^ fewer of them would havff 
wade a Month, This is a meer Paralogifme, or a 
iiieer Blunder. For if thirty Days were to go to a 
Month, whether the Days were longer or fnorter, there 
niuft be thirty of them *, and the Scripture does not 
determine the length of the Days. If thirty Circum- 
gyrations of the Earth makes a Month, whether thefe 
Circumgyrations are flow or fwift, thirty are flill thirty. 
But I fuppofe that which he would have (aid, and which 
he had confufedly in his Mind, w^as this, That the 
Month would have been longer at the Flood than it was 
before. Longer^ I fay, as to extent of Time, or dura- 
tion in general, but not as to number of Days. And 
you could not cut offa flip of one Day, and tack it to 
the next, through the intermediate Night, to make an 
abridgment for the whole. Therefore this objeftion is 
grounded upon a miftake, and ill reafoning, which is 
now fufficientlydetefted. 

C H A p. IX. 

THIS Chapter is ag:^inft the O-j^/ Figure of the fir Ji 
Farth: p. 189. which the Theoriil had afTerted, 
and grouded upon a general motion of the Waters, 

fore 'd 

made agahifl the The or j of the^k^r^. ^9 

forc'd from the Equino£lial Piirts towards the Polar. 
But before we proceed to his Objections againffc this Ex- 
plication, we muft rec^ifie one Principle. The Excep- 
ter feems to fuppofe, p. 190. that Terreftrial Bodies 
have a nitency inwards or downwards^ towards their 
Central point. Whereas the Theorift fuppofes, that 
all Bodies moving round, have, more or lefs, a nitenc/ 
from the Center of their Motion: and that 'tis by an 
external force that they are preft down, againfl their 
firft inclination or nitency. 

This being premis'd, we proceed to his Exceptions: 
where his firll: and grand quarrel is about the ufe of a 
word : whether the Motion of the Water from the 
middle of x}\q Earth towards the Poles, can be call'd 
defliixiis. Seeing thofe Polar Parts, in this fuppos'd 
cafe, were as high, or higher than the Equinociial. I 
think we do not fcruple to {xy^und<£defluimt ad litora: 
tho' the Shores be as high, or higher than the Surface of 
the Sea. For we often refpeft, as the Theorift did, 
t\\Q middle and thtfides^ in the ufe of that word : And 
fo, de fiuere e medio ad larera^ is no more than prolabl 
ad latera. But 'tis not worth the while to conteft about 
a w^ord. EfpecialJy feeing 'tis explan'd in the 2d. Edi- 
tion of the Theory, p. 186. by adding detrufione : but 
it would have fpoil'd all this pedantry, and all his little 
Triuir.phs, if he had taken notice of that explica- 

Wherefore fetting afide the wordj Let us confider 
his Reafons againft this motion of the Waters towards 
the Poles: which, he fays, could not be, becaufe it 
would have been an afcent, notadefcent. We allow 
and fuppofe that. But may not Waters afcend by 
force and detrufion : when it is the eafieft way they 
can take to free themfelves from that force, and per- 
fevere in their motion? And this is the cafe we are 
fpeaking to. They were impel I'd to afcend, or recede 
from the Center, and it was eafier for them to afcend 
laterally, than to afcend dire£>ly : upon an inclin'd 
plain, than upon a perpendicular one. Why then 
fhould we not fuppofe that they took that courfe ? Me- 
thinks the Obfervator, who feems to be much conver- 
{^nt in the Philofophy, might have conceived 
this detrufion of the Waters towards the i\>les by the 


40 cAn Q^^nfwer to the Exceptions 

refiftanceof the fuperambient Air, as well as their flow- 
ing towards, and upon the Shores, by zhQ preffure of the 
Air under the Moon. And if the Moon continued al- 
ways in the fame place, or over th^ middle of the Sea, 
that poftureof the Waters would be always the fame : 
though it be an afcent, both upon the Land and into 
the Rivers. And this, methinks, is neither contra- 
diction, nor abfurdity. Bat an Enemy, that is little 
us'd to Victory, makes a great noife upon a fmall ad- 

He proceeds now to (Viow, p. 195. that it was im- 
probable that the Figure of the firft Earth fhould be 
Oval, upon other confiderations. As firft, Becaufe of 
its pofition : which would be croi^s to the flream of the 
Air, that turns it ronnd, or carries it about the Sun. 
As a Ship, he fays, that fiands fide- ways againft a ftream, 
cannot fail. But if that Ship was to turn round upon 
her Axis, as a Mill-wheel, and as the Earth does, 
what pouure more likely to have fuch an effeCl, than 
to ftand crofs to the fl ream that turns it? And the 
ftream would take more hold of an oblong-Body, than 
of a round. Then, as to its annual courfe, which he 
mentions, that's nothing, but fo many Circumvolutions : 
for in turning^ round it is aifo progreflive, as a Cylin- 
der in rowling a Garden. And three-hundred fixty 
five Circumgyrations, compleat its annual courfe. So 
that this argument turns wholly againfl, him and 
does rather confirm the Oval Figure of the Earth. 

His Second Argument againft the Oval Figure of 
the Firft Earth, is the Spherical Figure of the preient 
Earth. And how does he prove that? Firft from Au- 
thorities , u4fiaximander^ Pythngorasj and Pcr?7ienide5 
thought fo. But how does he prove that their aflert- 
ing the Earth to be r<32/«(i, was not ment in oppofition 
to its being rialn: as t\\Q Epicureans^ and the Vulgar 
v;ould have it? That was the Queflion Socrates pro- 
mis'd himfelf to be refolved in hy Anaxagcras^ Plat, in 
Thdd. TOTS^^!' » y^ TThATeict '^r/p, t) ?-p^yyv?AU Whether 
the Earth was fiat or round. And 'tis likely the difpute 
was generally underft.oad in that fenfe. However the 
Theorift hath alledg'd many more Authorities than 
thefe, in Favour of ih^^ Oval Figute of the Earth. For 


made agdinfl the Theory of the E\rt h. 41 

befides Empedocles in particular-, and thofe whom Plu- 
tarch mentions in general, the Philolbphy oi Orpheus^ 
th'i Phc£}iician^ <iy£gyptian^ and Perfian Phllofophers did 
all compare the Earth to an Eig : with rerpe<^ to it? 
Oval external Form, as well as internal Composition. 
Thefe you may i'ee fully fetdown in r.\\Q Theory. Lat. 
7 heor. li. 2. c. 10. And it had beert fair in the Excepter to 
have txken fome notice of them, if he would contend 
in that way of Autiiorities. But he has thought fit 
rather to pafs them them over wholly in filence. 

His Reafons p. 197. to prove the figure of the prefent 
Earth to be Spherical and not Oval, are taken, firft, 
from the Conical figure, of th^ fhadow of the Earth, 
cafh upon the Moon. But that cannot make a differencey 
feB'ible to us at this difiance, whetlier the Body that 
call: the Shadow was axadly Spherical or Oval. Idis Se- 
cond reafon is from the place of the i'Vaters : which, 
he Gys, would all retire from the Poles to the Equator, 
if the Poler Parts were higher. But this has been an- 
fwer'd before. The fame caufe that drive the Waters 
thither, would make them keep there. As we fhould 
have a perpetual Flood, if the Moon was always in our 
Meridian. And whereas he fuggefis, that by this means 
the Sea Ihould be fliallowefi: under the Poles : which, 
he fays, is againft experience. We tell him jul't the 
contrary, That, according to our Hypothefis, the Sea 
ihould be deepeft towards the Poles *, which agrees with 
experience. That the Sea fhould be deepefi; under the 
Poles, if it was of an Oval form, p. 186. he may fee 
plainly by his own Scheme, or by the Theory Scheme : 
Theor, Lat. li, 2. c 5. So that if his obfervation be true, 
of an extraordinary depth of the Ocean in thofe parts, 
it confirms our fufpition, that the Sea continues ftill 
Oval. Laftly, he urges, p. 198. If this Earth was Oval, 
Navigation towards the Poles would be extremely diffi- 
cult, if not impofiible, becaufe upon anafcent. But if 
there be a continual draught of Waters from the Equa- 
tor towards tht Poles, this will balance the difficulty, 
and be equivaler^t to a gentle Tide, that carries Ships 
into the Mouth of a River, though upon a gradual 

Thus jnuch w^e have fnd in complacencv to the Ex- 
cepter. For the Theorill was not oblit^ d to fiy any 


42 \iAn oAnfwer to the Excepzons 

thing, in defence of the Oval Form of the prefent Earth,' 
feeing he had no where alTerted it. It not being pof- 
fible, as to what evidence we have ytt^ to determine 
in what order the Earth fell, and in what oofture the 
Ruins lay after their fall. But however, to fpeak my 
mind freely upon this occifion, lam inclinable to be- 
lieve, that the Earth is ftil! Oval or OMong. What 
things the Antitheorill: hath fu5gefte-{. -v?!! r^ot -- i^e -;ie 
Controverfie : nor, it may be, any natural Hi/lory, ror 
any of thofe Obfervations, that we have already. The 
Surface of the Sea lies more regular than that o^ (he 
Land, and therefore I fhould think, that Obfervations 
made there, would have the beft efFeft. I fhould par- 
ticularly recommend thefe two : Firft, that they would 
obferve toward the Poles, whether the Sun rife and fet, 
according to the Rules of a true Globe, or of a Body 
exa£lly Spherical. Secondly, That they ivould obferve 
whether the degrees of latitude are of equal extent in all 
t\iQ parts of a Meridian ^ that is, if the quantity of 
Sea or Land thatanfwers to a degree in the Heavens, 
be of equal extent towards the Equator as towards the 
Poles. Thefe two Obfervations would go the nearefl: 
of any, I know, to determine whether the figure of 
the Earth be truly Spherical or Oblong. 

Chap. X. 

THIS Chapter is concerning the Original Mountains^ 
and that they were before the Flood, or from the 
beginning. Which the Excepter endeavours to prove 
from Scripture : not diretlly, but becaufe mention is 
made of them in the fame places where the beginning 
of the Earth is mentioned, p. 29T, as Pfal. 90. i. 2. and 
Trov, 8. 25. therefore they muft be co-eval and contem- 
porary. We have, I think, noted before, that things 
are not always Synchronal that are mentinned together 
in Scripture. The Style of Scripture is not fo accurate, 
as not to fpeakof things in the fame pLue, that are to 
be referr'd to different times. Otherwife we nmfl: fup- 
pofe the deflruftioTi of Jervfdem^ and of the World^ to 
have been intended for the fame time: feeing our Sa- 
viour joyns them in the fame Difcourfe, (Matt, 24^.) 


made a^ainjl the Theory oftheEx^r h .' 4 5 

tvlthout any diftinc^ion of Time. Or with fuch a 
diftir ion, as rather fignifies an immediate fucceilion 
(yer 29.) than fo great adiflance as we now find to 
be l.twixt the deftru6lion of Jerufalem and the end of 
the World. Greater than that, betwixt the Beginning 
ana the Flood. So in the Prophets fometimes, in the 
fame Diicourfe, one part is to be referr'd to the firft 
coming of our Saviour, and another part to the fecond : 
Jja. 9. Oy'j.Jji.g. I, &:c. L-uk. i. 31, 32, 33. without 
making any diftiudion of Time, but what is to be §a- 
ther'd from the Senle. Neither is there any incongru- 
ity in the Senfe, or in the tenour of the Words, if 
thofe Exprellions ia the Pfalmift be referr'd to different 
times. God exift ed before the Aiountains were brought 
forth^ and th^ Earth and the World were made. This 
is certainly true, whether you take it of the fame or 
different times. And if you take it of different times, 
'tis a way of fpeaking we often ufe. As fuppofeaMaa 
fhoLiId fay concerning the Antiquity of Troy^ that it 
exilfcd before Rome and Cartha^p^ that does not necef- 
iarily imply, that Rome and Carthage were built at the 
fame time*, but only that Troy was before them both. 
And fo this of the Pfalmift may be very well thus 
exprefl, by a gradation from a lower Epocha to an 
higher. Then as for that place Prov. ch. 8. It would 
be very hard to reduce all thofe things that are mention- 
ed there, (from vt^. 22. to the 30.) to the fame time 
of exigence •, and there is no necellUy from the Words 
that they fliould be fo underflooJ. The Defign and in- 
tention of the Holy Ghoft is plain in both thefe places: 
In the one to fet out the Eternity of God, and in the 
other, of xli^ Logos m particular. And this is done by 
ihewing their pia^-exilfence to this Earth, and to all 
its greateft and molt remarkable Parts. 

He mentions alfo, p. 202. Deut. 33. 15. where the 
Hills ar^ call'd Lafilng^ and the Mountains Antlent. 
And therefore they were before the Flood. This is a 
hard confequence. The River Kijhon is call'd the an^ 
tient River, Judg. 5. zt. but I do not therefore think 
it n.^ceifary, that that Brook fhould have been before 
the Mood. Things m.y very well deferve that Char- 
a<iler of Lafiing or A'ntienty though they be of lefs an- 
tiquity than the Deli^ge. if one ihould lay the lajiing 


44 ®^^ oAufwer to the Exception 

Pyramids^ and antient BuhylGt?^ none could blanie tlis 
Expreliion, nor yet think tmat they were therefore from 
the beginning of the World. 

After thei'e Allegations from Scripture, p. 205. He 
defcends to a natural argument, taken from the Moun- 
tains in the Moon. Which, he fiys, are much higher 
than the Mountains upon the Earth: and therefore, 
feeing her Body islefs, they could not be made by a 
DifTolution of thatPlannet, as thefe of the Earth are 
laid to have been. Though we are not bound to anfwer 
for the jMountainsin the Moon, yet however, *tis eafie 
to fee that this is no good Argument. For, befides that 
the Orb there might be m.ore thick, all Ruins do not 
fall alike. They may fall Double, or in Ridges and 
Arches, or in fteep Piles, fome more than others, and 
fo ftand at a greater height. And we have rea Ton to 
believe that thofe in the Moon ftll otherwife than thofe 
of t'a^ Earth : becaufe we do not fee her turn round : 
nor can w^e ever get a fight of her back-frde, that 
we might better judge of the fhapes of her whole 

From this Natural Argument, p. 206. he proceeds 
to an Hiftorical Argument, t;iken from l\\QTalmudtfts 
and JofcphiL'. The Talmudlfls fay, that mmiy Giants 
fav'd themfelves from the blood upon Mount Sion, But 
this, the Excepter confelTes-, \s wholly fabulous, W'^hat 
need it then be mentioned as an argum.ent ? Then he 
fays, Jofeph us reports that;?;.t;7v favd themfelves from 
the Flood vpo'n the mountain Baris in Arfnenia. But 
this alfo, p. 207. he fays, is falfe in the grofs^ and a 
formal fiUion. Why then, fay I, is it brought in as 
an argument? Laftly, he quotes a Pa(I;\ge out of Flato^ 
v<:\\o fays, w^hen the Gods fijall drown the Earthy the 
Hcrdfmcn and Shepperds Jhall fave thcn:felves upon 
fountains. And this (;'6-W.) the Excepter calls a. piece of 
ponfus'd forgery. Why then, fay 1 ftill, is it alledg'd as 
an argument againft the Theory ? But however, fays 
th'd Excepter, thefe things argue that many thought 
there were mountains before the Flood. But did the 
Theorift ever deny that it v;as the vul-gar and common 
opinion? Therefore fuch Allegations as tlefe, may i>e 
d{ fome ufe to fnew reading, but of no efF^cf at all to 
confute the Theory. 


made againPc the Theory of the Earth. 45 

Yet the EMcepter is not content with thefe Stories, 
but he muft ne^ds add a fourth. Which, he fays, p. 208. 
is a plain intimation that there were Mountains in the 
beginning of the World. Take his own words for the 
flory and the application of it. / will only add that 
'Traditional flory which is told <?/ Adam , namely^ hom 
that after his fail ^ and when he repented of his Sin^ hd 
bewailed it for fever al hundred of Tear s^ upon the Moun- 
tains of India. Another plain intimation that THERE 
WERE MOVNTAINSm the beginning of the World. 
This is a plain intimation indeed, that thofe that made 
this Fable, thought there were Mountains then : but is 
it a Proof that there really was fo ? as you feem to infer. 
Does the Excepter really bilieve that Adam wander'd 
an hundred Years upon the Mountains of Tndial If the 
matter of faft be Icilfe, the fuppofition it proceeds upoa 
may as well be flilfe. And he does not fo much as cite 
an Author here, for the one or the other. 

We are now come to the main point, a new Hypo- 
X}:\t^\% concerning the original of Mountains^ which the 
Excepter p. 208, 209, 6cc. hath vouchfafed to make for 
OS. And in (hort, it is this. When the Waters were- 
drain'd off the Land, on the 3<^ day, while it was moift 
and full of Vapours, the Sun by his heat, made the 
Earth heave and rife up in many Places, which there- 
upon became Mountains. But left we miftake or mif^ 
reprefent the Author's fenfe, p. 209. we will give it in 
his own words. Now the Earth by this coiUuiion of the 
Waters into one place ^ being freed from the load and pr ef- 
fureofthem^andlaidopentothcSmr^ the rnoijiure with- 
ill J by the heat of his B earns ^ might quickly be turrid 
into Vapours. And thefe Vapours being jiill incrcafed 
by the continued rarifying warmth from above ^ at length 
they wanted fpace wherein to expand or dilate themfelves. 
yi ad at Lift not endnrrng the confinement they felt., by de^ 
grees heaved up the Earth above *, fomewhat after the 
inanner that leaven does Dovgh.^ when it is laid by afire ^' 
but much more forcibly and unevenly. And lifting it vp 
thusin numberlefs Places^ and infeveral Quantities^ and 
in various Eigurcs *, Mountains were ?nadc of all Shapes 
and Siz,es. Whole Origin and Properties, he lays, 
upon this Hypothefis, will be obvious^ or at leaji in* 
teili^ible^ to tbinkiifg and Pijilofophick Aiimk, 

• I mufl 

4^ oAn Q.4nfwer to the Excepions 

I mufi: confefsl am none of thofe Thlnkirjg and Fhi- 
lofophick Minds^ to whom this is either obvious or in- 
telligible. For there feem to me, to be a great many- 
palpable defensor overfi^hts in this new Hypothefis. 
Whereof this is one of the grofleft, that he fuppoles the 
Sun, by his heat, the 3^ Day to have raifed thele Moun- 
tains upon the Earth*, whereas the San was not created 
till the 4?/; Day, p. ^i.the ^th day was the jirji day of 
the Sun's exijience. So that it had this powerful eff^ci, 
it feems, one day before it came into Being. 

But fuppofe the Sun had then exifted : This is a pro- 
digious efFed for the Sun to perform, in fo (hort a 
time, and with fo little force. The greateft part of 
that Day WMS fpentin draining the Waters from off the 
Land. Which had a long v\My to go, from fome Inland 
Countries, to reach the Sea, or their comm.on re- 
ceptacle. And, he fays, p. 209. without an extraordi- 
nary power, perhaps they coidd not have been drained 
cf the Earth in one day. Let us then allow, at leaft, 
half a Day, for clearing the Ground •, fo the Sun might 
begin his work about Noon : And before Night, he had 
rais'dall the Mountains of one Hem.ifphere. It will re- 
quire a ftrong Philofophick Faith, to believe this could 
be all done by the action of the Sun, and in fo ihort a 
time. Befides, we muft confider, that the Sun, by 
Naon, had pail all the Eailern Countries, yet cover'd 
with Water, or not well drain'd : So that after they 
weredry'd, he could only look back upon them, with 
faint and declining Rays. Yet the Mountains of the 
Eaft are as great and confiderable as elfe-where. But 
there is ftill another great difficulty in the cafe, as to 
the Northern and Southern Mountains of the Earth : 
lor they lie quite oat of the road of the Sun : being 
far remov'd towards either Pole •, where, by reafon 
of his diftance and obliquity, his Beam shave little force. 
How would he heave up the Riphctan Mountains, thofe 
vaft heaps of Stone and Earth, that lie fo far to the 
North ? You fee what obfervations the Excepter hath 
made (p. 119, 120. J concerning the cold of thofe 
Countries: And it flills out very untowardly for this 
new Hypothefis, that the Northern Parts of the Earth, 
as Norway J Sweadland^ Ifeia?id^ Scythia^ Sar?nathia^ See, 
fhould be fuch Mountainous and Rocky Countries *, 


made again/} the Theory of the Earth. 47 

where he had before'd the Sun had fo little force. 
And, indeed, acc(.>r(iing to his Scheme, all the great 
Moant-iins of the Earth fhould have been under the 
Equator, or, at leaft:, betwixt the Tropicks. 

But to examine a little the manner and method of this 
great Action: and what kind of Bodies thefe new 
Mountains would be. Either the Sun drew up only 
the Surface and outward Skin of the Earth, asCupping- 
glafTes raife Bliflers. Or his Beams penetrated deep in- 
to the Earth, and heaved up the iabftance of it, as 
Moles caft up mole-hills. If you take the fir'ft method, 
thefe fuperficial Mountains would be nothing but fo 
many bagss of Wind : and not at all anfwerable to thofe 
huge maiTes of Earth and Stone, whereof our Moun- 
tains confift. And if you take the fecond Method, 
and fuppofe them pufht out of the folid Earth, and 
thrown up into the Air, imagine then how deep thefe 
Rays of the Sun muft have penetrated in a fev^ hours 
time, and what ftrength they mudhave had, to agitate 
the vapours to that degree, that they fhould be able to 
do fuch Prodigies as thefe. Several Mountains, upon 
a moderate computation, ar(? a mile high from tiie level 
of the Earth. So that it was neceflTvry that the beams 
of the Sun (hould penetrate, at leafl, a mile deep, in 
fo Ihort a time: and there loofen and rarefie the va- 
pours, and then tear up by the Roots vaft loads and 
extents of Ground, and heave them a mile high into 
the open air : and all this in lefs then half a day. Such 
things furely are beyond all imagination : and fo extra- 
vagant, that one cannot, in confcience, offer them lo 
the belief of a Man. Can we think that the Sun, who 
is two or three hours in licking up the Dew from the 
grafs, in a /VcTy morning : ihould be able, in asmmy 
jmore hours to fuck the Alps and Pyreuea/js out of the 
bowels of t'^Q Earth? And not to fpend all his force 
upon them neither. For he would have as much work 
in other Countries. Toraifeup Taurus^ for inflance, 
and Imausj and frozen Caucafus in Afia. And the 
mighty Adas and the Mount ains of the Aloonxn Africk. 
B.Tides the Afidesiw America^ which, they fay, far ex- 
ceed all the Mountains of our Continent. One would 
be apt to think, th\t this Gentleman never fre the Face 
of a Mountaiaous Country. For he writes of them, 

D as 

48 oAn (^if'ifwer to the Exceptions 

as if he had taken his Idea of Mountains, and the great 
Ridges of Mountains, upon the Earth, from the Devil's 
Ditch^^na Hog?nagog Hills, And he raifes them fader 
than Mufhromes, out oi^ the Ground. If the New-born 
Sun, at his hrft appearance, could make fuch great 
havock, and fo great changes, upon the Face of the 
Earth, what hath he been doing ever fince ? we never 
heard, nor read, of a Mountain, fmc^ the memory of 
Man, rais'd by l\\c Heat of the Sun. We may there- 
fore enquire in the laft place. 

Why have we no Mountains made now by the fame 
caufes? We have no reafon to believe, that the heat or 
ftrength of the Sun is leflen'd fmce that time, why 
then does it not produce like effects? But I imagine 
he hath an anfwer for this. Namely, that the moifture 
of thefirfl Earth, when it was new-drain'd and marfh.y, 
contributed much to this effeft : which now its drynefs 
hinders. But befides, that the drynefs of the Earth 
Ihould rather give an advantage, by the colled^ion of 
Vapours v;ilhin its Cavities : However, w^e might ex- 
peft, according to this reafon, that all our drain'd Fenns 
and marfhy Grounds, Ihould prefently be rais'd into 
Mountains. Whereas we fee them all to continue 
arrand Plains, as they were before. But if you think 
thefe are too little fpots of ground to receive a flrong 
influence from the Sun, take ^^gypt for an Inllance. 
That's capacious enough, and 'tis overflow'd every 
Year, and by that means made foft and moift to your 
mind, as the new Earth when it rile from under the 
Abyfs. Why then is not s^^^j//?^ converted into Moun- 
tains, after the inundation and retirement of Nile ? 
I do not fee any qualification aw^anting according to the 
Excepter's Kypothefis : z/£gypt hath a moift Soil and 
a ftrong Sun ^ much (Ironger than the jilps or Pyre- 
tieanshsiVQ : and yet it continues one of the plained: 
Countries upon the Earth. But there is ftill a greater 
inftance behind againfl this Hypothecs, than any of the 
former : And th.\t is, of the whole Earth after the 
Deluge : when it had been overflow'd a fecond time by 
the Abyfs ^ upon the retirement of thoie Waters it 
would be much what in the fame condition as to moi- 
fture, that it was in the ^d Day, when it firft became 
dry Land. Why then Ihould not the Hime effedl follow 


made agalnjl the Theory of the Earth. 49 

again, by the heat of the Sun : And as many new 
Mountains be rais'd upon this fecond draining of the 
Earth, as upon the firll? Thefe are plain and obvious 
Inftances, and as plainly unanfwerable. And the whole 
Hypothefis which this Vertuofo hath proposed concern- 
ing the Origin of Mountains, is fuch an heap of In- 
credibilities, and things inconiiftent one with another, 
that Vm afraid I (ball be thought to have fpent too much 
time in confutation of it. 

In the conclufion of this Chapter, p. 215. he hath an 
attempt to prove that there were Mountains before the 
Flood, bee ail fe there were Metals '. which are common- 
ly found about the Roots of Mountains. But the 
Theorift, he fays, to JJjun this great Inconvenience ^fairly 
confents to the ahoiijhing of Metals out of the firft flate 
of Nature, Yet he's hard put to it, to prove that the 
Theorift hath any where afTerted, whatfoever he 
thought, that there were no Metals then. The firft 
Citation he produces, only recites the Opinion of others, 
and fays, p. 216. he thinks they do not want their rea- 
fons. Of the two other Citations out of the Preface, 
the firft does not reach home, making no mention o\ 
Metals. And the Second is wholly mifconftrued, and 
perverted to a Senfe quite contrary to what the Au- 
thor intended, or the Context will bear. But however 
t\iQ Theorift appears doubtful, whether there were 
Metals, or no^ in the firft World : and upon this doubt 
the Excepter lays this heavy charge, p. zi^.li. 24. Thus 
the fidelity of Mofes is affaultsd^ and another intolera- 
hie affront put vpon the HOLT GHOST. For^ do not 
both inforfnus^ that the Chy Enoch was built^ and tht 
Ark prepared before the Flood ? But how could either 
be done without Iron-tools i But does either Mcfes^ or 
the Holy Ghoft tell us, that there were Iron-tools, in 
building that City, or the Ark? If they do not, w^e 
only affront the Confequence, which the Excepter draws 
from the Words, and not the Authors of them. By 
what divine athority does the Animadverter afTert, 
that there wms Iron, or Iron- tools, in building this 
City, or that Ark? I'm fure Scripture does not men- 
tion either, upon thofe Occafions. And feeing it 
mentions only Gopher Wood and Pitch for the building 
of the Ark, Gen. 6. 14. 'tis a prefumption rather, that 
D 2 there 

5o (An (^ififwer to the Exceptions 

there were no other Materials us'd. And as to tht City, 
'tis true, if he fancy the City which EnocPj built, to 
have been like P^m, o^x: London^ he has reafon to ima- 
gine, that they had Iron-tools to makeir. But fuppofe 
it was a number oi Cottages, made of Branches of 
Trees, of Ofisrsand Balrulhes, (and what needed they 
any other Houfe, when the Air was fo tem.perate) 
or, if you wili, '^'of Mud-walls, and a Roof of Straw : 
with a Fence about it to keep out Beads : there would 
be no fuch necefiity of Iron-tools. Confider, pray, 
how long the World was without knowing the ufe of 
Iron, in feveral Parts of it, as in the North, and in 
America : and yet they bad Houfes and Cities after 
their Fafhion. For the Northern Countries you may 
fee Olaus Magnus. It. iz.c. 13. For America^ Pet, Mar- 
tyr, Dec. I. But the Excepter will fave you your Pains, 
as to the Indians^^ox he fays himfelf, p. 250. in another 
Place, that they had no Inflruments of Iron, when 
the Spaniards came amongft them. And if in thofe late 
Ages of the World, they were ftill without the ufe 
of Iron, or Iron-tools, we have lefs reafon t(> believe 
that the Children of Cain had them four or five thoufand 
years before. 

It is alio worthy our Confiieration, how many things 
muft have been done, before they could come at thefe 
Iron tools. How came the Children of Cain to dig in- 
to the Earth, I know not to what depth, to feek for 
a Thing they had never heard of before ? when it was 
fodifficult to dig into the Earth without fuch Tools: 
more diificult, methinks, than to build an Houfe with- 
out them. But fuppofe they did this, we know not 
how *, and, amongft many other Stones, or Earths, 
found that which we call Iron-ore : How did they 
know the Nature and u'e of it? Or, if they guefs'd 
at that, how did they know the Way and Manner of 
pre paring it? By Furnaces, Wind-Forges, andSmelt- 

* Ter ludihrium rogant nafut'i homines^ unde Archite^os Isf Op'ifices 
coiiduxerit Cam ad urhem extruendam • Nos vicijfim ah lUis qiisrimus^ 
auo author e credant Urhem ex quadratis lapldibu^ fuijfj extruSam : Isf 
mJgno artifirio multifjue fumptihus^ i? Inngi temporis opera ^ Jidificimn 
h'tC Conflitijfj. t^:bil enim ahui coUigere licet ex verbis Mofif^ quam 
muros ex rudi materU} Cainfibi l^ pojicris circundedijf^, Cal. in loc. 

made ag^infi the Theory of the Earth. 51 

ing Mills. Thefe would bj as hard to m.ike or bnlld, 
witiiout Iron-rools, as dwelling Houfes. And when 
they hid got a Lump of Iron, till they knew how to 
Temper it, they could not imke Tools of it ftill. 
Ualcfs Cains Children had an Infpiration from Heaven, 
I do not fee how they could difcover all thefe Things, 
in fo fhort a Time. And this is only to make good 
what the Theorill: faid, that furh an Hyporhcjfis does 
not vpntit its Reafcns, And as to Tuhal-Cnin^ let thofe 
that pofiti^ely aff^rt that there was no Iron in the Firfl 
World, tell us in what fenfe that Place is to be under- 
ftood. For, I believe. Iron or Brafs is not once men- 
tion'd in all the Theory. 

Chap. XI. 

THIS Chapter is to prove that the Sea was open 
before the Deluge. 'Tis fomething barren of 
Philofophical arguments, but ^ve will begin with fuch 
as it has, which are taken from this Topick, That the 
Fijhes could not live in our Ahyfs : p. 224 and that for 
three Reafons. Firfl:, Becaufe it was too dark. zdly. Too 
clofe, and 3^/y. Too cold. As for coldnefs, methinks 
he might have left that out, onlefs he fuppofe that there 
are no Fiili in the frozen Seas, towards the North and 
South •, which is againft all Senfe and Experience : for 
cold Countries abound moll: in Fifh. And according 
to reafon, there would be more danger of too much 
warmth, in thofe fubterraneous Waters, than of too 
much cold, in refpeft of the Fifhes, 

Then as to darknefs and cloG-nefs, this minds me 
of the faying of Aiaimonidcs : That no man ever would 
believe, that a Child could live fo many Months, fhut 
up in its Mothers Belly, if he never had ktw the expe- 
rience of it. There's clofenefs and darknefs in the 
higheft degree : and in Animals, that, as foon as born, 
cannot live without refpiration. Whereas Fifhes, of 
all Creatures, have the leaft need of Refpiration, if laty 
have any, h\-\<\?iSior darknefs^ how many fubterrane- 
ous Lakes have we ftill, wherein Fifhes live ? And we 
can fcarce fuppofe the Main and tathomlefs Ocean to 
have Light to the bottom : at leaft when it is troubled or 

D 3 tern- 

5 2 e4;/ oAf/fwer to the Exceptions 

tempeftuous. How the Eyes of Fifh are, or might 
t>e, form'd or conform'd, we cannot telK but we fee 
they feed and prey on the Night Time, and take Baits 
as greedily as on the Day. But it is likely they were 
lefsa^live and agile in that Abyfs, than they are now *, 
Their Life was more fluggifh then, and their Motions 
more flow, 7<?^ 38. 8. As being ftill in that wo7nb of 
Nature that was broke up at tht Deluge. And as to 
Air, they would have enough for their imperfe£l way 
of breathing in that ftate. But if they have a more per- 
fe£l now, which is ftill a queftion : They might have 
fome pafTiges, in their Body, open'd, (at the difrup- 
tion of the Abyfs) when they were born into the Light 
and free Air, which were not open'd before. As we fee 
in Infants, upon their Birth, a new paffage is made into 
their Lungs, and anew circulation of the Blood, which 
before took another courfe. 

So much for pretended Reafons and Philofophy. The 
reft of this long Chapter is fpent either in confequences 
made from Scripture, or in a prolix difcourfe about 
Rain. As to Scripture, p. 219, 220. He makes this the 
firft obje<flion, that, whereas Adam had a dominion 
given him over the fiHi of the Sea, it could hive no effe<f^, 
if they were inclofed in the Abyfs. Adam had no 
more dominion given him over the Fifh of the Sea, 
than over the Fowls of the Air: which he could not 
come at, or feize at his Pleafure, unlefs he could fly into 
X}[it Air after them. Adam was made Lord of all Ani- 
mals upon this Earth, and had a right to ufe them for 
his conveniency, when they came into his Power. But 
I do not believe that Adam was made ftronger than a 
Lyon, nor could Mafter the Leviathan, or command 
him to the fhore. He had a Right however, and his 
pofterity, to difpofe of all Creatures for their ufe and 
fervice, whenfoever, upon occafion offered, they fell in- 
to their Power. 

Next he fays, p. 225, 226. The Waters were gather'd 
into one Place, and a Firmament was made to divide 
the Waters from the Waters. Well, allow this, tell 
us then what was that Firmament. For it is (aid there, 
Cen. I. 17. that God fet the Sun, Moon, and Stars, in 
the Firmament. Therefore you can argue nothing from 
this, unlefs you_ fuppofe Saperceleilial Waters: which, 


made againfi the Theory oftheEk-^Tn. 5 j 

when you have prov'd, we will give you an account of 
the Subceleftial, and of the Subterranous. And here 
the Excepter cites fome things from the Theory, that 
are not in the fccond Edition, and therefore the Theo- 
ri/l is not concern'd to anfwer them. 

Laflly, The Excepter comes to his long Harangue in 
commendation of the Clouds and of Rain : which takes 
up a great part of this Chapter. In his Exordium he 
makes this compliment to the Clouds, p. 234. Some- 
times they mount up rjjd fly aloft ^ as if they forgather dif- 
daln the meannefs of their Origin. Sometimes again they 
fink andjioopfo low^ as if they repented of their former 
proud afplrlngs^ and did remorfeful humble penance for 
their high prefumpt Ion. And though I may not fay they 
weep to expiate their arrogance^ or kifs the Earth with be- 
dewed Cheeks In token of their penitence '^ yet they often 
projirate In thedufl^ and fweep the lowcji Grounds of all^ 
with their mlfty foggy trains. One while they^ dec. 
This Harangue about the Clouds and Rain, is purfued 
for fourteen or fifteen Pages, and with fubmiffion to 
better judgments, I take it to be a Country-Sermon, 
about the ufefulnefs of Rain. And, I believe, whofoever 
reads it, will, both from its matter and form, be of the 
fime opinion. I do not fpeak this in derogation to his 
Sermon, but he would have done better, methinks, 
to have printed it in a Pamphlet by it felf-, there being 
no occafion for it in this Theory. 

Towards the conclufion of the Chapter, p. 246, 
He anfwers an obje<flion made by the Theorifl againft 
the fuppofed Illands and Continents in the Firfl Earth. 
Namely, T/j.^/- it would render the propagation of Man- 
hind difficulty into thofe broken Parts of the Worlds 
And the many imperfect fhifting Anfwers which 
the Excepter gives, or con)e<flures without authori- 
ty, do but confirm the obje^lion of the Theorifl, 
or make his Words true, quod Res e(fet difficilis ex- 
plicatu. Which is all that the Theorifl: {aid upon that 

D 4 Chap. 

54 G/^^ oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

Chap. XII. 

THIS is a fliort Cfiipter, and will be foon difpatcli'd. 
'Tis to prove that the Rainbow was before the Flood, 
And notvvithftanding that, a good fign that there fhoiild 
never be a Flood again. This is to me a Paradox, 
but he confirms it by a greater Paradox : for he fays, 
God might as well (as to fignificancy, or aiithentical- 
tiefs) have appointed the Sun^ as the Rainbow^ for ctfign 
that there never JJjould have been another Flood. So 
that if God had faid to Noah^ I do affure thee there 
fhall never be a fecond Deluge, and for a fign of this. 
Behold I fet the Sun in the Firmament : This would have 
done as well, he fays, as the Rainbow. That is, in my 
judgment, it would have done nothing at all, more^ 
than the bare promife. And if it had done no more 
than the bare promife, it was faperfluous. Therefore 
if the Rainbow was no more than the Sun would have 
been, it was a fuperfluous fign. They to whom thefe 
twofjgns are of equal fignificancy and effefl, lye with- 
out the reach of all convi<^ion, and I am very willing 
to indulge them in their own Opinions. 

But he Hiys, p. 257. God fometimes has made things 
to be fign s^ that are common and vfuaL Thvs the fruit of 
a Tree grorveth in Paradife^ was made a fign of Adans Im- 
mortality. But how^ does it appear that this was acommoa 
Tree : or that it wms given to Adam as a fign that he 
Ihould be Immortal? neither of thefe appear from 
Scripture. Secondly, he fays, 2 Kings 13. ij. Shooting 
with Bow and Arrows vpon the Ground^ was made a fign 
to Joafh of his prevailifig againjl the Syrians. This was 
only a command to make War againfl Syria^ and a Pro- 
phecy of Succefs •, both deliver'd in a Symbolical or 
Hieroglyphical Way. The command was fignified by 
bidding the King (hoot an Arrow, which was the fign 
of War. And the fign of Vidory or of divine A(rifi:ance, 
was the Prophets fl:rengthening the King's Hands to 
draw the Bow. This is nothing as to a fign siven in 
Nature, or from the Natural World, in confirmation 
of a Divine Promife : which is the Thing we are only 


made againfl the Theory of the Ea-rth. 55 

All the reft of this Chapter is lax difcourfe without 
proof. And as to the fignificancy of the Rainbow, upon 
(nppontion that it was a New Appearance : And its 
irifiG^nificancy upon fuppofition that it was an Old Ap- 
pearance, we have fpoken fo fully in the Theory it ftlf, 
Enr. Theor^ book 2. ch. 5. that it would be need- 
lefs here to nuke any longer ftay upon this argu- 

Chap. XIIL 

THIS Chapter is concerning Taradife yBxxt our 
Author fairly baulks all the Difficulties in that" 
Doifl-rine, and contents himfelf with a few Generals, 
which every body knows. The Doctrine of Paradife 
confifts chiefly of two Parts ;, the Site or Place of it : 
and the ftate or properties of it. As to the firft, If 
the Excepter wou'd have confuted the Theory, he 
fhould have fet down the Conclufions that are advanc'd 
by the Theory, (^Erig, Theor. Book 2. c. 7.) concerning 
the place of Paradife, which are thefe *, Firft, The place 
of Paradife cannot be determin'd by Scripture only. Nei- 
ther the Word Mekeddetn^ (Gen. 2. 8.) nor the four Ri- 
vers mentioned there, make the Place of it defineable. Se- 
condly, The Place of Paradife cannot be determin'd by the 
Theory. Seeing then neither Scripture, nor Reafon deter- 
mine the Placeof Paradife, if we will determine it, it mufl 
be by Antiquity. And if we appeal to Antiquity in this 
cafe,yve (li^l! find,tirft, that it was not in Mefopotamia, 
Secondly, That according to the plurality of Votes, 
both amongft the Heathen and Chriftian Authors, it 
was plac'd in the other Hemifphere. And this is all 
the Theory fays upon that Point. As you may fee 
Eng. Theor. Book 2' ch. 7. and Lat. Theor. zd. Edit, p, 
194. & p. 214, 215. Wherefore if the Animadverter 
would undertake to confute the Theory in thib Poiat, 
he fhould have confuted thofe four Particulars. But he 
flips over thefe, p. 265. and gives us only a Paraphrafe 
upon fome V'erfes in the zd and ^dChipters of Gcnefn 
which fiys little to this purpofe, and yet more than it 


'^6 eAn oAnfwer to the E^cepions 

In the Second Place, As to the ftate and properties of 
Paradife, or the Antediluvian World \ The Longevity 
of the Antediluvians is the Thing he infidsupon. But 
this he handles To loofely, p. 275. that in the conclufion 
of his Difcourfe, one cannot tell whether he affirms it, 
or denies it. This Sceptical humour of the Excepter 
hath been taken notice of before, and 'tis continued 
in this Chapter, where there is little or nothing pofitive* 
\y determin'd. The Theorift, on the contrary, exprefly 
affirms the Longevity of the Antediluvians, and gives 
thefeReafons for his afTertion. Firft, Becaufe all the 
Lives, and all the Generations recorded in Scripture, 
before the Flood, from Father to Son, in a Line of 
fixteen-hundred years, are longeval. Of fix, feven, 
eight, nine hundred years a-piece. Secondly, Anti- 
quity, both Greek and Barbarian^ have attefted the fame 
Thing, and recorded the Tradition, See the Table of 
both. Thirdly, The Generations recorded in Scripture 
after the Flood, as they exceed the term of fucceedi-ng 
Ages, Eng, Theor. p. 304. fo they decline by degrees 
from the Antediluvian Longevity. Laftly, Jacob 
complains of the fhortnefs of his Life, and few- 
nefs of his Days, in comparifon of his Forefathers, 
whenhe had liv'd one hundred and thirty years ^ Gen. 
47. 9. which had been a groundlefs complaint, if hib 
Anceftors had not lived much longer. 

Thefe two laft Reafons the Excepter has not thought 
fit to take notice of. And, in anfwer to the two former, 
be hath only the ufual fubterfuges. As, that the long lives 
of the Antediluvian Patriarchs was a thing extraordi- 
nary and providential : confin'd to their Perfons *, not 
of a general extent, nor according to the courfe of Na- 
ture. But how does this appear ? It muft be made out, 
either by Scripture or Reafon. Scripture makes no di- 
flin£lion, nor exception of Perfons in this cafe ;, AH, 
whereof it hath left any account, as to term of Life, 
are declar'd to have liv'd feveral hundreds of years. 
And why fhould we not conclude the fame Thing con- 
cerning the reft ? Then as to Reafon, you cannot fup- 
pofe Longevity, in that World, againft Reafon or Na- 
ture, unlefs you firft fuppofe the form and conftitution 
of that World to have been the fame v^^ith the prefent : 
Which is to beg the Qfiefiion. Admitting that form 


made agalnfi the Theory oftheEh^ru. 57 

and conftitution of thefirft Heavens and Earth, which 
the Theory hath given, Longevity will be a natural 
confequence of it. Theor.ho. 2. ch ^^&/^th. And ha- 
ving fuch a courfe of Nature laid before us, as agrees 
with the reports of Scripture, and with general Tra- 
dition, why fhould we quit that, to comply with an 
imaginary prefumption : that thefe were miraculoufl/ 
preferv'd, and all the reft were fhort-liv'd. I know he 
pretends, p. 277. we may as well conclude all Men were 
Gyantsin thoie Day^, becaufe Aiofes fays, There were 
Gyants upon the Earth in thofe Days^ Gen. 6. 4. as con- 
clude that all Men were long-liv'd in thofe Days, be- 
cauf^i A^ofes mentions fome that were fo. There had 
been fome pretence for this, if Mofes had made a di- 
flinftion of two races of Men in the firft World : 
Long-livers and Short-livers •, as he hath diftinguifht the 
Gyant from the common race of Mankind. Or, as he 
hath faid in one cafe. There were Gyants one the Earth 
in thofe Days. So if he had faid in the other, There 
were Long-livers upon the Earth in thofe Days : and upon 
that, had given us a Lift of the Long-liv'd Patriarchs: 
this indeed would have made the cafes pretty parallel. 
But, on the contrary, Alofes makes no fuch diftinrtion 
of long-living and ftiort-living races, before the Flood ^ 
nor yet notes it as a mark of divine favour, or extra- 
ordinary benediction upon thofe Perfons that liv'd {<y 
long. Therefore, not to fuppofe it general to iMankind 
at that Time, is a groundlefs reftriftion, which is neither 
founded upon Scripture nor Reafon. 

As to the fecond Argument for Antediluvian longe- 
vity, taken from Tradition and the Teftimony of the 
Antients;, He objefts, p. 276, 277. that Jofephus does 
not feem to be firm in that opinion himfelf. But what 
then ? The Theorift lays no ftrefs upon Jofephus's fingle 
opinion, but refers to the Teftimonies of thofe Authors, 
whether: Greeks^ or fuch as have given an account of the 
ey£gyptian^ Chaldean^ and Vhcenician Antiquities : which 
are call'd in by Jofephus^ aswitneftes oF this Truth or 
Tradition, concerning the long lives of the firft Men. 
And at laft, the Excepter feems content, this Tradition 
fhould be admitted : p. 278. feeing the Authors are too 
rnany^ or too corfidcrahle^ to have their TeftijTwnies qve- 
jiiGnd or rejc^cd. But then he will make a further 


58 (An (Anfwer to the Exceptions 

Qiieftion, Why there fbonld not alfo be a Tradition 
concerning the Perpetual Equinox^ or Perpetual Springy 
upon which this Longevity depended. But this queftion 
is fully anfwer'd, and the Tradition fully made oat be- 
fore, in the ^tb Chapter, which I need not here repeat. 
In like manner, all the fecondary Qieftions which he 
there mentions, depending upon, and being included in 
tliis firft, receive their refolution from it. For when a 
perpetual Equinox is once truly dated, there is no 
difficulty concerning the reft. 

After thefe contefts about Traditions, he hath one or 
tv^o Reafons againft this Afitediluvlan Longevity, p. 279, 
280. Firft, Becaufe the Earth, by this means, would 
have been over-ftockt with People before the time of 
the Deluge. Secondly, They fhould all have been of 
the fame Longevity before the Flood. Neither of thefe, 
methinks, have any ftrength in them. As to the firft. 
That Earth was much more capacious than this is, 
where the Sea takes away half of its Surface, and ren- 
ders it uninhabitable. And whereas he fuggefts, as a 
recompence, ibid. That Adountains have more furface 
and capacity than Plains ^ That's true, but they are 
alfo lefs habitable, by reafon of their barrennefs and 
ruggednefs. Who can believe that there are as many 
People in Wales^ as in other Parts of England^ upon 
the fame compafs of level ground ? Or no more in 
Holland ^x\v2iVi upon a like number of Acres upon the 
Alps or Pyreneans. There would be room enough for 
twice as many People as there are in the World, and 
twice as many Animals, if there was Food enough to 
nourifh them. But here I have two Things to complain 
of, as foul play : Firft, the Excepter cites the Theory 
partially. Secondly, he does not mark the Place whence 
he takes that citation: as if it was on purpofe to hide 
his partiality. The Words he cites are thefe, Jf we 
allow the firft Couple^ at the end of one hvndred years^ 
or of the firft Century^ to have left ten pair of Breeders^ 
which is an eafy fupprjfition^ there wovld arife from thefe 
in fifteen hundred, years^ a g^r eater nuinbcr than the Earth 
was lap able of : allowing every pair to multiply in the fame 
decuple proportion the fir/t pair dld^ Engl.Theor. p. 32. 
Here the Exceptor ftops, and makes this inference, that 
upon VA eafiefuppofui un J which th.Q Theorift makes and 


ma^e againfc the Theory of the Earth-' 59 

allows, the Earth would have been over-ftockt in 
fiiteeri hundred years. This is an eafie fvppcfition for 
t\i^ firjl Century^ as the Theorift put it : But it would 
be a very uneafie one for the following Centuries ^ 
when they came to be at any confiderable diftance from 
the beginning. And therefore the Theorift tells you, 
in that very Page, The fame meafure cannot run equally 
through all the Jges. And in his Calculation you fee, 
after the firfl: Century, he hath taken only a quadruple 
proportion for thcincr cafe of Alan kind. As judging that 
a moderate and reafonahle Meafure betwixt the highefi 
and the loweft. This the Excepter might eafily have 
obferved,//?/^. and as eafily avoided this mifapplicatioa 
of the Words of the Theorift. 

His fccond reafon againft the antediluvian longevity 
is fliii,hter than the firft. p. 280. For he pretends that 
all the Antediluvians, upon that fuppofition, fhould 
have been equally long-liv'd. You may as well fay, 
that all the Children of the fame Parents, and that 
live in the fame pl^e, fhould now be equally longliv'd ^ 
the external World being the fame to them all. But, 
befides Accidents, their Stamina and Conftitution smight 
then be of a different ftrength, as well as now: tho* 
they were born of the fame Parents, and liv'd in the 
fame Air. Laftly, He moves a difficulty about the 
multiplication of Animals in the firft W^orld, p. 281. 
that they would have been too numerous before the 
Flood. I can fiy nothing to that, nor He neither, upon 
good grounds : unlefs we knew what Species of Ani- 
mals were then made, and in what degrees they mul- 
tiplied. The Theorift always fuppofes a Divine Pro- 
vidence to fuperintend, proportion, and determine, 
both the number and food of Animals upon the Earth: 
fuitably to the conftitution and circumftances of every 
World. And feeing that Earth was no lefs under the 
care and dire£lion of Providence, than the prefent, we 
may conclude that due meafures were taken for ad- 
jufting the numbers and food of Animals in fuch man- 
ner, as neither to be a Burthren to one another, nor 
to Man. 


(o Q^4u o/lnfwer to the Exceptions 

C H A p. XIV. 

THIS Chapter is again ft the Explication of the 
Deluge by the Dijjolution of the Earth, That dif 
folution, as is pretended, being unfit or infufficient to 
produce fuch an effefl. And to prove this, the Anti- 
theorift gives us five Arguments, whereof the firft is 
this : p. 285. Mofes having left us an accurate de- 
fcription of Paradife, according to the proper Rides of 
T'opography j^^uch a delcription would have been impro- 
per and infufiicient to determine the Place of Paradife, 
and ccnfequently ufelefs, if the Earth had been difToiv'd t 
and by that means the bounds of thofe Countries, and 
the Channels of thofe Rivers, broken and chang'd, 
This Objedion I'm afraid, will fall heavier upon Mofes^ 
or upon the Excepter himfelf, than upon the Theorifl. 
However one would have expe£led that the Excepter 
ihould have deter min'd here 'the Place of Paradife, in 
vertueof that defcription. So learned and fugacious a 
Perfon, having before him an exafi: draught ot Paradife, 
according to the proper Rules of Topography^ could not 
fail to lay his Finger upon the very fpot of Ground 
where it flood. Yet I do not find that he hath ventur'd 
to determine fhe Place of Paradife, either in this Chap- 
ter, or in the precedent. Which gives me a great fuf- 
picion, that he was not fatisfied \vhere it ftood, not- 
"withftanding the Mofaical Topography. Now if it 
cannot be underflood or determin'd by that Topogra- 
phy, one of thefe two things muft be allowed, either 
that the defcription was infufficient and ineffe<flual : 
or that there has been fome great change in the Earth, 
whereby the marks of it are deflroy'd *, namely, ihe 
bounds of Countries, and the courfes of the Rivers. 
If he take the fecond of thefe Anfv\'ers, he joyns with 
the Theorifl. If the firfl, he refiefts, according to his- 
way of arguing, upon the Honour of Mofes^ or con- 
futes himfetf. 

But here is flill a further charge : p. 286. yl-Z^/^j's defcrip- 
tion of Paradife would have been Falfe (which he notes 
foTC horrid hlafphemy) if the Earth was broken at the De- 
luge, For thSft thofe Rivers, by which Mcfes de- 


- madeagamfitheTheoryofthe'E\?.Tn. 6t 

fcribcs Paradife, could not have been before the Flood. 
But why fo, I pray? The Theorifl fuppofes Rivers be- 
fore the Flood, in great plenty : and why not like to 
thefe ? And if their Channels were very much chang'd 
by the Flood, that's no more than what good interpre- 
ters fuppofe. Being unable, upon any other fuppofi- 
tion, to give an account, why it is fo hard (notwith- 
{landing .^<?/^/s defcription) to determine the Place of 
Paradife. Now where is the Blafphemy of this : ibid. 
Horrid Blafphemy agawji the Holy Ghofi ? A rude and 
injudicious defence of Scripture, by railing and ill lan- 
guage, is the true way to lefTen and difparage it. Efpe- 
cially when we make our own confequences to be of 
the fame authority withthe Wordof God : and what- 
foever is againft them, muftbe charg'd with blafphemy 
againft the Holy Ghoft. Is it not a ft range thing that 
the DiflTolution of the Earth (hould be made Blafphemy ? 
when the Prophets and infpir'd Authors fpeak fo often 
of the Difniptions^ Fraclions^ Concuffions^ and Subvert 
fions o{ the Earth. S^c Revlew^p. 380, &c. And that 
very expreflion, that ihQ Earth is dijfolv'd^ is a Scrip- 
ture-exprefiion, (PfaL 75. 3. Ifa. 24. 19. Amos 9. 5.) 
which, methinks, might have been enough to have pro- 
tefted it from the imputation of Blafphemy. But 
there is nothing fife againft blind zeal, and opinionative 
ignorance: vvhich, by how much they find themfelves 
weaker in Reafons, by fo much they become more 
violent in Pafiions. 

But to return to the objedlion *, upon the whole mat- 
ter, he cafts the burthen of the charge upon Mofes him- 
felf, as we noted before. For take whether Hypothefis 
you will, that the Earth was, or was not, broken: 
the Qucftion ftill returns, if the Mofaical Topography 
was exaifl: andfuflicient, why can we not yet find out 
the fituation of Paradife : 'Tis now above three thou- 
fand years fince Mofes dyed, and Men have been cu- 
rious and very inquifitive, in all Age?, to find out the 
Place of Paradife : but it is not found out to this Day 
to any fatisfaiflion. So that, methinks, upon the whole, 
the Theory, which fuppofeth the Earth very much 
chang'd, makes the faireft i\pology both for Mofes and 
Mankind, in this particular. But to proceed to his 
fecond Argument, 


52 oAntiAnfwerto tie Exceptions 

Secondly, fays theExcepter, p. 288. The diffolvtion 
of the Earth could not he the caufe of the general Floud^ 
becaufe it would have utterly dcftroyd Noah's yirk^ and 
all that were in it, I thought the Theorift had efFcdu- 
ally prevented this objeftion, by putting the ArK under 
the conduct of its Guardian Angttls, and of a miracu- 
lous Providence. Eng. Jhecr, p. 1^7. Thefe are his 
Words, / think it had been itr.pcJjihLe for the u4rh. to 
have liv'd upon the raging yihyfs^ or for Noah and his 
Family to have been preferv d^ if there had not been a 
Aiiraculous hand of Providence to take care of them. 
Now, either the Excepter did not take notice of this 
pafTage in the Theory, or he does not allow that a 
miraculous Hand was lufKcient to prefer ve the Ark : 
or thirdly. He made an objection, which he knew him- 
lelf, to be impertinciir. And, Iconfefs I am inclinable 
to think the lafl is true. For as to the fir ll, he con- 
fefTes (p. 354.) that the Theory' reprefents the jlrkj 
with its Guardutn Angels about it^ in the extremity of the 
Flood, And as to thefecond. He himfelf makes ufe of 
a miraculous power to preferve the Ark, upon his Hy- 
pothefis : in anfwer to the eighth objection, p. 351, 
352, &c. Why then may not we make ule of the f.tme 
power and with the fame efFccl ? It remains therefore, 
that he was confcious to himfeif that he made this ob- 
jeiHrion to no purpofe. 

But that is notall'.Hehasalfo us'dfoul play in his cita- 
tion. For whereas the great danger of the Ark would 
be at the firft fall of the Earth, or the difruption of 
theAbyfs^ The Theorift, he fays, to prevent this, 
makes the Ark to be a-float by the Rains, before ths 
Abyfs was broken. But is that all the Theorift (ays in 
that Place ? doss he not alTign another way how the 
Ark might be a-float? namely, in a River, or in a Dock. 
Thefe are the Words of the Theory, p. 133, 134. 
So asthe Ark^ if it could not float upon thtfe Rain-wa- 
ter s^ at leafi taking the advantage of a River ^ or of a 
Dock or Ciftern made to receive the?n^ it might he ^- 
fioat before the Ahyfs was h'^oken open. And thele Words 
being in the fame place whence he makes his citation, 
itmuft be a wilful diliimulation not to take notice of 
them. But he fee they would have taken otf the edge 
of his Objedion, and therefore thought fit not to touch 


made agahift the Theory ofthe'EKv.i:iu 65 

upon them. Bat after all, there is no neceflity that 
the Ark fhould be a-floar, before the Earth broke. 
Thofe things were premised in the Theory, only to 
foften the Way to Men that are hard of belief in fuch 
extraordinary Matters. For the Angels, (whofe Mi- 
niitry we openly own, upon thefe grand occafionsj 
could as eafily have held the Ark afloat, in the Air, 
as on the Water. And the Ark, being an Emblem of 
the Church, God certainly did give his ylngets charge 
over it •, that they fijould bear it up in their Hands^ that 
it might not be d'afl/d againfi a Jione. And this having 
been more than once, profefl by the Theorifl, we 
muft again conclude this objedion fuperfluous and ufe- 

The third objeflion is this. If the Earth had been 
thus diflolv'd, p. 289. The prefent Earth would have 
heen^ in Likelihood^ of another fig^ure^ than what now it 
bears. Thefe are his Words, but I fuppofe he means, 
that it would have been of another form, as to Sea and 
Land. And the reafon he gives is this : Becaufe, fays 
he, it would have broke fir ft in the Equator, and con- 
fequently that part falling down firft, would have been 
fwallowed up by the Waters, and become all Sea^ 
Whereas we find^ that under the Equator that thea^ 
was (which he fuppofeth (ibid.) the prefent Ecliptick) 
the dry ground is of moji fpatious extent and continuity. 
We need not examine his account of Sea and Land, 
becaufe it proceeds upon a falfe fuppofuion. (Seep.zj: 
before.) He relapfes here into his former Aftronomi- 
cal error, or to his firft adds a fecond •, vi2^. That the 
Earth, when it chang'd its fituation, chang'd its Poles 
and Circles. This is a great miftake •, the change of 
pofition in refpe6l of the Heavens, did not change the 
Places of its Circles in refpeft to its own Globe,' 
As when you change a Sphere or a Globe out of a 
right fituation into an oblique^ the Circles do not change 
their Places, as to that Sphere or Globe: but have 
only another pofition to the Heavens. The Earth's 
Ecliptick runs thorovv the fime places it did before : 
and the Equino6lial Regions ot that Earth were the fame 
with the Eqainoftial Regions of this, only bear another 
pofture to the Heavens and the Sun. Thefe Circles 
have not chang'd Places with one another, as he ima- 
E sines ; 

44 . eAnoAnfvder to the Exceptions 

gines->-aiid; which is worft:, wcfuld Father this imagi- 
nati-pti upoii tiic Theory f, in tkefe WordSj tmaer the 
Eclipti(k(which^ in the pKcfent fitnntion of iloe Earthy 
noEiial^ and divided the ijlobe into two He??i'ifpkies^ 
as the Eqyator dees now) the dry ground^ ike. He 
that afHrrns this^.with refpecl to the Earth, neither 
unierftands the Theory^ nor the Dc^irine of the Sphere, 
But let's prefs no further .upon a miftake. 

The fourth objection is this : p. zpo.That fuch a DilTo- 
lut.ion of the Earth, would have caus'd great barren- 
riefs after the Flood. Partly, by turning up Ibme dry 
and unfruitful Parts of: the Earth.: and paVtly by the 
foil and filth that would be left upon its lurface. As 
to the;. firftijT Willingly .allow, that fome of the in- 
teriour and. barren Parts of the iiarth might be turn'd 
Hp V as.we. now fee in Mountainous and wild Coun- 
tries ::.but this rather confirms the Theory, than weak- 
ens it.- But as to the Second, that the filth and foil 
would have made the Earthinore barren, I cannot allow 
that. For good Kusbandimen overflow^' their Grounds, 
to make their crop niore.'rich. And 'tis generally fup- 
pos'd,,thaf the Innundation of Niie^ and the mud it 
leaves behind it, makes Qy£gypt more fruitful. Befides, 
this .part-ofitheobjeaion lies:againfl the common ex- 
plication of the Delugef as welj as againft that which 
i^ given by the Theory. .'For if you fuppoie an uni- 
verfal Deluge,, let it come ffom what caufes yon pleafe, 
it muft 'overflow all the .Earth, and leave mud and 
ilinie and filth upon ^the Surface of it. And confe-; 
quently caufe barrcnaefsi, according to this argumen-f 
tation. ' 2 

He adds another confideration under this head, p. 292.^ 
namely, that if the Earth had been difTolv'd in this' 
manner, Allthe buildings cren:ed before the Floodj vrovld 
have been fijaken^ down^ or elfe overTvhelm'd, Tet we 
read'^ of fame that outjio^d the Elcod^ and were not de-' 
molifij'd. • ^xh were the. Pillars of Stth^a^nd-ihe Cities 
Henochia and Joppa.. hs- to^'Seth's ?i^hrSy they are 
generally accounted dibiilousr And I '■ p^rcdve^ the Ex- 
cept enAvili not vopch' for-! them/ For he .GOncllideF^/ 
(p^ 29$'} ^^'^^^'^'iv rht •v.ery beiijg -is qnejiim'dcf Sefh^ 
Piliarsr^c. .If hewiil aoX:Hdciidjtii'tiii>:why.flu)tild-/i.i 
• ■ H take 

7nade againfl tie Theory of the E a r t h. 65 

talce the Pains to confure them ? T do not love to 
play with a xMan, that will put nothing to the ftake. 
That will have his chance to win, but can lofe nothing, 
becaufe he flakes nothing. Then as to the City Heno- 
chia^ it hath no authority, but that of Annlus Fiterbi- 
erjfisj and his Berofus, A Book generally exploded, as 
fi«f^itious. Lafily, as to Joppa^ the authority indeed is 
better, though ftill uncertain. But however, (uppofe 
the Ruins of one Town reniain'd after the Flood, does 
this prove that the Earth was not difTolv'd? I do not 
doubt, but there were feveral traifts of the Earth, much 
greater than that Town, that were not broken all to 
pieces by their fall. But you and your Englif/j Hiftorian 
are miftak^n, if you fuppofe the Altars and Infcrip- 
tions mention'd by A'fela^ to have been Antediluvian 
Altars and Infcriptions. Unlefs you will make the 
Fable of Perfcus and Andromeda^ and the Sea-Monjier^ 
to have been an Antediluvian Fable. Neither hath your 
Hiftorian been lucky in tranfiating thofe Words of 
Aicla^ cum.rcl'igione plicrim,^^ Tvirh the Grozinds andpri'tt" 
ciplcs of their Religion^ which fignifie only, tPrV/? a reli-. 
gious care or fupcrftition. But to leave Fables and 

His lafl: Argument againfl the DiiTolution is this* 
p. 296. Had the DiiTolution of the Earth been the 
Caufe of the Deluge, It would have made Cod's Covenant 
Tvith Noah, a very vain afid trifling thing. So much is 
true, That the Deluge, in the Courfe of Nature, will 
not return again in the fime Way. But unlefs God pre- 
vent it, it both may and will return in another Way. 
That is, \{ the World continue long enough, the Moun- 
tains will wear and fink, and the Waters in propor- 
tion rife : and overflow the whole Earth. As is plain- 
ly fhewn, by a parallel Cafe, in the firji Book of the 
Theory^ ch.^. Befides, God might, when he pleas'd, 
by an extraordinary Power, and for the fins of Men, 
bring another Deluge upon the World. And that is 
the thing which A^(?^:z/jfeems to have fear'd, and which 
God, by his Covenant, fecur'd him againfl. For, as 
the Excepter hath f\id himfelf, in anfweringan harder 
objeftion, (p. 152.) IVhen God ajfigned to the Waters 
the place of their abode^ he did not intend to fortijic 
ths?n in it againfl his own Ofpinipotencc. or to devefi him- 
E 2 feif 

uu eAn oAnfwer to the Exceftio?is 

felf of his Sovereign Prerogative of calling them forth 
when he pleafed. This being aliow'd, with what we 
faid before, that Covenant was not vain or trifling, 
either in refpeft of an ordinary or extraordinary Pro- 

Thus we have done with all the Exceptions againft 
the Theory. For the two next Chapters .?re concerning 
a new Hypothefis of his own. And the lad of all, ex- 
cepts not againft the Truth of the Theory, but the 
certainty of it. In refleflion upon this whole matter, 
give me leave to declare Two Things :, Firft, That I 
have not knowingly oinitted anv Ohjjflion that I 
thought of iMoment. Secondly, That I have not from 
thefe Exceptions found reaf^jn to change any part of 
the Theory, nor to alter my Opinion, as to any par- 
ticular in it. No doubt there are feveral Texts of 
Scripture, which, underflood according to the Let- 
ter in a Vulgar Way, ftand crofs, both to this, and 
other natural Theories. And a Child that bad read 
the firfl: Chapters of Genefu^ might have obferv'd this, 
as well as the Excepter : but could not have loaded his 
charge with fo much bitternefs. Some Men, they 
fay, though of no great Valour, yet will fight excellent- 
ly w^ell behind a Wall. The Excepter, behind a Text 
of Scripture, is very fierce and rugged. But in the 
open Field of Reafon and Philofophy, he's gentle and 
traftihie. Eng. Theor. hook 2. ch. 9. at the End. The 
Thebrift had declared his intentions, and oblig'd him- 
felf, to give a full account of Mofes his Coftnopoeia^ 
or fiX'days Creation : but did not think it proper to be 
done in the Vulgar Langua2;e, nor befove the whole 
Theory was compleated. This might have fpar'd much 
of the Fxrepter's pains •, but till that account be given, 
if tht Ex'cepter thinks fit to continue his Animadver- 
(ions, and go thorough the Two laft Books, as he hath 
done th- two firfl, it will not be unacceptable to 
the Theorift. Provided it be done with fmcerity, 
in reciiing the Words, and rcpreferiting the Senie, 
of the Author. 

C H A P. 

made again/l the Theory of the Earth. 6j 

C II A p. XV. 

IN This Chapter the Anti-theorifl: lays down a new 
Hypothefis for the Explic.ition of the Delug.\ p. 299. 
And the War ischan^'d, on his fide, from OfFenlive, to 
Defenfive. 'Tis but fur that he fhonld lie down in his 
turn : and if fom.e blows fmart a little, he mud not 
complain, becaufe he begun the^Sport. But let's try 
his Hypothefis, without any further ceremony, p. 299, 
300. The firrt Propofnion laid down for the eflablilh- 
ing of it, is this: That the Flood was but fifteen Cubits 
highj above the ordinary level of the Earth. This is an 
unmerciful Paradox, and a very unlucky beginning*. 
For under what notion mud this Propofition be re- 
ceived ? As 3. PoJiulatur;7j or 2,s 2i Coficlufioyi i' If it be a 
Poftulatum, itmuft be clear from its own light, or 
acknowledg'd by general confent. It cannot pretend 
to be clear from its own light, becaufe it is matter 
of Faft, which is not known, but by Teftlmony. 
Neither is it generally acknowledg'd*, For the general 
opinion is, that the Waters cover'd the tops^of the 
Mountains^ Nay, that they were fifteen Cubits higer 
than the Tops of the Mountains. And this he confefles 
himfelf, in thefe Words : p. 300. We J)jall find there is 
a great Mifiake in the common Hypothefis^ touching 
their depth : namely, of the Waters. Far -whereas 
they have been fuppofed to be fifteen Cubits higher than 
the highefl: Mountains : They were indeed but fifteen Cu- 
bits high in all^ abive the Surface of the Earth, 
And this Opinion, or Doctrine , he calls, p. 329. tin, 
19. c. 31. The general jhinding Hypothefis : The ufual 
Hypothefis : p. 339. lin, 18. The ufual Senfe they have put 
upon the Sacred Story. Ir mud not therefore be made a 
Pofiulatum^ that fuch an Hypothefis is falfe, but the 
falfity of it mull: be demonftrated by good Proofs. 
Now I do not find that this New Hypothefis, of a fiftee?t 
Cubit Deluge^ offers at any more than one fingle Proof, 
namely, from Gen. 7.20. But before we pi oreed to 
the examination of that, give me leave to noit one or 
two things, wherein the new-Theorift iecms to be 
}nconfifi:ent with himfelf, or with good fenfe. 

£ 3 At 

SS xAn oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

At his entrance upon this New Hypothefis, he hath 
thefe Words, (p. 3CX).) Not that I will he hound to de- 
fend what I fay^ as true and real^&c. But why then 
does he trouble himfelf, or the World, with an Hypo- 
thefis, which he does not believe to be true and real / 
or if he does believe it to be To, Why will he not 
defend it ? for we ought to defend truth. But he fays 
moreover, (p. 302. lin. 19.) Our fuppofition jiands fttp- 
ported hy Divine authority : as heing founded upon Scrip- 
ture» Which tells us^ as plainly as it can fpeak^ that the 
Waters prevailed hut fifteen Cubits upon the Earth. 
If his Hypothecs be founded upon Scripture : and 
upon Scnptiii'Q as plainly as it can fpeak^ Why will not 
he defend it as true and reaL^ For to be fupported by 
Scripture, and by plain Scripture, is as much asw^e can 
alisdge for the Articles of our Faith : vv hich every one 
furely is bound to defend. 

But this is not all the difficulty we meet with. The 
whole period which we quoted runs thus. AV that I 
'will he bound to defend what I fay^ as true er real'^ any 
more than to beleivq (what I cannot well endure to f peak) 
that the Church of God has ever f^nc on in an irrational 
way of explaining the Deluge. IVhich yet fie mujh needs 
have done ^if there he no other rational Method of explain- 
ing it^ and no other IntclUgihle Caufes of it^ than what the 
Theory hai propoid'^ Now for the Word Theory^ put 
the Word Excepter^ or Excepte/s HypothefiSj and fee if 
this clui'^Q^T hat the Church of God has ever gone on in 
an irrational way of explaining the Deluge^ does not fill 
as much upon the Excepter's Nev/ Hypothefis, as upon 
the Theory. If the Church-Hypothefis was rational, 
what need he have invented a new one? w^hy does he 
not propofe that Hypothelis, and defend it? I'm afraid 
it will be found that he does not only contradiift the 
Church Hypothefis, but rejeft- it as miftaken and irra- 
tional. For what is the Church-Hypothefis, but the 
Common^ 'Hypothefis f (p. 300. lin. 24.) The general}!: and- 
ing Hypothefis : The ufual Hypothefis : The ufual fenfe 
they put vpon the Sacred Story. All thefe he rejects and 
difputes againft ^ as you, may fee in the places fore-cited. 
And -alfo he calls them,, p. 312. ult. fuch Inventions^ as 
have been-, diR^jufily may he'dlfgu/lful^ not only to nice 
and fqueamljl^-i but to tJU bejl and foundcjl Fhilofophick 


made agaiiijl the Theory of the Earth. 6(^ 

judg7nents. And, p. 319. He favs by' his Hypothefis, 
wc are excvfed fro}n running to thofe Cai/fes or Met hods j 
which feem unreafonahk to fome^ nnd vnintclligihle td 
others^ and^ -unfatisfaiiory to nioji. And, to name no 
more, he fays, p. 330. The ordinary iuppofition, that 
th-z Mountains were covered with Water in the Deluge, 
brii ^ 


ons ana buppoiitionsare rneie, wnicn ne rcnettstip 
Are they not the commonly receiv'd Methods' an^dSup-i 
pofitions ? 'Tis plain, mofV of thofe which he'.oientions, 
(p. 310,311, 313, 3145 318.), are not the Theorrfi's' 
For the Theorift had re}efted 'before,f£«'^; Xheor,. chl 
2, d- 3. J thofe very Methods and Inventions, ^vhich th$ 
Excepter rejeds now: and fof^r he juftifies the Theo' 
Yy '^. Thtk rerieflionstherefpre mufl fall -.upon: fom^ 
other Hypothefis : Aind -what Hypothefis i^ that, if it! 
be not the Chdrch-HypOthefis ? To conclude, /f irgue 
thus in fhort, to fliow the lExcepter incoh'fiftent WitFi 
himfelf in this Particular. ' The Chb-fch way of explain- 
ing the Deluge, is either rational or irrational. If he 
fiy it is rational^ why does he defert it, and invent a 
hew one? And if he fays it is irrat tonal ^ ihen that 
dreadfulthing, which, he cannot well endure to fpeaky 
That the Church of (Sod has ever gone on in art irratio" 
rid Way of explaining the Leliige^ falls flat upon him- 
felf. ^ • ■ ■ 
Ihus much in general, for his Introduction. We 
proceed now to examine particularly his new Hypothe- 
fis. Which, as we told you before, confifts chiefly irf 
this, That the Waters of the Deluge were but fifteen Cu- 
bits higher than the coinmon unmount ainous Surface of the 
Earth. T/;//, which feems fo odd and extravagant, he 
fays, p. 301. is the Foundation of the Hypothefis. And, 
which is itill more furprifing, he fays this depth, or 
rather Ihaliownefs, of the Waters of the Deluge, is 
' ' — • ■ 

* The Excepter rejccTts, firft tht- IVatcrs of the Scj. Then the 
li^cttcrs in the tovcJiof the Earth. Then the Supercclcftial iVatcrs, 
Then a Nbn?- Creaiion of Waters, Then the Mafs of Air chang'4 
into Water. And laftly, 3. partial DLlugc. And therefore he 
puts Men fatally, cither upon the Theory; or upon his new Hy- 

E 4 told 

yo G/4^ oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

told us by Scripture, as plainly as it can [peal. p. :^02. li»- 
21. This muft needs raife our curiofity, to fee that 
place of Scripture, which has been over-lokt by all the 
Learned hitherto. Weil, 'tis Gen. 7. 20. in thefe 
Words, Fifteen Cubits vpwards did the Waters prevail. 
This, methinks, is fomewhat general : for the Bafis 
of thefe fifteen Cubits is not exprell, in thefe Words. 
But why does oar Author flop in the middle of a 
Verfe? Why does he not tranfcribe the whole Verfe : 
for the laft part of it, is as good Scripture as thefirfb. 
And that fays plainly, that the Mountains veer e cover d 
with theWaters. The whole Verfe runs thus : Fifteen 
Cubits upwards did the Waters prevail •, AND THE 
Bafisof thefe fifteen Cubits was the common Surface, 
or plain level of the Earth, as this new Hypothefis will 
have it : How could fifteen Cubits, from that B.ifis, 
reach to the tops of the Mountains ? Are the higheft 
Mountains but fifteen Cubits higher than the common 
furface of the Earth ? i Sam. 17. 4. Coliah was fix 
Cubits and a fpan high. So Pic Tenariff would not be 
thrice as high as Goliah. Yet David flung a ftone up 
to his forehead. Take what Cubit you pleafe. Sacred 
or Common, it does not amount to two foot. So the 
height of the greateft Mountains, from bottom to top, 
rnuft not be thirty Foot, or ten paces : according to 
this New Hypothefis. Who ever meafured Mountains 
at this rate ? The modern Mathematicians allow for 
their height a mile perpendicular, upon a moderate 
computation *, and that make? ^000 foot. How then 
could Waters that were not 30 foot high, cover Moun- 
tains that were 5000 foot high ? That the higheft- 
Mountains of the Earth were cover'd with the Waters, 
you may (ee exprefs'd more fully in the precedent verfe. 
Gen. 7. Tp. And the Waters prevailed exceedingly 
upon the Earth. A^i all the high Hills that were under 
the whole Heaven were cover d. There can fcare be 
words more plain and comprehenfive. The Excepter 
fays, the Scripture tells us, as plainly as it can fpeakj 
that the Waters were but fifceen cubits high from the 
common Surface of the Earth. And I fay, The 
Scripture tells us 2iS> plainly as it can fpcak^ That, all the 
high Hills under the whole Heaven^ were covered with 


made agahifi; the Theory of the Earth. 7 J 

Water, And it muft be a ftrange fort of Geometry, 
that makes fifteen cabits of Water reach to the top of 
thehigheil Hills. Laftly, the fame Hiftory o{ Mofes 
fays, i\\c tops of the Mountains were difcover'd, whea 
t\\t Waters begun to decreafe, Gen. 8. 5. Is not that a 
plain demonftration that they were cover'd before, and 
Cover'd with thofe Waters. 

We may therefore fafely conclude two things. Firfl, 
that this new Hypothefis, befides all other faults, is 
contrary to the general expofition of the text of Mo- 
fes"^. Secondly, that it is contrary to the general 
receiv'd DoOrine of the Deluge. And if he has de- 
liver'd a Doftrine, contrary to thefe two, methinks,. 
it fhouldbe hard for him to maintain his ground, and 
not pronounce at the fame Time, what he dreads fo 
much to fpeak. That the Church of God has ever gone on 
in an irrational way of explaining the Deluge, But let's 
reflet a little upon this Fifteen-cubit Deluge ^ to fee 
what figure it would make, or what execution it would 
do upon mankind and upon other Creatures. If you 
will not believe Mofes as to the overflowing of the 
Mountains, at lead:, I hope, you will believe him as to 
the univerfal deftruclion made by the Deluge. Hear 
his Words, Gen, 7. 21, 22, 23. we'll take only the laft 
\''erre, which is this. And every living fuhjiance was 
deftrcyed^ which was upon the Face of the Ground, Both 
Alan and Cattle^ and creeping things^ and the Fowl of 
the Heavens ^ and they were defiroyed from the Earth : 
and Noah only remained alive^ and they that were with 
him in the Ark, Now I would gladly know how this 
could be verifyed in a fifteen-cubit Deluge. The Birds 
would naturally fly to the Tops of Trees, when the 
Ground was wet. And the Beafls would retire by degrees 
to the Mountains and higher Parts of the Earth, as the 
lower begun to be overflow'd *, and if no Waters could 
reach them there, how w^ere they all deftroy*d, while 
X^Vity had fo many San<fluariesand Places of refuge? 

* This he acknowledges, p. 325. {iVe expound a Text or tveo of 
ficripturc fo as vone cv^r did •, and dcfcrting the common received fenfe 
put an umifual Glofs upon tbem^ not to fay, tJ^ixp iTriKWlVy a private 
interpretation.) and p. 35^, 


72. G/f^ (Anfwer to the Exceptions 

Or if you fuppofe fome of thz^c Creatures had not 
wit enough to fave themfelves, (though their wit and 
inftinfts lie chiefly in that) at leaft mankind would not 
be foftupid : when xMen fse the Waters begin to rife, 
they could not fail to retire into Mountains. And tho' 
^he upper ftories of their Houfes might be fufficientto 
fave them from fifteen Cubits of Water *, yet if fear 
made them think themfelves not fecure there, whither 
could it drive them, but ftill into higher Places. And 
an Houfe feated upon an Eminency, or a Caille upori 
a Rock, w^ould be always a fafe retreat from this di- 
minutive Deluge. I fpeak all this upon the fuppofitions 
of the Excepter, p. 215, 216, 292. dec. who allows not 
only Mountains and R-Ocks, but alfo Caftles and Cities 
before the Deluge: built of good Timber, ind Stone^ 
and Iron, and fuch fubftantial Materials. Buthow^frt 
fucha Cafe, and in fuch a ftate of things, all Mankind 
(except iVW;, and his Family) fhould be defl-roy'i by 
fifteen Cubits of Water, is a lump of Incredibilities, 
l*op hard and big for me to fwallow. 

But there is ftill another difficulty, that we have not 
mention'd. As thofe'that whereupon the Land might 
eafily fave themfelves from ruin, fo thofe that were 
iTpon the Sea, in Ships, w^ould never come in danger.' 
For w^hat would it fignifie to them, if the Sea was 
iliade a few Fathoms deeper, by thefe New Waters ? 
It would bear their Vefifels as well as it did before, and 
would be no more to thsm than a Spring-Tide. And 
I'aftly, how fhall we juftiiie the Divine Wifdom, which 
gave fuch pun^^uil orders, for the building of an Ark, 
to fave Noah J and a {ti of Creatures, for a new World : 
when there where fo many more eafie and obvious ways 
to preferve them, without that trouble? 

Thefe objeftions in my opinionj are fo plain and full, 
that it is not needful to add any more. Nor to an- 
fwer fuch evafions as the new Theorift attempts to make 
to fome of them. As for inftance, to that plain ob- 
jection from Mofes's Words, p. 330. t'nit the Mountains 
were covered with thelVaters^ he fays, firft, that it is a 
Synecdoche^ where the whole is put for a Part. Of 
Secondly, 'tis an Hyperbole : where more is faid than 
underflood. Or Thirdly, 'tis a Poetisal Hiflory, Or 
Laftly, if none of thefe will do, by the Tops of the 


made againjl the Theory of theE art n. 7 j 

Mountains is to be underRood the bottcms of the 
Moan tains : p. 332, 333. and that cures all. The 
Truth is, he has taken a great deal of Pains in the next 
Ch.ipter, to cure an incurable HypothefK. We will 
give you but one inftance more. 'Tis about the appear- 
anae of the Tops of the Moimtahis at the decreafe of ths 
Deluge, Which argue ftrongiy tiut they were cover'd 
in t\\Q Deluge. But take it in his own Words, with 
the Anfwer, p. 337. I^ ts recordedj G^^n. S» ^. that the 
Waters decreufed continually ttntil the Tenth Mcnth^ 
and on thefiyjl day of the Alorah, W^BRETHE TOPS 
OF THE MOVNTAINS ^E-EN, ■ No^ if the Aloun- 
tjzins.had not been quite wader IVater^ and fo inziifible 
for the Time they ivere overwhelmed •, hjiv could they 
be, fald to become vifihle again^ or to be feen upon the 
Floods going ojf This is a plain and bold objedion. 
And afiier two anfwers to it, which he feems todiftruli, 
his yl and lad is this: p. 339. If thefe two confiderci* 
tions will not fdtisjie^ we mujt carry o'a the enquiry a little 
furthtr^ and feck for a Third. And truly fume one or 
other muft needs be found out. — Thirdly^ therefore we 
confider : that the Tops of the Jidountains may be faidto 
be feen^ at the Time mentioned^ upon account of their 
OF WATERS, This is his final Anlwer. The Tops 
of the Mountains, at the decreafe of t\iQ Deluge, were 
feen : not that they were covered before with Water, 
fays he, but with darknefs. Where finds he this Ac- 
count? 'tis neither in the Text nor in Reafon. If it 
was always fo dark, and the tops of the Mountains 
and Rocks naked and prominent every where, how 
could taQ Ark avoid them in that darknefs ? Moreover 
if ihQ Deluge was made in that gentle way that he 
fuppofes, 1 lee no reaibn to imagine, that there would 
be darknefs, after th^ forty-days-rain. For thefe rains 
being fain, and all the Vapours and Clouds of the Air, 
difcharg'd, methinks there Ihould have enfued an ex- 
traordinary clearnefsof the Air: as we often fee after 
rainy Seafons. Well, 'tis true : But the rains he fup- 
pofes, were no loonerfaln, but th^t Sun retracted them 
again in Vapours : with that force and fwifrnefs that it 
kept the Air in perpetual darknefs. Thus he fays after- 
Wards, p. 341, He's mightily beholden to the Sun, 


74 <^4^ oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

upon niAnv accounts : and the Sun is no lefs beholJen 
to Kim : for he gives hiin a miraculous power to m'le 
Mountains, and draw up Waters. 'Tis well the Su'i 
did not prefently fall to his old work again, o{ raifing 
Mountains out of this moifl: Earth: as the Excepter 
fays he did, when the Earth was firft drain'd. See ch, 
lo. That he contented him felf to fuck up the Waters 
only, and let the 'Zarth alone : We are not a little 
beholden to him for this. For he Teems to have had 
the fame Power and Opportunity, at the decreafe of 
the Deluge, of making new ravages upon th^ Earth, 
that he had before when it was firft drain'd. But let's 
fee, how or when^ thefe Waters were fuck'd up, or re- 
iblv'd in to Vapours. 

Upon the expiration of the forty days rain, whether 
was the Airpurg'd of Vapours and clear, or no ? Yes, 
it was purg'd. He fiys, (p. ^^'\.)The Atmofphere was 
never fo exhaujied ofP^apours^ and never fo thin : as when 
the Waters were newly come down. Then, in that clear 
Air, the Tops of the Mountains might have been feen, 
if they lay above Water. But A<foJes fays, Gen. 8. 5. 
it was in the Tenth Month that they begun to be feen, 
when the Waters were decreas'd •, 'twas therefore the 
Waters, not the grofs Air,that hindred the fight of 
them before. And- according to this Method of the 
Excepter,after the firft Forty days, the Deluge begua 
to decreafe. For the Sun forth-with fet his Engines 
a work, and refolv'd the Waters into vapor and ex- 
halations, at fuch a rate, p. 341. that he prefently made 
the Atmofphere dark with thick Mifts and Clouds: 
and, in proportion leffen'd the Waters of the Deluge. 
But we do not read mMofeso^ any abatement in the 
Deluge, till the end of one hundred and fifty diys*, 
(Gen. 8. 3.) which is four Months after this Term .The 
Truth is, the whole notion o^ [pending the Waters of 
the Deluge by Evaporation^ is no better than what the 
Excepter fufpefted it would be thought : p. 343. A rneer 
fancy^ a whymfiCal groundlefs figment. For what could 
the Sun do, in the Northern and Southern Parts of the 
World, towards the exhaling of thefe Waters? And in 
the temperate Climates, why ihould they not fail again 
in Rains, (if he had a Power to exhale them) as they 
do now ? Was not the Earth in the fame Pofition, and 


fnade againfl the Theory of the Earth, 75 

the San of the fame force ? Befides, where does he find 
this notion in Scripture, that the Waters of the Deluge 
were confum'd by Ev.iporation, ? Mofes fays, the 
Waters returned from cfj the Earthy in going and return" 
ing\ Gen. 8. ^, 5. That is, after frequent reciproca- 
tions, they fetled at length in their Channels. Where 
bounds were fet them^ that they might not pafs over - 
that they return not again to cover the Earth, Seeing 
therefore this notion hath no Foundation, either ia 
Scripture or Reafon, 'tis rightly enough ftyl'd, in the 
Excepter's Words, a meer fancy ^ and groundlefs fig- 

But I think we have had enough of thefe fhifts and 
evafions. Let us now proceed to the id part of his 
new Hypothefis, which is this : p. 303. That the ^hyfs^ 
or Tehom-Rahhah wliich was broken open at the Deluge, 
and (tog-ther with the Rains) make the Flood, was 
nothing but the Holes and Caverns of Rocks and Moun- 
tains : which open'd their Mouths at that Time, and 
pour'd out a great quantity of Water. To fupport 
this new notion of Tehotn-Rahbah^ he alledgeth but one 
fin gle Text of Scripture: Pfal, 78. 15. He clave the 
Rocks in the Wilderncfs^ and gave them drink^ as out of the 
Great Depths, That is, copioufly and abundantly, as 
if it were out of the great Deep. So the next Verfe 
implies, and fo it is generally underftood. As you may 
fee both by Interpreters, and alfo by the Septuagint 
and /^z^/gc^ff Tranflations,and thofe of the Chaldee Para^^ 
phrafe and t\\tSyriack. But the Excepter, by all means, 
will have thefe holes in the Rocks to be the Cime wita 
the Mofaical Abyfs^ or great Deep, that was brokea 
open at the Deluge. So the great Deccp was not one 
thing, or one continued Cavity, as A'lofes reprefents 
it, but ten thoufimd holes, feparate rnd diftant one 
from another. Neither mull: the Great De.^p, accord- 
ing to him, fignifie a low Place^ but an high place. For 
he confelTes thefe Caverns were higher than the com- 
mon level of the Earth ^, But I do not fee, how, 
with any tolerable propriety or good Senfe, that, 
• • — . , , fc » III ■ 

* p. 303. But though thefe Caverns hi' called Deeps , xce mu/i not ta^e 
them for profound Places^ that xfcr.t doveninto the Earth-^below the common 
Surface of it : on the contrary ^ tbcy wcrcfituate above it. 


^^•' (An- Q^infwer to the Exceftio?is 

which is higher then theSar£ice of the Earth, can hz 
taird the Great Deep, An Aby-fs, in the Earth, or in 
the Water, is certainly downwards^ in refpecl of their 
common Surface. As much as a Pit is dowi-rrvards. 
And what is downwards from us, we cannot fup- 
pofe to be above us, without confounding all dimen- 
flons, and all Names, of things. Calling that low, 
which is high: a Mountain a Valley, or a Gar-ret a 

'Neither is there any thing in this Text, Ffal. 78. 15., 
that can juftly induce us to believe the Great Abyfs ta 
be the fame thing with Caverns in Roc]\S. For whe-' 
ther you fuppof^ it to be noted here as a miraculous 
thing, that God {hould give them, Water out of a Reeky 
or 'out of a Flint -^^KS plentifuHy, as if it had been out' 
of the Great Abyfs. * Or whether you underftand the 
original of Fountains to be -noted here : which arc 
faid in Scripture to come froni the Sea, or the great 
Abyfs-, neither of thefe fenfes make any thing to the 
purpofe of the new Kypotliefis, and yet they are the 
faireft and eafieft {^n^^ that can be put upon the words : 
and that w^hich agrees beft with other Places of Scrip- 
ture, where the fame matter of Fact, or the fame 
Hiftory is related. And therefore there can be no ne- 
ceffity, from this Text, of changing the general no- 
tion and fignification of Deep or y^hfs. Both from 
that which it hath in common ufe, and that which it 
hath in Scripture ufe. 

I fay, as in the common ufe of Words, Deep or A- 
hyfs fignifies fome low or inferiour place: So the ge- 
neral life of it in Scripture, is in the fame fenfe. Ei- 
ther to fignifie the Sea, or fome fubterraneoiis Place. 
Who JJmU defcend into the Ahyfs or Deep : fays the A- 
poftle, Rom. 10. 7. Is that as much, as if he had fiid. 

* Pfal. 114. 7, 8. Tremble thou Earth at the prejlnce. of the Lord^ at 
the prefcnce of the God, of Jacob. Vf'huh turned the Poc^ hit'o.a fiand- 
ifg iVatcfj the ftivt into- a Fountain of Waters. 

. Num. 20. 10, II. And Mofes aivl hiton gathered the Congrega- 
tion together before the Hoti^^ and he fd'id unt'6 fh-pm^'Hear how you Re- 
bels : muji we- fetch you Water out ef th'n Rvcf^ ? And "MbfeS life, up his 
Hand, and with his Rod he fmote the Bock,tmct :dndthe JVater c^dme out 

. :,a . Who 

made againft the Theory oftheV. a r t h. jf^ 

Who Hiall ajce^d into the holes of thQ Rocks?' And 
when Jacob lp^:aks of the bleffings of the Abyfs, or 
of the Deep, he calls them the bleflings of the 
Deep that lyetb under : Gen. 49. 25. In like manner, 
JhfoJ'es himlelf calls it the Deep that coucheth beneath i 
Deat. 33. 13. And I know no reafon why we ftibuld 
not underftand the Time Deep there, that he mentioned 
before in the Hiftory of the Deluge. Which there- 
fore was fubterraneous, as this is. Then as for the o- 
ther ufe of the Word, namely, for the Sea, or any 
part of the Sea, (whofe bottom is always lower than 
the level of the Earth) that is the moft common ufe 
of it in Scripture. And I need not give you Inftances, 
which are every where obvious. 

One mud needs think it ftrange therefore, that anjr 
Man of judgment ihould break thorough, both the 
common ufe of a Word, and fo many plain Texts of 
Scripture that (hew the fignification of it, for the fake 
of one Text-, which, at moft, is but dubious. And 
ihtn lay fuch ftrefs upon that new fignification, as to 
found a new doftrine upon it. And a doftrine that is 
neither fupported by reafon, nor agrees with the Hi- 
ftory of the Dvluge. For, as wc noted before, at the 
decreafe of the Deluge, the Waters -are (aid to re- 
turn from cff the Earth: Gen. 8. 3. Did they not re- 
turn to t\\t Places from whence they came ? but if 
thofe Places were the 'Caverns in the Rocks, whofe 
Mouths lay higher than the Surface of the Deluge, as 
he fays they did : p. 303, 305. I fee no poffibility of 
the Waters returning into them. But the Excepter 
hath found out a marvellous invention to invade this 
argument. He will have the r^fz^r??/??^ of the Waters, 
to be underftoo'l of their returning ifito their Principles, 
(that is, into V'apaurs) not to their Places. In good time : 
So the Dove's rcti&ning^ was her returning into her 
Principles : that is, into an Egg, not into the Ark. 
Subtleties ill-founded, argue two things, wit and want 
of Judgment. '^'/^/f' J fpeaks' as* plainly of the local 
r^tarn of the Waters, in going and returning •, as of 
the local going and returning of the Raven and 
Dove. See Gen, 8. ^, &: 5. compared with Verfe 
-jth^ dc gth. 


yS eAn o/lnfwer to the Exception 

Laftly, That we end this Difcourfe *, the whole no- 
tion of thefe Water-pots in the Tops of Mountains, 
and of the broaching of them at the Deluge, is a 
groundlefs imagination. What reafon have we to be- 
lieve, that there were fuch VeiTels then, more than 
now : If there was no Fra(fi:ion of the Earth, at the 
Deluge, to deftroy them ? And he ought to have g?.g'd 
thefe Casks, (according to his own Rule, Ch. 3.) and told 
us the number and capacity of them, that we might 
have made fome judgment of the effid. Bvfides, if 
the opening the Abyfs at the Deluge, had been the 
opening of Rocks, why did not yl/c/^j exprefs it fo : 
and tell us, that the Rocks were cloven^ and the Waters 
guffjed outy and fo made the Deluge ? This would 
have been as intelligible, if it had been true, as to tell 
us that the Tehom-Rahbah wms broken open. But there 
is not one word of Rocksy or the cleaving of Rocks^ in 
the Hiftory of the Flood. Upon all accounts therefore, 
we muft conclude, that this Virtuofo might have as 
well fufpefled, that his whole Theory of the Deluge, 
as one part of it, p. 343. would be accounted a meer 
fancy y 2Ci\^ groundlefs figment. 

Chap. XVI. 

THIS Chapter is made up of Eight Objeflions^ 
againft his own Hypothefis. And thofe that have 
a mind to fee them, may read them in the Author. I 
have taken as much notice of them, as I thought necef- 
fary, in the precedent Chapter : and therefore leave 
t\iQ Excepter now to deal with them all together. I 
omitted one oh]tCt\on(p, 3 11. J concerning the (hutting 
up of the Abyfs, and the Fountains of the Abyfs, 
becaufe it was anfwer'd before in the Engl ifh Theory, 
p. 142. namely, there were Fountains in the Abyfs, 
as much as Window^s in Heaven : and thofe were fhut 
up, as well as t}iQ^Q ^ that is, ceas'd to A£l, and were 
put into a condition to continue the Deluge no longer. 


made againft the Theory of the Earth. 79 


THERE 13 nothing in this Chapter againft th&. 
Truth of the Theory, but the Author is bhm'd 
for believing it to be true: I think he had been more 
blame-worthy^ if he had troubled the World with a 
Theory which he did not believe to be true : and ta- 
ken ib much pains to compofe, what he thought him- 
felf no better than a Romance. As to what the The- 
orift has faid in reference to his afTurance or belief of 
the Theory which the Excepter calls pofitivenefs : up- 
on examination, I cannot find any thing amifs in his 
conJucl, as to that particular. For, firft, he impofes 
his ie! timents upon no Man: He leaves every one 
their full liberty of difTenring. Preface to the Reader^ 
at the end. Lajily^ in things purc'y jpeculativs^ as thefe 
are^and no ingredients of our Fdtth^ it is free to differ 
from one another^ in our Opinions and Sentiments'^ And. 
fo I remember ^X.. AulHa hath ohferv'd^ vpon this very 
SuhjeEl of Paradifc. Wherefore as we dcfire to give no 
offence our f elves ^fo nei.thef jbali we take any at the diffe- 
rence of judgment in others* Provided^ th.s liberty be 
mutual^ and that we all agree to jtudy PEACE^ TRVTH, 
and a GOOD LIFE, And as t u. Tr.eoriil impofes his 
Sentiments upon no Man, fo, as 10 matter of certainty, 
he diftinguiilieth always betwixt the fuhfiance of the 
Theory, md particularities. So, at the latter end of 
the Firji 8ook^ this profcllion is made ^ Eng, Theor. p, 
207. / mean thiS on'jj fpeaking about certainty, as to 
the general parts of the Theory, For as to particularly' 
ties J I look upon them only as problematical : and -accor^ 
dingly I ajjirm nothing therein^ but with a power of re* 
vocation^ and a liberty to change my opinion when I Jball 
be better informed. And accordingly, be fays in ano- 
place : Erig, Theor, p. 12. 1 know how Subject we are to 
raifiakcs^ in thefe great and. remote things^ when we de- 
fcend to particularities. But 1 am willing to cxpofe the 
Theory to a full trial., and to-JJjewthe way for any to ex* 
amine it.^ provided they do it jvifh- equity and fincerity. 
I have no other dcfign than to contribute my endeavours ta 
'find out Truths wS:c. Lallly, To cite no more places,'- 

So eAn <i4nfwer to the Exceptions 

he (ays, Eng, Theor, p. 402. There are many particular 
explications that are to he confiderd with more liberty 
and latitude : and mayy perhaps^ upon better thoughts 
and better chfervations^ he correthed^ &c. The Theorift 
having thus ftated and bounded his belief or aflurance, 
and giving liberty of difTenting to all others, according 
to their particular judgments or inclinations, I fee no- 
thing unfair or undecent in this condu6l. How could 
the Obfervator have made it more unexceptionable t 
Would he have had the Theorift to have profeft Scepti- 
cifiii*: and declar'd that he believ'd his own Thearift 
no more than a Romance or phantaftical Idea? That 
had been, both to bely his own confcience, and to^ 
mock the World. I remember 1 have heard a good Au- 
thor once vviQi, That there were an Ati of Parliament^ 
that whoever Printed a Book, fbould,, when he took a 
Licenfe, Swear, that be thought the Contents of his 
Book to be true^ as to fwbftance. And I think fuch Ji 
method would keep off a great many impertinences. 
W^e ought not to trouble the World with o^ur roving 
thoughts, meerly out of an itch of Scripturkncy, 
when we do not believe our felves what we Write. 
I muft always profefs my alTent to the fubftance of 
that Theory : and am the more confirmed in it, by the 
weaknefsand inefficacy of thefe Exceptions. 

We need nor take notice of the particular citations 
he makes ufe of, to prove this pofitivenefs of the The- 
orift. For they only affirm, what we ftill own. That 
the Theory is more than an Idea : cyr that it is not an 
Imaginary Idea: or that it is a reality. And, together 
with its proofs from Scripture : efpecially from St. Pe- 
ter : hath more than the certainty of a bare Hypothefis^ 
or a moral eertainty, Thefe are the expreiiions he cites, 
and we own all, that, in fair con ft ruction, they amount 
to. And find no reafon, either from the Nature of 
the thing, or from his objeflions, to change our opi- 
nion, or make any Apology for too much pofitive- 

I wirti the Excepter had not more to anfwer for, 
as to his Partiality, than the Theorift hath, for his 
p&fitivenefs. And now that we draw to a conclufion, 
itwiUnot be amifb to obferve, how Vv'eli the Excep- 
ter hath anfwered that chara£^er, w^hichhegave him- 

- ielf 

made againfl the Theory oftheEAinn, 8 1 

felf at the beginning of his Work. Thefe are his 
Words, p. 4?. This J will endeavour to do^ namely, to 
exaaiine the Theory, with allfincerity *, and that only 
as a Friend and Servant to Truth. And therefore with 
fuch Candour^ Aieeknefs^ and Modefiy^ as becomes one 
who affumes and glories in fo fair a CharaEler : And alfo 
with fuch refpeth to the Virtuofo who wrote the Theory^ as 
may tejiifie to the Worlds that I eft e em his Learning^ while 
J quefiion his Opinion. *Tis of little confequence what 
opinion he has of the Virtuofo^ as he calls him. But 
let us fee with v^hufincerity and meeknefs, he has ex- 
amined his Work. As to his fjncerity, we have given 
you fome proofs of it before (p. 26.) both in his de- 
fe£live and partial citations: and alfo, in his never 
taking notice of the laft Edition of the Theory : where 
feveral citations he has made ufe of, are not extant. 
Now, by his own Rule, he ought to have had regard 
to this^ for he fays, Cp. 356.J He will there take notice 
only of the Englifh Edition, as coming out after the 
other: and fo with more deliberation and mature thoughts 
of things. By the fame reafon, fay I, he ought to have 
taken notice of the laft Edition of the Theory, as 
being the laft produ<fl, and the moft deliberate and 
mature thoughts {}i the Author. But this, itfeems, was 
not for his purpofe. 

So much for his Sincerity : Now for his Meehnefs.- 
So impatient he is to fall upon his Adverfary, that he 
begins his charge in the Preface*, and a very fierce one 
it is. (p. iii.) The Theoriji hath ajfaulted Religion^ 
and that in the very Foundation of it. Here I expe£led 
to have found two or three Articles of the Creed af- 
faulted or knock'd down by the Theory. But that is 
not the cafe, it feems, he underfttnds fomething more 
general i namely, our contradi£ling Scripture. For (b 
he explains himfelf in the next Page. In feveral things 
{as will appear by our difcourfe^ it cantradiEis Scripture ^ 
and by too pofitive ajferting the Truth of its Theorems^ 
makes that to be falfe^ upon zvhich our Religion is founded. 
Let us remember, that this contradifting Scripture, 
here pretended, is only in natural things, and alfo ob- 
ferve, how far the Excepter himfelf, in fuch things,-, 
hath contradifted Scripture. As for other reproofs 
which he gives us, thofe that arc more gentle, 1 eafily 
F 2 pais 

82 qAu o/lnfwer to the Exceptions 

pafs over : bat fome-where be makes our affertioTYS 
ip.i%,tcohol'd an affrcfU to Scripture, And in another 
place reprt^fents thenr, as (either ' directly, or confe- 
quentiaily) p. ?86. Blafphemy agaitift the Holy 6hvfi : 
which is rheuripardonahle Sin, A^ar. 12. 31. 

There W no pleaftire in repeating fiich Exprefiions^ 
and dreadful Sehtences, Let us rather obferve, if the 
Evceprer hath not made himfelf obnox^ions to them.; 
Bur fiifl, we muft ftate the cafe truly, that (o the 
blame may not fill upoh the Innocent. The cafe' 
therefore is this, Whnher^ to go contrary to the Letter 
of Scripture, Jn things that relate to the natural 
World, be deftroying the- Foimdations of Rcl'-gion: 
ajfronnt!g Scripture : and- bl'afpheming the' Hvly Ghofl^ 
In the "'Uare proposed, ff'^f take x.h^ Negative^ and iland 
upon that Plea. But the' Excepter hath taken the ^ffir- 
wntive ': and therefore all thofe heavy charges muft fall 
u*pon himlelf, if he go contrary to the literal Senfe 
of Scripture, in- his Pnilofophical opinions or affcrti- 
OTIS. And that he hath done fo, we will give you Tome 
Infl:ance^, :()iit of th-is Treatife of \\\s': Vag. 314. He' 
fays," It is mofl ahfurd to thinh^ that the Earth is the cen- 
ter cf the World. Then the Sun {lands IIH!, and the- 
Eartii: moves, according to his do6lrine. But this is- 
expre|ly .contrary, to Scvipture, in many Places. The 
Son yvfbices^as ajkrnng A<far/jtorun hisrac'c^hys JDavid ^ 
FJ. I'p. 5, 6. His going forth is from the end cf the Hea- 
ven^ and his circuit trnto the ends of it, Jof, 10, 12, 13^ 
2 Klf^. 20. 10, IT. Ifa. 38. 8. No fuch thing, fays 
the Excepter ^ The- Sun hath no race to run : he is 
fixr in his Seat, without any progrefiive motion. He 
hat:r no courfe from one end of the Heavens to the" 
o^ht'^; '-Inlike manner. Sun ^}i and thou ji ill vpon Gibeon^ 
fays' the Sacred Author : and the Sun jtood jiHl, No, 
iays th'^ Excepter, 'twas the Earth flood ftill, upon 
that miracle*, for the Sun always lloodflill. And 'tis 
ahfurd^ yea moji abfurd^ to think otherwife. p. 157. 
And heblam-^s Tycho Brahe for following Scripture in 
thisparticular. Nowis'not this, in the language of the 
Excepter 5 to deftroy thi' Fdnndutions cf Religion : To 
Off -'onf Script i ire •, and hlaffljrme noainft the Holy Ghoft ? 
Bur thi$ is not' ailv Tne Excepted fflVsj {C/;^/?. 10./ 
the ^S^lin^ ifa'H'd- op- thAMdu«tains on*the''3<^ Day. And 
sLq ' i •: the 

made agatnfl the Theory of the Earth. 8 | 

the Sui\ was not in b.^ing till i\\ ; 4^>7 Day, ?iccording to 
Scripture : Gen: i. 14. The Moon alio, which i^ccor- 
difig to Scriprare, was n-ot creaKd till the J^thljxyi 
he fiys, hinder the formation of the Earth, which 
was done the 3^ Day. Laftly, In this new Hypothe- 
fls, p. 74 he makes the Waters of the Delude, to be 
but fifteen C ubits higher than the I'iain, or common 
Surface of the Earth. Which Scripture affirms ex- 
prefly to have cover'd th« Tops of the highcft Hills, 
or Mountains under Heaven. <Jcn. 7. 19, 20. T/iefe 
Jtwo things are manifeltly inconfiftent. The Scripture 
fays, Gtn. 8. 5. they cover'd the Tops of the higheft 
Mountains: And the Excepter fays, they reacht but 
fifteen Cubits, about, or upon the skirts of them. 
This, I think, is truly to contradift Scripture: or ac- 
cording to his Talent of loading things with great 
W^ords, p. 216. This is not only jiMtly^ but loudly con^ 
tradichory to the moft exprtfs Word of the infallible 

Tkefeobfervations, I know, are of fmall ufe, unlefs 
perhaps to the Excepter himfelf. But, if you pleafe 
upon this occafion, let us reliedl a little upon the Li- 
teral ftyleof Scripture.- and the different authority of 
that iiyle, according, to the Matter that it treats of. 
The fubjecfc matter of Scripture is either fuch, as lies 
without the cognizan-ce and comprehenfion of humane 
reafon, or ^\],z^a as lies within it. If it be the former 
of thefe, 'tis what we call properly and purely Reve- 
Lation. And there we mud adhere to the literal ilyle, 
becaufe we have nothing to guide us but that. Such 
is the Doclrine of the Trinity, and the Incarnation : 
wherein we can have nothing to authorize our devi- 
ation from the Letter and Words of Scripture. And 
therefore the School- Divine?, who have fpun thofe 
Doctrines into a multitude of niceties and fubtleties, 
had no warrwit for what they did, and their conclufions 
are of no authority. 

The fecond matter or fubjeft of Scripture, is fuch, 
as falls under the view and comprehenfion of Reafon, 
nioreorlefs: and, in the fime proportion, gives us a 
liberty to examine theLiteral fenle : how far it is con- 
fi Trent with reafon, and the Faculties of our Mind. 
Of r^is Nature there are feveral things in the Holy 

F 3 Wri- 

84 eAn oAnfwer to the Exceptions 

Writings, both Moral, Theological, and Natural, 
wherein we recede from the Letter, when it is niani- 
feftly contrary to the di«flates of Reafon. I will give 
fome Inftances in every kind. Firft, as to Moral things. 
Our Saviour fiys, Mat. 5. 29, 30. If thy right Eye offend 
thee pluck it out. If thy right Hand offend thee cut it off. 
There is no Man that thinks himlclf oblig'd to the 
Literal pradlice of this Do£lrine : And yet it is plainly 
deliver'd, you fee, in thefe Terms, in the Gofpel. 
Nay, which is more, our Saviour backs and enforces 
the letter of this do(^rine with a Reafon ; For it is pro- 
fitable for thee that one of thy members fiould perlfi^ and 
not that thy whole Body fl)ould be caji into Hell. As if 
he had intended that his Precept fhould have been really 
executed according to the Letter. In like manner, our 
Saviour fays. If ^ny man -will fue thee at Law^ and take 
away thy Coat^ let him have thy Cloak alfo. And yet 
there is no Chriftian fo good-natur'd, as to praftife 
this : nor any Cafuift fo rigid, as to enjoy it, according 
to the Letter. Other Inftances you may fee in our 
Saviour's Sermon upon the Mount, where we do not 
fcruple tolayafide the Letter, when it is judged contra- 
ry to the Light of Nature, or impraflicable in hu- 
mane Society. 

In all other things alfo, that lie within the fphere 
of humane reafon, we are allowed to examine their 
praEiicability^ or their credibility. Toinltance in fome- 
thing Theolog^ical : The words of Confccration in the 
Sacrament. Our Saviour, when he inftituted the laft 
Supper, us'd thefe words ^ This is my Body ; taking the 
Bread into his hand. Which Words, joyn d with that 
a£lion, are very formal and expreflive. Yet we do 
not fcruple to forfike the Literal fenfe, and take the 
words in another way. But upon what warrant do 
we this ? Becanfe the literal fenfe contains an abfurdity : 
Becaufe it contradicts the light of Nature: Becaufe it 
is inconfiflent with the idea of a Body, and fo de/lroys 
it felf. In like manner, upon the Idea of the Divine 
Nature, we difpute Ahfolute Reprobation, and Eterni- 
ty of Torments, againll the Letter of Scripture. And, 
Ladly, Whether the Refurreclion-Body confiftsofthe 
fame individual parcels and particles, whereof the Mor- 
tal Body confifted, before it was putrified or difpers'd. 


made againfl the Theory of the Earth. 85 

And, VhlU 4. 3. Apoc, 3. 5, & 20. 12. whether the Books 
of Life are to be under(tood in a literal Senfe. 

The laft Head is of (uch things as belong to the Na- 
tural World. And to thismay be reduc'd an innume- 
rable Inftances, where we leave the literal fenfe, if in- 
confiftent with Science, or experience. And the Truth 
is, if we ihould follow the Vulgar ftyle and literal 
fenfe of Scripture, we fhould all be Antropomorphites^ 
as to the Nature of God: And as to the nature of his 
Works in the external Creation, we muft renounce 
Philofophy and Natural Experience, if the defcriptions 
and accounts given in Scripture, concerning the Hea- 
vens^ the Earthy the Sea^ and other parts of the World, 
be received as accurate and juft reprefentations of the 
flate and properties of thofe Bodies. Neither is there 
any danger left this fhould affe^l or impeach the Di- 
vine Veracity ^ for Scripture never undertook, nor 
was ever defigned to teach us Philofophy, or the Arts 
and Sciences. And whatfoever the Light of Nature 
can reach and comprehend, is improperly the Subjeft 
of Revelation. But fome Men, out of love to their 
own eafe, and in defence of their ignorance, are not 
only for a Scripture-Divinity, but alfo for a Scripture- 
Philofophy. *Tis a cheap and compendious way, and 
faves them the trouble of farther ftudy or examina- 

Upon the whole, you fee, it is no fault to recede 
from the literal fenfe of Scripture, but the fault is 
when we leave it without a juft caufe. As it is no 
fault for a Man to feperate from a Church : or for a 
Prince to nuke War againft his Neighbour : but to do 
t\\Q one or the other, without a juft caufe, is a real 
fault. We all leave the literal fenfe in certain cafes, 
and therefore that alone is no fufficient charge againft 
any Man. But he that makes a feparation, if I may 
fo call it, without good reafons, he is truly obnoxious 
to cenfure. The great refult of all therefore, is this. 
To have fome common Rule to dire£l us, when every 
one ought to follow, and when to leave, the Literal 
Senfe. And that Rule which is generally agreed upon 
by good Interpreters, is this. Not to leave the literal 
Senie, when the Subjed matter will bear it, without 
abfurdity or incongruity. This Rule I have always pro- 

F \ pofe4 

8(5 G/4;/ oAnfwer to the Exceptions^ S-c. 

pofed to my felf, and^rhT^ays endeavoured to keep dofe 
to it. Bat fome inconfiderate Minds make every de- 
parture from the Letter, let the Matter or CauTe be 
what it will, to be an affront to Scripture. And 
there, where we have the ^reatefl: liberty, I mean in 
things that relate to the Natural World, They have 
no more indulgence or moderation, than if it was an 
intrenchment upon the Articles of Faith. In this par- 
ticular I cannot excule the prefent Animadverter *, yet 
I muft needs fay, he is a very Saint in comparifon' of 
another Animadverter, who hath writ upon the fame 
Subjeft, but neither like a Gentleman : nor like a 
Chriftian : nor like a Scholar. And fuch Writings 
anfwer themfelves. 




O F 


O F H I S 


Againft the 


O F T H E 


In a Letter to a Friend. 

L NT> N', 

Printed for J. H oo kf, at the Flower ie 
Luce in Fleetftreet, MDCCXIX. 



O F 

Mr. Erasmus Warren's 
Defence of his Excep- 
tions againft the Theo- 
ry of the Earth. 


Have read over Mr. Er. Warrens De- 
fence of his Exceptions againft the 
Theory of the Earth : which, it may 
be, few will do after me *, as not ha- 
ving curiofity or patience enough, to 
read fucha long Pamphlet, of private 
or little ufe. Such altercations as thefe, 
are to you, I believe, as they are to 
me, a fort of folly •, but the AggrefTor muft anfwer for 
that, who makes the trouble inavoidable to the Defen- 
dant. And 'tis an unpleafant exercife *, a kind of Wild- 
goofe-chafe:^ where he that leads muft be followed, 
through all his extravagance?. 

The Author of this Defence muft pardon me, if I 
have lefs apprehenfions both of his judgment and temper, 
than I had before. For, as he is too verbofe and long- 
winded ever to make a dofe reafoner. So it was un- 


i oAfifort Confide rat ion of the Tie fence of the 

expelled to me to find his Pyle To captious and angry, 
as it is in this laft Paper. And the fame ftrain continu- 
ing to the end^ I was forry to fee that his blood had 
been kept upon the fret, for fo many Months together, 
as the Pamphlet was a-making. 

He might have made his Work much Ihorter, with- 
out any lofs to the Senie. If he had left out his popular 
enlargments, juvenile excurfions, ft ories and il rains of 
Country-Rhetorick, (whereof we fhall give you fdme 
inftances hereafter) his Book would have been reduc'd 
to half the compafs. And if from that reduc'd half, 
you take away again trifling altercations and pedantick 
repartees, the remainder would fall into the compafs 
of a {t\N Pages. For my part, I am always apt to fuf- 
pe£la Man that makes me a long anfwer : for the pre- 
cife point to be fpokento, in a multitude of V/ords is 
eafily loft : and Words are often multiplied for that 
very purpofe. 

However if his humour be verbofe, it might have 
been, at lea ft, more Cdfie and inoffetifive: there having 
been no provocation given him in that kind. Bat let 
us guefs, if you pleafe, as well as we can, whatitwMS 
in the late Anfwer, that fo much difcompofed the Ex- 
cepter and altered his ftyle. Either it muft be the 
words ajid language of that Anfwer : or the ienfe of it, 
without refpeft to the Language. As to the Woras, 
'tis true, he gives fome inftanccs of sxprefTions ofFen- 
fivetohim^ yet they are but three or four, and thofe 
inethinks, not very high : P. 31. tho' he calls them 
the hrats of Pajfio^ -^ they arc thefe indifcreet^ rude^ in- 
judicious an d uncharitable, Thefe charaifters, it Icems, 
are applyed to the Excepter, in fome part of the An- 
fwer, upon occafion offcr'd. And whether thofe occa- 
fions w^ere jufl or no, I dare appeal to your judgment. 
As to the Word Rude^ which feems the moft harfh, 
I had faid indeed, that he was rude to Anaxagoras : and 
fo he was, not to allow him to be a competent wit- 
nefs in matter of Fa<^, whom all Antiquity, facredand 
prophane, hath reprefented to us as one of the greateft 
Men amongft th^ Antients. I had alfo faid in another 
Place, that, a rude^ and iyijudiclous defence of Scripture 
by railing and, ill languacie^ is the true way to I ([Jen and 
-eiifparage it. This 1 ilill jafiiiie as true, and if he 


Exceptions again!} the Theory of the Earth, j 

apply it ro himfelf, nuich good may it do him. I do not 
rcmembtr that it is any where laid that he was rude 
to the Theorift *, if it be, *tis poftibly upon his charging 
him with Blafphemy^ horrid hlajphcmy agaihji the Holy 
Cihoji^ for faying, the Earth was diJJ<Jv'd at the Deluge, 
And I appeal to any NSan, whether this is not an un- 
charitable^ and a rvde charge. If a Man had curfed 
Goda or cali'd our Saviour an Impoftor, what could her 
have been charg'd with more, than Blafphemy^ horrid 
hlafphemy? And if the fame things be charg'd upon a 
Man, for fiying, the Earth wasdifTolv'd at the Deluge, 
eith^jr all crimes and errors muft be equal, or the 
Charge muft be rude. But however it mufk be rude 
in the opinion of the Theorift, who thinks this neither 
Crime nor error. 

What iays the Defence of the Exceptions to this ? 
P. 153. It makes ufe of diftinclions for mitigation of 
tat ceniure : and fays, it will indirc^ly^ confequemially^ 
or redud:ivcly^ be of blafphe?77ous itnportance. Here 
blafphemy is changed into blafphemous importance^ and 
horrid blafphemy into confequcntial^C^c, But taking all 
thefe mitigations, it feems however, according to his 
Theology, all errors in Religion are blafphemy^ or of 
hlafphcmous importance. For all errors in Religion muft; 
he againft: Scripture oneway or other: at leaft con- 
fequentially, indiredly, or reduftively : and all that 
are fo, according to the Doctrine of this Author, muft: 
be blafphemy or of blafphemous i??iportance. This is 
crude Divinity, and the Anfwerer had reafon to fub- 
joyn what we cited before. That, a rude and injudicious 
defence of Scripture, is the true way to leften and di{^^ 
parage it. , .-, 

Thus much for rude and vncharitahle : as for the' 
other two Word?, indifcreet and injudicious^ I cannot* 
eafily be induc'd to make any apology for them. Gn^ 
the contrary, I'm afraid, I ftiall have occafion to repeat 
thefe characters again, efpecially the latter of them,- 
in the perulal of this Pamphkt. However they do not 
look like brats of pajjlon^ as he calls them : but rather 
as cool and quiet judgments, made upon Reafons and; 
Premifes. I had forgot one exprellion more. The an- 
fwer, it feems, fomwhere calls the Excepter a Dabler 
in Philcfophyy which he takes ill. But that he is a Dab- 

4 eAJhort Confideration of the Defence of the 

ler, both in Philofophy and Aftronomy, I believe will 
evidently appear upon this fecond examination of the 
fame pafTages upon which that Chara^^er was grounded. 
We will therefore leave that to the trial, when 
we come to thole palTages again, in the following dif- 

Thefe, Sir^ as far as I remember, are the Words and 
exprefiions which he hath taken notice of, as oifenfive 
to him, and efFei^is of paflion. But, methinks, thefe 
cannot be of force fufficient to put him fo much out of 
humour, and change his ftyle fo much, as we find it to 
be in thislaft Pamphlet. And therefore I am inclinable 
to believe, that 'tis the fenfe rather, than the Words or 
language of the Anfwer, that hath had this efFsft upon 
him : and that fome unhappy pafTages, that have exposed 
his miftakes, were the true caufes of thefe refentments. 
Such pafTages I will guefs at, as well as I can, and note 
them to you as they occur to my memory. 

But give me leave firft, upon this occafion of his 
new way of writing, to diftinguifh and mind you of 
three forts of arguing, which you may call, Reafoningj 
Wrangling^ 3ir\d Scolding, In fair reafoning, regard is 
had to Truth only, not to Viftory ; let it fall on whe- 
ther fide it will. But in wrangling and fcolding, 'tis 
vi£lory that is purfued and aim'd at in the firft place, 
with little regard to truth. And if the Contention be 
manag'd in civil terms, 'tis but wrangling : if in un- 
civil, 'tis fcolding. I will not fo far anticipate your 
judgment as to rank this Arguer in any of the three 
orders : if you have patience to read over his Pamphlet, 
you will beft fee how and where to (et him in his proper 

We now proceed to thofe palTages in the Anfwer, 
which probably have moft exafperated the Author of 
the Exceptions and the Defence. Exc, p. 77, &c. In 
his Exceptions he had faid. The Moon being prefent, 
or in her prefent place in the Firmament, at the Time 
of the Chaos, (he would certainly trouble and difconi- 
pofe it, as (he does now the Waters of the Sea : and, 
by that means hinder the formation of the Earth. To 
this we anfwer'd, that the Moon that was made the ^h 
day^ could not hinder the formation of the Earthy which 
was TTiade the id day. This was a plain intelligible 

anlwer ; 

Exceptions agalnft the Theory of the Earth. ^ 

Anfwer .' and at the fame time difcover'd fuch a manifeft 
(blunder in the obje£lion, as could not but give an uneafi© 
thought to him that made it. 

However we muft not deny, but that he makes feme' 
attempt to fhift it off in his Reply : For he fays. Deft 
p. 12. the Earth formed the ^d day ^ was Mofes's Earth^ 
which the Extepter contends for : but the Earth he difputes 
againji^ is the Theorifi's^ which could not he formed the 
^d day. He ftiould have added, and therefore would be 
hindered by the Moon : otherwife this takes off nothings 
And now the queftion comes to a clear ftate : for whea 
the Excepter fays, the Moon would have hinder'd the 
formation of the Earth, either he fpeaks upon Mofes'% 
Hypothefis, or upon the Theorift Hypothefis. Not up- 
on the Theorift's Hypothefis, for the Theorift does 
notfuppofe the Moon prefent then. £^c/. p. 77, 78. Z)f/» 
p. 73. lin. 12, 13. And if he fpeaks upon Mofes's Hy- 
pothefis, the Moon that was made the ^^h Day, muft 
have hindered the formation of the Earth the 3^ Day.' 
So that the Objeftion is a Blunder upon either Hypo- 

Furthermore, whereas he fuggefts that the Anfwerec 
makes ufe of Mofes\ Hypothefis to confute his Adverfa- 
ry, but does not follow it himfelf : Tis fo far true,' 
that the Theorift never faid that Mofes's fix- Days Crea- 
tion was to be underftood literally, but however it is 
juftly urged againft thofe that underftand it literally, 
and they muft not contradid that Interpretation whicb 
thty own and defend. 

So much for the Moon, and this firft Paflage, which 
I fuppofe was troublefome to our Author. But he nukes 
the fame Blunder in another Place, as to the Sum 
Both the Luminaries, it feems, ftood in his way. In 
the 10^^ Chapter of his Exceptions, he gives us a new 
Hypothefis about the Origin of Mountains : which, in 
fhort, is this. That they were drawn or fuckt out of 
the Earth by the influence and inftrumentality of the 
Sun. Whereas the Sun was not made, according to 
Mofes^ till the ^h Day, and the Earth was form'd the 
^d Day. Tis an unhappy Thing to fplit twice upon 
the fame Rock, and upon a Rock fo vifible. He that 
can but reckon to four, can tell whether the 3^ Day, oc 
4^/7 Day came fooner. 

6 eAJJport Confideration oftheDefence of the 

To cure this Hypothefis about rhe Origin of A4ovn^ 
iamSj he tikes great pains in hh Defc?7ce^ P'ag. 97, 98,991 
100, lOi. and attempts to do it by help of a Diftinai- 
pn, dividing Mountains into Maritime and Inland, 
Now 'tis true, (ays he, Thefe maritime Mountains^ and 
fuch as were mads with the hollow of the Sea^ muji rife 
fphe-n that was funk or deprcfi : naniely, the 3^ Day. 
yet Inl.ind ones, he fays, might be raifed fome earlier, 
arid fome later: and by the infiuence of the Sun. This 
is" a weak and vain Attempt to defend his Notion *, for, 
befides that this Diilinciion of Maritirne and Inland 
Mountains^ as arifmg from different Caufes, and at dif- 
ferent times, is without any ground, either in Scripture 
or Reafon : If their different Origin was admitted, the 
Sun's extra(fl:ing thefe Inland v ountains out of the Earth, 
would ftill be abfurd and incongruous upon other ac- 

Scripture, I fay, makes no fuch DiftinftiVn of Moun- 
tains, made at different Times, and from different Cau- 
fes. This is plain, feeing Alofcs does not mention Moun- 
tains at all in his fix- days Creation : nor any where 
elfe, till the Deluge* What Authority have we then 
to make this Diftinftion •, or to fuppofe that all the. 
great Mountains of the Earth were not made together? 
Befides, what length of Time would you require, for 
the produ6\ion of thefe Inland Mountains? were they 
not ail made within the fix d;iys Creation? Hear what 
iidofes (ays at the end of the 6th Day. Thus the Heavens 
and the Earth were fini/fjed^ and all the Hifi of the-mfi^n. 
c. 21. -And on the 7th day^ God ended his Work which 
he had made. Now if the Exceptor Gy, that the Moun- 
tains v/ere all made within thefe fix-.days, we will not 
ftand with him for a Day or two ', for that would make 
little difference as to the aftion of the San. But if he 
will not confine their producHiion to Mofes's fix-days, 
how does he keep to the Molaical Hypothefis ? Or how 
ihall we know where he will (lop, .in his own way? 
for if they were not made within the fix-d;\ys, for any 
thing he knows, they might not be ,made till the De- 
luge*, feeing Scripture no where nj^inj^ions Mountains 
before the Flood. " .,'..'/ '. 

And as Scripure makes no 1^\^n^\ox\ o^ A'fnriiime 
'4tid laland Mountains J {0 neither Sath this Diflin^^idn 


Exceptions agahifl the Theory of the Earth, 7 

any foundation in Nature or Reafon. For there is no 
apparent or difcernable Difference betwixt Maritime 
and Inland Mountains, Dor any Reafon why they fhould 
be thought to proceed from different Caufes, or to be 
rais'd at different Times. The Maritime Mountains 
are as rocky, as rudcrous, and as irregular and various 
in their Ihape and pofture, as the Inland Mountains. 
They have no diftinftive Characters, nor any different 
Properties, internal or external : In their Matter, Form 
or Ccmpofition, thatcan s,ive us any ground to believe, 
thit they came from a different Original. So that this 
Diftinftion is meeriy precarious, neither founded in 
Scripture nor Reafon, but made for the nonce ro ferve 
a Turn. 

Befides, what Bounds will you gi^'e to thefe M.iri- 
time Mountains? Are they diftinguifii'd from Inland 
Mountains barely by their diftance from the Sea, or 
by fome other Charadler ? if barely by Diftance, tell 
us then how far from the Sea do the Maritime Moun- 
tains reach, and where do the Inland begin, and how 
fhall we know the Ter??iinalis Lapis f' Efpecialiy in a 
continued Chain of Mountains, that reach from the 
Sea many hundreds of Miles Inland ;, as the j^Ips from 
the Ocean to Po/itus £uxif7us^'xnd Taiirus^?s he Liys^Def. 
p. 143. fifteen hundred Miles in length, from the Chinefe 
Ocean to the Sea of Pamphylia, In fuch an uninterrupted 
Ridge of Mountains, where do the Land-Mountains 
end, and Sea-Mountains begin ? Or what Mark is there, 
whereby we may know that they are not all of the fame 
Race, or do not all fpring from the fame Original ? Such 
obvious Enquiries as thefe, fnew ibfFciently, that the 
DiftinCtion is meerly /Arbitrary and Fictitious. 

But fuppofe this Diftinction was admitted, and the 
Maritime Mountains made the 3^ Day, but Inland 
Mountains I know not when : The great Difficulty ftill 
remains. How the Sun rear'd up thefe Inland Moun- 
tains afterwards. Or if his Power be fufFcient for fuch 
Etfew^s, why have w^e not Mountains made (fill to this 
Day ? Seeing our Mountain-maker the Sun is {Hi! in the 
Firmament, and feems to be ais bufie at work as evetj 
The Defc?7dcr hath made foiiie Anfwer to this Queftion, 
in thefe Words, i^t/. p. 9Q. TheQueftionisput^ Why 
have we ?io Alountalns ir.ade novo? Jr might as w^lLhave 

g Q^i jfwrt Confkleratio7i ofthe'Vefenceofthe 

been askt^ fays he, IVhy does not the Fire make a doughs 
hak'd Loaf five II and huff u^ ? And, he fays, this yinfwer 
mufi be jatisfaEloyy to the Oiujlloti propounded . It m lift 
be, that is, for w^nt of "a^better :^ for otherwile this 
Doogh-Gomparifon is unfatisfaj^lory upon many Ac- 
counts^ Firfi, there was no ferment in the Earth, as 
in this Dongh-cake •, at leaft it is not prov'd, or made 
appear, that there was any. Nay, in the Exceptions^ 
"when this HypotheHs was propos'd, there was no men- 
tion at all made of any ferment or Leaven in the Earth ^ 
bat the EfFecl was wholly imputed to Vapryrs and the 
Sun. But to fupply their Defccls, he now ventures to 
add the ^o^^^fermentive^ as he calls it. ibid, Hn. 19. A 
fermentive^ flatule-nt Principle^ which heav'd up the 
Earth, as Leaven does Dough. But, befides, that this 
is a meer groundlefs and gvofs Poilulatum, to fuppofe 
any fuch Leaven in the Earth : If there had been iucha 
Principle, it would have fwcllen the whole Mafs uni- 
formly, heav'd up the exterior Region of the Earth 
every where, and fo not made Mounliins, but a Iwoln 
bloated Globe. 

This, Sir, is a zd PafTage, which I thought mighs 
make iht D^knd^tx: uneafje. We proceed now to a 
3<3( and 4^^ in his Geography and Aftronomy. In the 
i^th Chapter of his Exceptions, pag. 289, fpeakir.g of the 
change of t\\t Situation cf the Earth, from a right Po- 
flure to an oblique, he fays, according to the Theory^ the 
Ecliptick in the Pri:-nitive Earihj rras tts Equincciial 
710W. This, he is told by the Anfwer, is a great miftake ^ 
namely, to think that thQ Earthy when it ehargd its Si- 
tuation^ cha:-7g'd its Poles and Circles. What is now re- 
ply 'd to this ? He [peaks again fi a Change y fays the De- 
fence, in the Poles and Circles of the Earth '^ a ncedlcfs 
Trouble^ and occafoncd by his own o-uerfight. For had hf 
but lookt i7?to the Errata %^ he might have fc en thereat hat 
■the fe Parent hefes^ tipon which he grounded what ke fays^ 
fljould have been left out. So this is acknowledg'd an 
Erratum^ it {eems, but an Erratum Typographicum'^ not 
in the Senfe, but only in the Parcnthcfes^ which, he 
fays, fhould have been left out. Let us tlien lay afide 
the Parenthefes, and the Sentence ftands thus^ fcr un- 
der the Ecliptick^ which in. the pa nj it ive Situation of the 
f.arth^accardiK^ to the Theory^ was ii'i Equrac^ial y a^id 
■ v-i xj/ aividtd 

Exception;! againfl the Theory of the Earth. 9 

divided the Clche into two Hemifphcres^ as the Equator 
does novo. The dry Ground^ &c. How does this alter or 
mend the Senfe? Is it not flill as plainly affirm'd, as 
before, that, according to the Theory, the Ecliptick in 
the Primitive Earth was its EquinO(ftial ? And the fame 
thing Is fuppos'd thrcughout all this Paragraph, Exc, p. 
289, 290. And if he will own the Truth, and give 
Things their proper Name, 'tis downright Ignorance or 
a grofs Mi flake in the Doctrine of the Sphere^ which he 
would firfi; father upon \\it^iheory^ and then upon the 

And this leads me to a 4th Pafiage, much- what of the 
fime nature, where he would have the Earth to hav« 
been tranfiated out of the ^Equator into the Ecliptick, 
and to have chang'd the Line of its motion about the 
Siin, when it chang'd its Situation. His Words are thefe, 
Exc. p. 158, 159. So that m her annual motion about the 
Suu^ Jhe^ namely th.t Earth, before her change of Situa- 
tion, was carried diretJly under the EquinoEiiaL This 
is his Miftake. The Earth mov'd in the Ecliptick, both 
before and after her change of Situation \ for the change 
was not made in the Circle of her Motion about the 
SiHi, bat in her Pofrure or Inclination in the fame Circle. 
Whereas he fuppofes that ilie Jhifted both Poflure^ and 
alfo her Circuit about the Sun^ Ibid./j. 159. as his Words 
are in the next Paragraph. But we (hall have occafion 
to refleft upon this again in its proper Place. We pro- 
ceed now to another Agronomical Miflake. 

A 5th Pafiage, which probably might difqulet him^ 
is his falfe Argumentation at the end of the 8th Chap, 
concerning Days and Months, Exc. p. 187. He fays 
there, if the natural Days were longer towards the 
FiooJ, than at tirfl *, (which no Body however affirms) 
fewer than thirty would have made a Month i^ whereas 
the duration of the Flood is computed by Months con- 
tlllina; of thirty Days apiece: Jhercfyc^ fiys he, they 
were iiG lofuer than ordinary. This Argumentation the 
y^fjfwer told him, was a mcer Paralo^^ijm^ or a r?ieer 
Blunder. For 50 Days are 30 Days, whether they are 
longer or fiiorter •, and Scripture does not determine 
the leni^th of the Days. Tliere are feveral Pages fpent 
\'\ the iJcfence^ to get off the Blunder : Let's here how 
I^e begins,^ V. 78^ 79, ?0j 8 1 . 77;./ Scripture doss not limit 

G z or 

xo <^i(l}ort Conjlderation oftheT^efence of the 

or account for the length of Days exprcfly^ yet it does it 
implicitly^ and withal very plainly and rrueliigihly. This 
is deny'd, and if he makes this onr, that Scripture does 
very plainly and intelligibly determine the length of 
Days at t'^e Deln^e, and makes them equal with ours 
at prefent, then, i acknowle Jgv-, he hath remov'd the 
Blunder*, otherwife it ftands the fame, unmovM and 
un mended. Now obferve how he makes this out •, For^ 
fays he, Scripture gives us to under Jland^ that Days before 
the Fln^d^ were of the fame length that they are of now y 
BY IN FOR AUNG i;S, that Months and Tears ^ 
which were of the fame length then that they are of at 
prefent^ were made up of the fame number of Days. Here 
the Blunder is ft ill continued^ or, at befl, it is but 
transferr'd from Days to Months, or from Months to 
Years. He fays, Scripture informs us that A4onths and 
Tears were of the fame length then^ that they are of at 
pYefent. If he mean by the/^;;^f lengthy the fame num- 
ber of Days^ he relapfes into the old Blunder, and we 
ftill require the lengrh of thofe Davs. But rf Scrip- 
ture informs us that the Months and Years at tht Flood, 
were of the fame length that they are of now, accord- 
ing to any abfolute and known Meafure, diftindl from 
the number of Days^ then the Blunder is fav'd. Let's 
fee therefore by whether of thefe tw^o Ways he proves 
it in the next Words, which are thefe. For how could 
there be juji iz Months in the Tear^ at the time of the De- 
luge : and 30 Days in each of thefe Months^ if Days then 
had not confifted^ as they do now of 24 Hours a-piece. 
We allow a Day might then confifc of 24 Hours, if 
the Diftint^tion of Hours was fo ancient. But what 
then, the Qneflion returns concerning iht length of 
thofe Hours^ as it was before concerning the length of 
the Days •, and this is either idem per idem^ or the fame 
Error in another Inftance. If you put but Hours in the 
place of X)^^r, the Words of the Anfwer have ftill the 
fame force: Twenty four Hours were to go to a Day^ 
'whether the Hours were longer or fhorter *, and Scrip- 
ture doe snot determine the length of the Hours, This, 
you fee, is ftil! the fame Caf^, and the fame Paralo- 
gifm hangs upon both Iiiftances. 

But ne goes on ftiil in this falfe Traifb, in thefe 
[Words ; -^nd as Providence hathfo ordered Nature ^ that 


Exceptions againfl the Theory of the Earth. 1 1 

Days (that d'.perjd vpm its diurnal motion) pjould be 

me ifurd by Circumgyrations of the Earth So it hath 

taken care that each of thcfe Circumrotations jhould be 
performed in 2f Hours\ and confqnently that every ^ 
Duy jhould be jujl fo long that 30 of them {in way oj reckoning) might compUat a Aionth, Admit all 
this, that 30 Davs compleat a Month. Still if Scripture 
hath not determin'd the len2;rh ofthofe Days, nor the 
flovvnefsor IwiFtnefs of the Circumgyrations that make 
them, it hath not determin'd to us ihe lengih of thofe 
Months, nor of the Years that depend upon them. 
This one would take to be very intelligible •, yet he 
goes on ftill in the lame Maze, thus. But now had the 
Circumgyrations of the Earth grown more flow towards the 
Deluge {by fuch Caufcs as the Except er fi'ggcfted) fo as 
every Day had confijled of 7,0 Flours^ &:c. But how fo, 
I pray? This is a wild ftep: Why 30 Hours? Where 
does Scripture fay fo, or where does the Theorifi fay fo .'' 
We Gy the Day cc^nfifted then as now of 24 Hours, 
whether the Hours were longer or fhorter *, and that 
Scripture hath not determin'd the length of thofe 
Hours, nor confequently of thofe Months, nor con- 
fequently of thofe Years. So after all this a-do, we 
are juft where we were at firfr, namely. That Scrip- 
ture not having determin'd the ablblute length of any 
one, you cannot by that determine the length of any 
other. And by his fhifting and multiplying Inftances, 
he docs hut abfurda abfurdis accumul arcane per plua-nt. 

We oiFer'd before, in our Anfwer, to give the Ex- 
cepter fome light into hisMiftake*, by diflinguifhing 
in thefe Things, what is abfolute from what is relative: 
The former whereof cannot, under thefe or any fuch 
like Circumfiances, be determin'd by the latter. For 
infiance : A Man hath ten Children, and he will not 
fay abfolutely and determinatively what Portion he 
will g^ive with any one of them *, but he (ays, 1 will give 
my eldcft Child a tenth Part more than my zd^ and my 
fecond a c)th Part more than my 3<^, and my third an 
Srh Part more than my 4th *, and fo downwards in 
proportion to the youngefl. Not telling you, in any 
abfolute Sum, what Money he will give the youngefl, 
or any oth::r : Y^ou cannot, by this, tell what Portion 
the Mill will give with any of his Children. I leave 

G 3 you 

12 oAport Confideratiofi of tie T^e fence of the 

you to apply this, and proceed to a nearer Inftance, by- 
comparing the Meafures of Time and Longitude, If 
you know how many Inches make a Foot, how many 
Feet a Pace, how many Paces a Mile, &c, you cannot 
by thefe Numbers determine the abfolute Quantity of 
anyone of the forefaid Meafures, but only their rela- 
tive Qiiantity as to one another. So if Scripture had 
determin'd, of how many Hours a Day confifted *, of 
Jiow many Days a Month*, of how many Months a 
Year \ you could not by this alone determine the ab- 
folute Duration or Quantity of any one of thefe, nor 
whether they were longer or fhorter than our prefent 
Hours, Days, Months, or Years. And therefore, I 
fay (lill, as I faid at firfl, 30 Days are 30 Days, whe- 
ther they are longer or ihorter:^ and 30 Circumgyrati- 
ons of the Earth are 50, whether they be flower or 
fwifter. And that no Scripture Proof can be made from 
this, either direflly or confequentially, that the Days 
before the Flood, were or were not, longer than they 
are at prefent. But we have been too long upon this 

We proceed now from his Aflronomy to his Philo- 
^O'^'^^y, *Twas obferv'd in the Anfwer^ P. 38, that t\\Q 
£xcepter in the beginning of the prh Chap, fuppos'd Ter- 
reftrial Bodies to have a nltency i/rrvardsj or aowmv-irds 
towards the Center, This was noted as a falfe Principle 
in Phylofophy *, and to reclify his Miftake, he now re- 
plies, Def. p. 82. That he underftood that FA'prelliOii 
only of fclf central 'and qulefccnt Bodies. Whereas in 
truth, the Qiieftion he was fpeaking to, was about a 
fluid Body turning upon its Axis, ^at however let us 
admit his new Senfe, his Principle, I'm afraid, will 
flili need reflification ^ namely, he affirms now, that 
Qj^iefcent Earthly Bodies arc impregnated r^ith anitency 
inward^ or downward towards the Center. 1 deny al(o 
this reform'd Principle •, if Bodies be turn'd round, ihty 
have a uitency upwards, or from the Center of their 
motion. If they be not tarn*d round, nor mov'd, but 
r}uiercent, thty h,ive no nitencv at all,' neither upwards 
uor downwards^ butareindiiterent to nil Lines' of mO' 
tion, according as an external impulle D)al! carry them, 
this way or thxl ivay. So that his ii'!pregy;anon with a 
riitefuy downwards^ is an occult and fidliticus quality, 


Exceptzo7is agatf^fl the Theory of the EartJi. i j 

v/hichisnot in the nature of Bodies, whether in motion 
or in reft. The truth ii., The Author of \\\^ Excep- 
tions makes a greit flatter about the Cartefian Philcj'ophyy 
and the Coptrmcan S-yjlcwCy bat the frequent miftakes he 
commits in both, give a juft fufpicion that he under- 
flands neither. 

Laftly, we come to the grand difcovery of a Fifteen- 
€ubit-Deiiig€^ which, it may be, was as uneafie to him 
upon fecond -thoughts, as any of the reft : at leaftone 
would guefs fo, by the changes he hath made in his Hy- 
fjothefis. For he h.\th now, in this Befrnce^ P. iSr, 182. 
reduc'd the Delude to a deftru-flion of the World by 
Famine^ rather than hy drowr/r^jg. I do not remember 
in Scripture any mention made of Famine in that great 
judgment -of Water brought upon Mankind, but he 
thinks he hath found out fomething that favours his 
opinion: namely, that a good Part of Aiankind at the 
jjcluge^wcre not drown d^ but f^arvd for want of vicluab. 
And the Argument is this^becaufe in the ftory of the De- 
Juge Men are not fiid to be drown d^ but to per ijb^die or 
be dejlroyd. But are they f^id any where in the ftory of 
the Deluge, to have hc^n fami/'/d ? And when God (ays 
to Noah J Gen. 6. 17. J vpillhri'ng a Flood of Waters upon 
the Earthy to dcfiruy a'l Flejh^ Does it not plainly (igni- 
^ty that thatdeftruftion fiiould be by drowning!" But 
however let us hear our Author : when he had been 
making ufe of this new Hypothefis o( flarvingy to take 
■off fome argamen-t6 urged againft his fifteen-cubit De- 
luge (particularly, that it would not be fufficient to 
.dcftroy all Mankind) he adds thefe Words by way of 
proof. F>ef. p, 1S2. yind 7?:ethinks there is one thing 
which fte?ns to i'nfinuate.^ that a good Part of the Anunal 
world might perhaps come to an end thus : by hting driven 
to fucb Jlra'ghts by the overflowing Waters.^ as to he FA- 
MISHT or STARri) to Death. The Thing is this, 
in the ftory of the Deluge^ it is no where faid of Alen and 
living Creatures^ that thry were drown d^ but they dyedj 
jor were dtjtroyed. Thoi'e that are deftroy'd, 
I im.igine, as well as thofe that are jiarvd : {'0 this proves 
nothijig. But that the deliru(^lion liere fpoken of, 
'was by drowning, feems plain enough, both from God's 
words to N(jah before the Flood, and by his Words 
jxhcr the Flood, when he makes his Covenant vvith 

G 4 Naab 

14 a4fiort Conftderation of the T)efence of tide 

JSfoah^in this manner : / xvill ejiabli/l; my Covenant with 
you^ neither Jljall allftejh he cut off any more by the Waters 
'^of a Floods Gen. 9. it. >Iovv to be cut off, or deftroy'd 
by the Waters of a Flood, is, methinks, to bedrown'd. 
And I tdikt all Flcfr) to comprehend the Animal World, 
or at leaft, all Mankind. Accordingly our Saviour fays. 
Mat. 2^, ^g. in iVb^^'stime, the Flood came and took 
them all away: namely, all Mankind. 

This is one Expedient onr Author hath found out, to 
help to bear off the Inconveniences that attend his fif- 
teen-Cubit Deluge^ namely, by converting a good Part 
of it into a Famine. But he hath another Expedient to 
joyn to this, by increaling the W^aters *, and that is done 
by making the Common Surface of the Earth, or the 
higheji Farts oi it, as he calls them, Dcf. 165, & 180. 
to fjgnify ambiguoufly, or any height that pleafes him \ 
and confequently fifteen Cubits above that, fignifies alfo 
what height he thinks fit. But in reality, there is no 
Surface common to the Earth, but either the exterionr 
Surface^ whether it be high or low :, or the ordinary 
level of the Earth, as it is a Globe or convex Body. If 
by his common furface he mean the exteriour furfaccy 
that takes in Mountains as well as Low-lands, or any 
other fuperficiil Parts of the Earth. And therefore if 
the Deluge was fifteen Cubits above this common fur- 
face, it was fifteen Cubits above the highell xMountains,, 
as we (ay it was. But if by the common furhce he mean 
the common level of the Farth, as it is a Globular or 
convex Body, then we gave it a right Name, when we 
cairditthe ordinary level o\ the Earth *, namely,that le- 
vel or furface that lies in an equal convexity with the 
furfice of the Sea. And his fifteen Cubits of Water 
from that level, w^ould never drown the World. Laft- 
ly. If by the common Surface of the Earth, he under- 
iland a 3(3? furface, different from both the(e, he mufi: 
define it, and define the height of it*, that we may know 
how far this fifteen-Cubit Delugt: rife, from fome 
l^nown Bafis. One known Bafis is the furface of the 
Sea, and that furface of the Land that lies in an e(]ual 
convexity with it: Tell us then if the Waters of the 
Deluge were but fifteen Cubits higher than the furface 
ot ttit Sea, that we may know their height by fome 
certain and determinate Meafure, and upon that exa- 

Exceptiojis agalnfi tie Theory ofthe'Ezvth. 1 5 

mine the Hypothefis. But tell us they were fifteen 
CuMts above, nor the Mountains or the Hills, but the 
Highland^-, or the high efi Parts cf the common furface of 
the Earthy and not to tell us the height of thefe hi^eft 
Parts from any known Bafi^^ nor how they are diflin- 
guifh'd from Hills and Mountains, which incur our 
Senres,.ind are the Meafures- given us by Afcfes : This, I 
fay, is but to cover his Hvpothefis with Ambiguities, 
\vh-^n he had made it without grounds: And to leave 
room to Cct his Water-mark higher or lower, as he 
fliould fee Occafion or Neceflity. And of this indeed 
we have an Ii^fi:ance in his laft Pamphlet, for he has 
rais'd his Water-mark there, more than an hundred 
Cubits higher than it w\is before. In his £Arc^;)r/^;7i he 
fiid, P, 300. rzct that the Waters were no where higher 
tharijufi: fifteen Cubits^ above the Ground, they might 
in mod Places be thirty^ /'^^OS ^"^ ^t^y ^^^^'^^^ higher. 
But in his Defence he fa^s, P. i8o. the Waters might 
he an hundred or r:"r^ /;z^;?^/rf^ Cubits higher, than the 
general ordinary plain of the Earth. Now what Securi- 
ty have we, but that in the next Pamphlet, they may 
be 500 or a icco Cubits higher than the ordinary fur- 
face of \\\t Earth. 

This is his zd Expedient, raifing his Water-mark in- 
defiiiitcrly. But if thefe two Methods be not fufficient 
to deltroy Mankind, and the animate W^orld, he hath 
yet a third, which cannot fail ^ and that is, Dcftroying 
them by Evil Angels^ Def. p. 90. FleElerc finequeo. This 
is his lad Refuge •, to which purpofehe hath thefe Words, 
When Heaven was pleas' d togii e Satan leave ^ he cans' d, the 
Eire to con fume JobV Sheep^ and can fed the Wind to de^ 
flroy his Children. And how eafly could thefe Spirits^ 
that are Aiinijicrs of God's Vengeance^ have made the 
Waters of the Elood fatal to thefe Creatures that might 
have efcapedthem^ if any could have done it ? As fuppofe 
an Eagle, oraFaulcon: The Devil and his Crue catch 
them all, and held their Nofes under Water. How- 
ever, methinks, this is not fair play, to deny the Theo- 
rill the Liberty to make ufe of the miniftery of good 
Angels^ when he himfelf makes ufe of evil Spirits. 

Thefe, Sir, and Cach like Palfages, where the Notions 
of the Exrepter hath been expos'd, w^ere the Caufes, I 
imagine, of his angry Reply. Some Creatures, yoii 


\S qA Jhort Conftderation of the T^e fence of the 

know, are more fierce after they are wounded : And 
fome upon a gentle chafe will fly froin yon, but if you 
prefs them and put them to Extremities, they turn and 
fly in your Face. I fee by our Author's Example, how 
eafily, in thefe perfonal Altercations, Reafoning dege- 
nerates into Wrangling, and Wrangling into Scolding. 
However, if I may judge from thefe two Hypothefes 
which he hath made, about the rife of Afountain's^ and 
2. fifteen- Cubit Delvge^ of all Trades I fhould never ad- 
vife him to turn Hypothcfu maker. . It does not feem at 
all to lie to his Hand, and Things never thrive that are 
undertaken, Diis iratis^ genioque finijiro. 

But as we have given you fome Account of this Au- 
thor's Phiiofophical Notions, fo it may be you will ex- 
pe£l that we fhould entertain you with fome Pieces of 
his Wit and Eloquence. The Truth is, he feems to de- 
light and value him felf upon a certain kind of Country- 
Wit and popular Eloquence, and 1 w^ill not grudge you 
the Pleafure of enjoying them both, in (lich Inftances 
as I remember. Speaking in contempt of the Theory 
and the Anfwerjfw^hich is one great Subject of his Wit) 
he expreffes himfelf thus, jDf/. p. 48. But if Arguments 
he fo wcak^ that they will fall with a Phillips why fjould 
greater Force he vfed to beat them down f To draw a Ra- 
pier to flab a Fly ', or to charge a Piftol to kill a Spider \ 
I think would be prepoflercus. I think fo too, in this we 
are agreed. In another Place, being angry with the 
Theorifl, that he would not acknowledge his Errors to 
liim, he h;Uh thefe Words, P. 108. *Tis unlucky for one 
to run his Head againft a Pofl : But wbrn hehathdone^ if 
be will fay he did not do it^ and Jiaud in^ and defend 
Ti^hat he fr^:s : his afign he is as fcncelcfs as he was unfor- 
tunate \ and is fitter to he pitied thayi cofjfuted. This 
Wit, it m:^y be, you'll f\y, is downright clownery. 
The Truth is, when I obferv'd, in reading his Pamphlet, 
the cocrfenefsof his Repartees, and of fort of Wit 
wherin he deals mod and pleafes himftlf, it often rais'd 
in my Wind, vrh^^ther I would or no, thti Idea of a Pe- 
dant : Of one that had fee!i little of the World, and 
thought himielf much u'itti<;r and wifer than others 
would take him to be. I will give you but one Inflance 
more of his ruftical Wit. Trilling the Theorift of an 
iXch of writing, f. 2:4. Mctbinks^ lays he, be inight 

h avc 

Exceptions agahfl the Theory of the Earth. 17 

have laid that prurient Humour^ by fcratching himfelf 
ivlth the B'iars of a more intivccnt Cotitroverfy^ or by 
SCRV B R I NG SOV ND LT again/} fome thing elfe 
than the Hily Scripture, He fpeaks very fenfibly, as if 
he underftood the Difeafe, and the way of dealing with 
it. Bat I think Holy Scripture does not come in well 
upon that Occafion. 

All this is nothing, Sir, in com pari fon of his popular 
Eloquence. See with what alacrity he runs it oif-hand, 
in a Similitude betwixt Adam and a Lord Lieutenant 
of a Co\inty.pAl'i^.When the King makes a GentlemanLd, 
Lieutenant of a County^ by virtue of his Commiffion is he 
prefently the firongcft Man that is in it / Does it enable 
him to encounter vohole Regiments of Soldiers in his fwgle 
Per fon ? Does it imporver him to carry a Cannon upon his 
Neck ? Or when the great Gun is fired off^ to catch the 
Bullet as it flies ^ and put it up in his Pccket f So when 
God gave A'iam dominion over the Fcwls^ did he wean 
that he fI:ould dive like a Dttck^ or foar like a Falcon ? 
That he fJjould fwim as naturally as the Swan^ and hunt 
the Kite or Hobby ^ as Boys do the Wren ? Did he mean 
that he fljould hang up O'hitches in a Cage^ as People do 
Li'nnets ? or fetch down the Eagles to feed with his Pullcn^ 
and make them perch with his Chickens in the Henrooft ? 
So much for the Fowls, now tor the Fifh. Ibid, When 
God gave Adam Dominion over the Sea^ was he to be able 
10 dwell at the bottom^ or to walk on the top of it ? To 
drain it as a Ditch^ or to take all its Fry at once in a 
Drag-net ? Was he to fnare the Shark^ as we do young 
Pickarels ', or to bridle the Sea-Horfe^ and ride hi?n for 
a Pad r or to put a Slip vpon the Crocodile's Neck^ and 
play with him as with a Dog <" &:c. Sir, I leave it to 
you, as a more competent Judge, to fet a juft value 
upon his Gifts and Elocution. For my part, to fpeak 
freely. Dull Senfe, in a phantaftick Style, is to me 
doubly nauceous. 

But left I fhould cloy you withthefelufhiousHarangues, 
I will give you but one more: and 'tis a milcellany 
of feveral pieces of Wit together. Dcf. p. 6^. Should 
twenty AfarinerSj (ays he, confidently affirm that they 
failed in a Ship from Dover to Calais, by a brisk Gale out 
of a pair of Bellows ? Or if forty Engineers Jhould poffitive- 
ly fwsar^ that the Powder- ?mll -near London, was late 


i8 oAff^ortConJideratmi of the Defence of the 

blown tdpy by a Mine then fprung at Great Waradin in 
Hungary, muji they not he grievonjly perjv.r\-' Verfomf 

Or if the Hljiorian that writes the Ptlvponefiur: V/ar^ 

had told that the Soldiers who fell init^ fcw^ot only with 
Sun-beams^ and [ingle Currants which grew thereabouts^ 
and that hundreds and thoufands werejiabb'd with the one^ 
and knocked on the Head wich the other '^ who w&uld be- 
lieve that ever there were fuch ^Veapons in that War \ 
that ever there was fuch a fatal IVar in that Country /* 
even fo^ &c. Thefe, Sir, are flights and reaches of his 
Pen, which I dare not cenfure, but leave them to your 

Thus much is to give you a taft only of his Wit ancf 
Eloquence;, and if you like it, you may find more of 
the fame ftrain, here and there, in his Writings. I 
have only one Thing ro mind him of. That he v\'as de- 
fired by the Theorift, Eng. Theo. p. 401. to write in La- 
tin (if he was a Scholar^ as being more proper for a Svb'jttb 
of this nature. If he had own'd and foliow'd that Cha- 
racter, I'm apt to think it would have prevented a 
great many Impertinencies : His Tongue, probably, 
would not have been fo flippint in popular Excurfions 
and declamations, as w^e now find it. Neither is ihis 
any great preiumption or rafhnefs of Judgment, if we 
may guefs at his Skill in that Lan&uage by his Tranfla- 
tions here an J there. Excep. p. 295. Cumplurima Re- 
ligione is rendered with the Principle of their Religion^ 
And if he fay he followed Sir W, Rawleigh in his Tran- 
flation, he thatfollow^sa bad Tranflator without cor- 
rection or notice, is fuppos'd to know no better him- 
felf. And this will appear the more probable, if we 
confider another of his Tranflations, in this prefent 
Work. Rei perfonam he tranilates the Re prefent at ion 
of the Thing ^ inilead of the Fcrfon of the Guilty : or the 
Perfon of him that is Rem not AUor. And in this, I 
dare fay, he was feduc'd by no Example. But left we 
fhould be thought to mifreprefent him, take his own 
Words, fuch as they are, Dcf. 160, 169. Tca^ though it 
-was fpoken never fo pofitively^ it was but to fct forth REI 
P E RSO N AM'^ to make the more full and lively Re- 
prefentation of the fuppofcd Thing. Here, you fee, he 
hath made a double Bluadt^r, firft, in jumbling together 
Perfon and Thing j then, if they couli be jumbled toge- 

Except tons againjl the Theory of the Earth. 19 

ther, Re'i Peyforja v:^u\i not fignify the full a-fid lively 
J^cprcfentation of the Things but rather a difguife or per- 
fonatrd Rt^prelentation of the Thing. However I am 
lariNfy'd from thefe Inftances, that he had good Reafon, 
nor vvithftanding the Caution or Defire of the Theorifl 
to the contrary, to write his Books in his Mother's 

Thus we have done with the firft Part *, which was to 
mark out fuch PafTiges, as we thought might probably 
havjenflam'd the Author's Style in this Reply. When 
Men are refolved not to own their Faults, you know 
there is nothing more uneafy and vexatious to them, 
than to fee them plainly difcovered and expos'd. We 
muft now give you Tome Account of the Contents of his 
Chapters, fo far as they relate to our Subjeft. Chap.jjt 
Nothing, Chap.zd i» ^%riT\9L extraordinary Providence i 
or thit th-^ Taeorift ihould not be permitted to have re- 
courfe to it upon anv Occafion. This rccourfe to extra- 
ordinary Providence being frequently obie£led in other 
Places, and of ufe to be dill:in£tly underftood : We will 
fpeak ofit apart at the latter end of the Letter. Chap. 3. 
is about theMoons hindring the formation of the Earth be- 
fore j])e rvas formed herfelf or in our Neighbourhood j 
as we have noted before. Another Thing in this Chap, 
is his urging, Ofiy or Oleagineous Particles not to have 
been in the Chans^ but made fince. I'll give a fhort An- 
fwertothis: Either there was or was not, Oleagineous 
Matter in the new-made Earth, (I mean in its fuperfi- 
cial Region,) when it came firfl out of a Chaos} If there 
was, there was alfo in the Chaos^ out of which that Earth 
was immediately made. And if there was no oleagine- 
ous Matter in the new-made Earth, how came the Soil 
to be fo fertile, fo fat, fo unfluous ? I Hiy not only fertile^ 
but particularly f.^zr and unEluous : For he ufes thefe very 
Words frequently in the Defcription of that Soil, Exc, 
p. 211. Def p. 6gy & p. gS. And all fat and unf^uous 
Liquors ?.XQ oleagineous'^ and accordingly we have ufed 
thofe Words promifcuoufly, in the defcription of that 
Region : {Eng. Theor. Chap. 5.J underftanding only fuch 
unftuous Liquors as are lighter than Water, and fwim 
above it, and confequently would ftop and entangle the 
terreftrial Particles in their Fall or Defcent. And fee- 
ing fuch un^uous and oleagineous Particles were in the 

new -made 

!2o oAfiort Confideratio7i of the "Defence of the 

new-made Earth, they muft certainly have been in t\\Q 
' Matter out of which it was immediately formed, name- 
ly, ml\\Q Chaos. All the reft of this Chapter we are 
willing to leave in its full force: apprehending the 
Theory, or the Anfwer, to be in no Danger froai fucli 
Argumentations or Refle6ticns. 

The ^th Chap, is very (liort and hath nothing argu- 
mentative. The 5//:? Chap, is concerning the Cold in the 
circumpolar Parts, which wasfpoken to in ih^ Anfwer 
fufficiently, and we ftand to that. What is added a- 
bout extraordinary Providence, will be treated of m 
its proper Place. The 6th Chap, is alfo (hort^ again ft 
this Particular, that it is notfafe to argue upon Suppofiti- 
ons annually falfe. And I think there needs no more to 
prove it, than what was faid in tht Anfwer. Chap. 7. 
is chiefly about Texts of Scripture, concerning which 
I fee no Occafion of faying any more than what is fiid 
in the Review of the Theory, He fays, (/>. 49.) that the 
Theorift catches himfelf in a Trap, by allowing that 
^/^ 33- 7» is to be underftood of the ordinary Pofture 
of the Waters, and yet applying it to their extraordi- 
nary Pofture under the Vault of the Earth. But that 
was not an extraordinary Pofture according to the 
Theorift, but their natural Pofture: in the firft Earth. 
Yet I allow the Expreftion might have been better thus, .. 
in a level or fpherical couvexity^ ds the Earth. He in- 
terprets n'H* p (/?• 53.) which we vender the Garde^i 
of the Lordj G^n. 13. 10. not to be Paradife, but any 
pleafant Garden •, yet gives us no Authority, either of 
ancient Commentator or Verfion, for this novel and 
paradoxical Interpretation. The Septuagint render it^ 
wB^Vf<7o? tS :h7. The Fulgate^ Paradifus Domini : 
and all ancient Verfions that I have feen render it to the 
fame Senfe. Does he expedl then that his fingle Word 
and Authority, fliould countervail ail the Ancient Tran- 
flatorsand Interpreters? To the laft Place alledged by 
thQ Theorift, Prov. 8. 28. he lays the Anlwerer char- 
ges him unjuftly, that he underftands by that Word 
3fn rio more than the rotundity or fpherical Figure of 
the Abyfs. Which, he fays,is a Point of Nonfence. I did 
not think the Charge had been fo high however, feeing 
fome Interpreters iinderftand it fo. But if he under- 
stand by y.n the Bauh or Shores of the Sea, then he 
•^ ihould 

txcejjtions agahfl the Theory of the Earth. 2t 

fhould have told us how thofe B.inlis or Shores are 
DTHD '23 ^y /7//?cr facie m Abijfi^ as it is in the Text. 

Pa^_. 59. He fays the Excepter does not mifreprefent 
the Theorift when he makes Jiim to affirm the Con- 
ftru6lion of the Firft Earth to have been meerly me- 
chanical ^ and he cites to this purpofe two Places, which 
only prove, that the Theorifl made ufe of no other 
Caufes, nor fee any Defect in them, but never affirm'd 
that thefe were the only Caufes. You may fee his Words 
to this purpofe exprefly, EngL Theor. p. 88. whereof the 
Excepter was minded in the j^nfwer^ p. 3. In the laft 
Paragraph of this Chapter,/>.6o. if he affirms any Thing, 
he will have the Piilnrs of the Earth to be underftood 
littcrally. Where then, pray, do thefe Pillars fland 
that bear up the Earth? or if they bear up the Earth, 
what bears them up ? What are their Pedellals, or their 
Foundations ? But he fays Hypothefes muft not regulate 
Scripture, though in natural Things, but be regulated 
by ir, and by the Letter ofit. 1 would gladly know 
then, how his Hypothefis of the motion of the Earth, 
is regulated by Scripture, and by the Letter ofit? And 
he unhappily gives an Inllance juft contrary to himfelf, 
namely, ofthe Anthropomorphites : For they regulate 
natural Reafon and Philofophy, by t\\Q Letter or 
literal Senfe of Scripture, and therein fall into a grofs 
Error. Yet we mull: not call the Author i?ijudicious^ 
for fear of giving Offence. 

The 8r/; Chap. ibid, begins with the Earth's beirjgcar- 
ried directly under the Eqziincclial^ before its change of 
fituation : without any manner of ohliquity in her fight y 
or declination towards either of the Trcpicks in HEK 
COURSE. Here you fee, when the Earth changed 
its Situation, itchang'd, according to his Aftronomy, 
two Things *, its Site^ and its Courfe j its Site upon its 
Axis, and its Courfe in the Heavens. And fo he fays 
again in the next Paragraph, put the Cafe the Earth Jhift 
her Pojiure^ and alfo her Circuit about the Sun^ in which 
J/je perjijted till the Deluge. Here is plainly the fame 
Notion repeated : That the Earth changed not only its 
Site^ but alio its Road or Courfe about tiie Sun. And 
in confequence ot this he fuppofes its Courfe formerly 
to have been under the Equino(^^ial, and now^ under the 
Ecliptick: It being tranllated out of the one into tha 


J22 (Ajhort Conjlderation of the T)efe7ice of the 

other, at its Change. Yet he feems now tobefenfible of 
t\iQ Abfurdity of this Doftrine, and therefore will not 
own it to have been his Senfe *, and as an Argument that 
he meant otherwife, he alledgi^f;, that he declared be- 
fore, that by the Earth's right Situation to the Sun, is 
tneant that the Axis of the Earth was always kept in a pa^ 
rallelifm to that of the Ecllptick^p. 6i. But what's this to 
the purpofe ? This fpeaks only of the Site of the Earth,v 
"vvherens his Error was in fapoormg its Courfe or an-nual'^. 
Orbit about the Sun, as well as its Site upon its own 
Axis, to have been different, and changed at the De- 
luge : As his Words already produced againft him, plain- 
ly teftify. 

What follows in this Chapter is concerning the per- 
petual Equinox. And as to the reafoning Part of what 
he fays in defence of his Exceptions, we do not grudge 
him the Benefit of it, let it do him what fervice it can. 
And as to the hiftorical Part, he will not allow a Wit- 
nefs to be a good Witnefs as to Matter ofFad, if he did 
not aflign true Caufes of that Matter of F.icl. To which 
I only reply, tho'T'/^'^rf^?? Steeple w?.s not the caufe 
of Goodwin Satids^ as the Ke'ntijh Men thought, yet their 
Teftimony was fo far good, That there were fuch Sands, 
and fuch a Steeple. He alfo commits an Errour as to 
the nature of Traditioi, When a Tradition is to be 
made Out, it is not expefted that it fhould be made ap- 
pear that none were ignorant of that Tradition in for- 
mer Ages : Or that all that mentioned it,underflood the 
true Grounds andExtent of it ^ but it is enough to fhew 
the plain Foot-fteps of it in Antiquity, as a Concluiion,.,- 
though they did not know the Realons and Premifesfi 
upon which it depended. For inftance, the Conflagra- 
tion of the World is a Doftrine of Antiquity, traditio- 
nally delivered from Age to Age •, but the Cavfts and 
manner of the Conflagration, they either did not know 
or have not delivered to us. In like manner that the firft 
Age and State of the World was without change of Sea- 
fons, or under a perpetual Equinox, of this we fee ma- 
ny Foot-fteps in Antiquity^ amongft the Jews, ChrilH* i 
ans, Heathens: Poets, Philofophers •, but the Theory^ 
of this perpetual Equinox, the Caufes aud manner of 
it, we neither find, nor can reafonably expe£^, from the 
Antients. So much fort-he Equinox, ■■ '- 


Exceptions agalnfl the Theory of the Earth. 2 j 

This Chapter, as it begun with an Error, fo it un- 
Iiappily encfs witha Paralogifm * namely, t\\:Kt^ becaufs 
50 Days made a Aionth at the Deluge^ therefore thofe 
Days were neither lovgernor JJjorter than ours an at pre- 
fent. Tho' wehavefufFiciently expos'd this before, yet 
one thing more may be added, in anfwer to his confi- 
dent Conclufion, in thefe Words: But to talk, as the 
Anfvoerer does^ that the Month JJjould be lengthened by 
' the Days being fo^ is a fearful Blunder indeed. For let 
the Days {by flackening the Earth's diurnal Motion') have 
been never fo long^ yet (its annual motion continuing the 
fame') the Month mujl needs have kept its ufual length j 
only fewer Days would have made it up. 'Tis not ufual 
for a Man to perfevere fo confidently in the fame Er- 
ror *, as if the intervals of Time, Hours, Days, Months,' 
Years, could not be proportionably increaft, fo as to 
contain one another in the fame proportion they did 
before, and yet be everyone increaft as to abfolute du- 
ration. Take a Clock, for Inftance, that goes too flow 5 
the Circuit of the Dial-plate is 12 Hours, let thefe re- 
prefent the 12 Signs in his Zodiack, and the Hand to be 
the Earth that goes through them all *, and confequent- 
Iv, the whole Circuit of the reprefents the 
Year. Suppofe, as we fiid, this Clock to g.o too How, 
this will not hinder-, but ftill fifteen Minutes make a 
Quarter, in this Clock, four Quarters make an Hour, 
and 12 Hours the whole Circuit of the Dial-plate. But 
everyone of thele intervals will contain more Time 
than it did before, according to abfolute Duration, or 
according to the Meafures of another Clock that does 
not go too flow. This is the very Cafe which he can- 
not or will not comprehend, but concludes thus in ef- 
fe£\:^ thatbecaufe the Hour confifls ftill of four Quar- 
ters in this Clock, therefore it is no longer than ordi- 

Thepf^ Chapter alfo begins with a flilfe Notion, that 
Bodies quiefcent ("as he hath now alter'd the cafe) have 
a fjitency downwards. Which Miftake we reft i (led be- 
fore, it he pleafe. Then he proceeds to the Oval Figure 
of the Earth, and many Flourifhes and Harangues are 
made here to little purpofc ^ for he goes on upon a falfe 
SuppoHtion, that the Waters of the Chaos were made 
Oval bv the weight or gravitation of the Air , a Thing 

H that 

'!&4 oAfBort Co7tjideratton of the ^Defence of the 

that never came into the Words or Thoughts of the 
Theoriil. Yet upon this Suppofition he runs into the 
defer ts of BUehulgerid^ Def. p. 85, 86. and the Waters of 
Marc del Zur \ Words that make a great noife, but to 
no efFefl. If he had pleas'd he might have feen the' 
Theor'ft made no ufe of the weight of the Air upone 
this Occafion, by the Inftance he gave of the prefjurer 
of the Moon, and the Flux of the Waters by that pref- 
fare. Which is no more done by the gravitation of the- 
Air, than the Banks are preil: in a fwift Current and 
narrovs' Channel, by the gravitation of the Water, 
But he fays rarefied Air makes lefs refiftance thangrof& 
Air \ and rarefy'd Water in an ^Eolipile, it may be 
he thinks, preifes with lefs force than unrarefy'd. Air 
pofiibly maybe rarefy'd to that degree as to lefTen its- 
refiftance^ but v^^e fpeak of Air moderately agitated^ 
fo as to be made only more brisk and a^live. More- 
over he fays, the Waters that lay under the Poles mufe 
Jiave rifen perpendicularly, and why might they not^ 
as well have done fo under the Equator? The Waters 
that lay naturally and originally under the Poles, did 
not rife at all ^ but the Waters became more deep 
there, by thofe that were thrufl: thither from the mid- 
dle Parts of the Globe. Upon the whole I do not per- 
ceive that he hath weaken'd any one of the Proportions 
ttpon w^hichthe Formation of an Oval Earth depended. 
Which were thefe, Firfi^ That the tendency of the Wa- 
ters from the Centre of their motion^ would be greater 
and ftronger in the Equino<ftiaI Parts, than in the Polar ^^ 
or in thofe Parts where they moved in greater Circles^ 
and confequently fwifter,than in thofe where they were 
moved in lefTer Circles and flower. Seco-ndlyj Agi- 
tated Air hath more force to repel what prelTes againft: 
it than ftagnant Air ^ and that the Air was more agita- 
ted and rarify'd under the Equinoctial Parts, than un- 
der the Poles. Thirdly^ Waters hinder'd and repell'd 
in their primary tendency, take the eafieft way they 
can to free themfelves from that force, fo as ta perfe- 
vere in their motion. Lajily^ To flow latterally upoiv 
■aPlain, or to afcend upon an inclin'd Plain, is eafier 
than to rife perpendicularly, Thefe are the Propofiti- 
©ns upon which that Difcourfe depended, and I do not 
^nd that .te hath di.fprov'd any one of them* And this, 
,. Sir, 

Except 2 om agahifl the Theory of the Earth. 2 5 

Sir, is a fhort Account of a long Chapter, Impertinen- 
cies omitted. 

Chap. 10. Is concerning the Original and Caufes of 
Mountains, which the Excepter unhappily imputes to 
the heat and influence of the Sun. Whether his Hypo- 
thefis be effcftually confuted, or not, I am very willing 
to {land to the judgment of any unconcern'd Perfon, 
that will have the patience to compare the Exceptions 
and the Anfvoer^ in this Chapter. Then as to his ///- 
fiorical Arguments, as he calls them, to prove there 
were Mountains before the Flood, from Gyantsthat fa- 
ved themfelves from the flood upon Mount Sion •, and 
Adam'j wandring feveral hundreds of Tears upon the 
Mountains of Indh: Thefe, and fuch like, which he 
brought to prove that there were Mountains before ihe 
Flood, he now thinks fit to renounce,, and 
fays he had done fo before by an anticipative Sentence. 
But if they were condemn'd before by an anticipative 
Sentence^ as Fables and Forgeries, why were they ftufc 
into his Book, and us'd as Traditional evidence againft 
the Theory? 

Lafily^ He contends in this Chapter for Iron and Iron* 
tools before the Flood, and as early as the time o( Cain: 
hQCiuih hQ built a City\ which, he fays, could not be 
built without Iron and Iron- tools. To which it was 
Anfwer'd, Anf. p. 49, 50. that, if he fancied that City of 
Caini^ like Paris or London j he had reafon to believe 
that they had Iron-tools to make it. But fuppofe it was 
a number of Cottages, made of Branches of Trees, of 
Ofiers and Bulrufhes^ or, if you will, of Mud Walls, 
and a Roof of Straw, with a Fence about it to keep out 
Eeafts : There would be no fuch Neceflity of Iron-tools. 

Confider, pray, how long the World was without 
knowing the ufe of Iron, in feveral Parts of it*, as in the 
Northern Countries and America: and yet they had 
Houfes and Cities after their faftiion. And to come 
nearer home, confider what Towns and Cities our An- 
ceftors, the Britains had in Cdifars time *, more than 
two thoufand Years after the Time o^Cain. Com.//. 5. 
Oppidttm Britanni vacant^ cum Sylvam impeditam valh 
at que foffa munierant : quo incurfionis hojiium vitand^ 
causaj ccnvenire confueverunt : Why might not Heno^^ 
chia^ Caiiis City, be fuch a City as this ? 

'i6 (Afl)ort CoJiJideration of the Tiefence of the 

And as to the Ark,which he alfo would ma]<e a Proof* 
that there were Iron and Iron-tools before the Flood,? 
/^/W. 'twas Anlwer'd, that Scripture does not mention 
Iron or Iron-tools in building of the Ark 5 but only Go- 
pher-wood and Fitch. To which he replies, Def, p. 103. If 
Scripture^sfilence conceruhigThings be a grey nd ojprefump- 
t'ion that they were not^what thenfljallwe thir:k of an Oval 
and un mountainous Earthy an inchfed Abyfs^ a Paradl- 
Jiacal World^ and the tikcy. which the Scripture makes 
no mention of. I cannot eafily forbear calling- this an 
■ injudicicus Reflection, tho' I know he hath been angry 
v;ith th.t t Vv'ord, and makes it a Brat of Pajfion, But 
Idoaflure him I call it fo cool4y and calmly. When 
a Thing is deduc'd by natural Arguments and Reafon,. 
the filence of Scripture is enough. If he can prove the 
wotio?: of the Earth by natural Arguments, and that 
'Scripture *s filent in that Point,, we deffre no better 
Proof. Now. in all thofe Things which he mentions,, 
an Ovol and unmountainous Earth, an inclofed Abyfs^ 
a Paradifiaxal Vv/orld, Scripture is at leaft filentv and 
therefore 'ti^ nataul Arguments mufl determine thefe 
^Cafes. Ana' thi.s ill-r^afoning he is often guilty of, ia 
making, no Diftinftion betwixt Things that are, or 
that are not prov'd by natural Arguments, when he- 
appeals to the interpretation of Scripture. 

Ciap. II. Is to prove an 0[)en Sea (fuch as we have 
now) before the Flood. All his Exceptions were an- 
■fwered l^efore, ^/t/tp. c. ' 1 1. and I am content to ftand 
to that Anfwer •, referying only what is to be (aid here- 
^after concerning the literal Senfe of Scripture, How- 
■ever he is too lavifh in fome Expreflions hert',as when he 
'fays, (/). ■ii5.)That yi4'am'(i\Qd before fo ?niich M one 
Fljh appeared in the Worldl And a little -before he had 
ifaid, P. 11^, For Fifijesj if, his Hypothcfis be believed^ 
were never vpon this Earth in AdaniV time, ' Thefe Ex- 
'prpffions, I. fay,* cannot b.e'iuftify'd upon any Hypothe- 
tis. For why might np't'thje. Rivers of that ^arth have 
'tiOi in them, as well astfie'Rivers of this Earth,, or a.s 
"our Rivers now? rm'fure th6 Theory^ oi' the Hypothe- 
j^j hementiq'ns, never ici id' arty Thing to the"<:ontrary^ 
but rather faf>pos*d the Waters fruitiul, as the Groimd 
•Was. Bat ^^ to mope n Sea^yfh^thQi' mh foever yoa 

Exceptions agalnjl the Theory of the Earth. 27 

take, that there v/as, or w:ts not, any before the Flood: 
J believe however Adam^ to his dyin,:^ Day^ never fee 
either Sea, or Sea-fifh : nor ever exercis'd any Domi- 
nion over either. 

Chap. 12. Is concerning the Rain-bow^ and hath no 
new Argument in it, nor Reinforcement. But a Que- 
ftion is moved, whether as weli^ neceffarily ^ 
much. The real QueiLion to be confider'd here, fetting. 
^fide Pedantry, is this, whether that Thing (Sun or 
Zvain-bow, or any other) coald have any (igniiicancy as 
a Sign, which fjgnihed no more than the bare Promife 
would have done without a Sign. This is more mate- 
rial to be coi.Hder'd and refolved, than whether^ tp^^ 
and as mnch figaify the fame. 

Chap. 13,. Is concerning Paradife, and to juftify or ex- 
cufe himfelf why he baulkt all the Difficulties, and faid 
^nothing new or inftruiflive upon that Subje<^. But he 
would make the Theorift inconfiftent with himfelf, in 
that he had faid, Def. p. 125. that neither Scripture nor 
^eafon determine the Place of Paradife •, and yet de- 
termines it hy the "judgment ofChrifiian Fathers. Where's 
the icconfiftency of this? The Theory, as a Theory, 
is not concerned in a Topical Paradife ^ and fays more- 
over that neither Scripture, nor Reafon, have deter- 
min'd the Place of it *, but if we refer our felves to the 
Judgment and Tradition of the Fathers, and (land to 
the Majority of their Votes, (when Scripture and Rea- 
fon are filent) they have \o far determined it, as to 
place it in the other Hemifphere, rather than in this, 
and fo exclude that fhaliow Opinion of fome Moderns: 
that would place it in Mefopotamia. And to baffle that 
Opinion was the Defign of the Theorift', as this Au- 
thor alfo feems to take notice, P. 131. 

After this, and an undervaluing of the Teftimonies 
of the Fathers, he undertakes to determine the Place 
of Paradife by Scripture, and particularly that it was 
in Mefvpotamia^ or fome Region thereabouts. And 
his Argument is this, becaufe in the lad Verfe of th.e 
3^^ Chap. oiGenefis^ the Chcruhims and flajning Sword 
are faid to be plac'd PJ7-I3S, D^pD, which he faysis,<<? 
the Eaft of the Garden of Eden. But the Septuagint (up- 
on whom he muft chiefly depend for the Interpreta- 
tion of the Word OlpO in the firft place, ch. 2. 8.) read 

Hi it 

fiS oAJhort Conjideratlon of the Defence of the 

it here AvivctvTt Ta •7iti^S'£i(r\i th? Tfv<pm* And the VuU 
gate renders it, ante Paradifum voluptatls : and accor* 
ding to the Samaritan Pentateuch 'tis rendered ex adver- 
fo. Now what better authorities can he bring us for 
his tranflation ? I do not find that he gives any, as his 
ufaal Way is, but his own authority. And as for the 
Word OlpO' in the %d Chap, and ^th ver. which is the 
principal Place, *tis well known, that, except the Sep' 
fuagint^ all the ancient Vcrfions, Greek and Latin, (be- 
fides others) render it to another Senfe. And there is 
a like uncertainty of tranflation in the Word py, as 
we have noted eifewhere. Laftly the Rivers of Para- 
dife, and the Countries they are faid to run through or 
encompafs, are differently underflood by different Au- 
thors, without any agreement or certain conclufion. 
But thefe are all beaten Subjedls, which you may find in 
every Treatife of Paradife, and therefore 'tis not worth 
the time to purfue them here. 

Then he proceeds to the longevity of the Antedilw 
vians : which, fo far as lean underftand him to affirm 
zny thingjhe fays, P. 1 39. was not general : but the Lives 
of fome few were extraordinary lengthened by a fpecial 
hlejfmg : the elongation being a work of Providence^ not of 
nature. This is a cheap and vulgar account, (and fo 
are all the Contents of this Chap. ) prov'd neither by 
Scripture, nor Reafon, and calculated for the Humour 
and Capacity of thofe, that love their Eafe more thaa 
a diligent enquiry after Truth. He hath indeed a bold 
AfTertion afterwards, That Mofes does diflinguifh, as 
much or more, betwixt two races of Men before the Flood \ 
the one long-livers^ and the ointnjho/t' livers'. As he hath 
diflingufht the Gyants before the Flood, from the com- 
mon Race of Mankind. Thefe are his Words, P. 141. Is 
not his difiind^ion equally plain in both Cafes ? {peaking of 
this forementioned Difiin^ftion. Or, if there be any dif^ 
ference^ does he not dijiingiiijh better betmxt long-liver Sy 
and fliortMvers^ than he does betwixt men of Gigamick 
and of ufual proportion F Let's fee thz Truth of this : 
Adofes plainly made mention fien. 6. 4. of two Races of 
Mankind :i the ordinary Rice, and thofe of a Gigan- 
tick Race, or Gyants. Now tell me where he plainly 
makes mention o'ijhort -livers before t\\t Flood. And if 
he no where make mention oiJJjort-livcrs^ but of long- 

Excepions againfl the Theory of the Earth. 29 

iivers only, how does he diftinguifh as plainly of thefe 
two Races, as he did of the other two? for in the othci; 
he mention'd plainly and feverally both the Parts or 
Members of the diftin*fl-ion, and here he mentions but 
one, and makes no diftinclion. 

Ihen he comes to the Testimonies cited by Jofephus 
for the longevity of the Antc-dlluvians^ or firil inha- 
bitants of the Earth. And thefe he roundly pronounces 
to be utterly faife. This Gentleman does not feem to be 
iiHich skill'd in Antiquity, either lacred or prophane : 
And yet he boldly rejedls thtk Teflimonies (as he did 
thofe of the Fathers before) as vturly falfe : P. 142. 
svhich jofephus had ali^dged in vindica,tion of the Hifto- 
ry of Mofes, The only Reafon he gives is, becaufe 
thefe Teftimonies fay. They liv'd a thovCand Tears : 
Whereas Mofes does not raife them altogether fo high. 
But theQueftion was notfo much conce™ng the pre- 
cife number of theii* Years, as about the excefs of theni 
beyond the prefent Lives of Ivlen : And a round num- 
ber in fuch cafes is often taken inftead of a broken num- 
ber. Befides, feeing according to the Account of /./o- 
/>j, the greater part of them liv'd above Nine hundred 
Years, at leafl: he fhould not have faid thefe T^iHmo- 
jiies in Jofephus VittQ utterly falfe ^ but falfe in part, or 
not precifely true, 

-ti Now he comes to his Reafons againfl the Ante-dilu- 
vian longevity •, which have all had their Anfwers before, 
and thofe we ftand to.. But I wonder he fhould think it 
i^eafonable,;?. 144^145 .that mankind,throughout all Ages, 
fhould increafe in the fame proportion as in the firft 
Age : And if a decuple proportion of Increafe was rea- 
fonable at firft, the fame fhould be continued all along : 
and the produ<fl of Mankind, after Sixteen hundred 
Years, fhould be taken upon that fuppofition. I fhould 
not grudge to admit that the firft pair of Breeders might 
leave ten pair: But that every pair of thefe ten, fhould 
alfo leave ten pair, without any failure: And every 
pair in their Children fhould again leave ten pair: And 
this to be continued, without diminution or interrup- 
tion, for Sixteen hundred Years, is not only a hard 
Suppofition, but utterly incredible. For flill the grea- 
ter the number was, the more Room there would be 

Ij^ibr Accident? of all forts : and every failure towards the 

H 4 begia- 

JO oAfhoH Confideratioit of the "Defence of the 

beginning, and proportionably in other Parts, would 
CUtoft Thoufandsin the lail: produft. 

Chap. 14. Is againfl: the DifTolution of the Earth, and 
the DiTruption ofthe Abyfs, at the Deluge : Such as the 
Theory reprefents. Here is nothing of new Argument, 
but fomeftrokesofnew railing Wit, after his way. He 
had laid in his Exceptions that the Dissolution ofthe Earth 
was horrid Blafphey : Now he makes it Redu^ive Blaf 
phemy^ ^sht'm^ indireBly^ con fequentiaUy^ or re dvBlve^ 
*J9 P* 153,154. contrary to Scripture. By this Rule, 
we told him, all Errors in Religion would be Blafphe- 
J^^) and if he extend this to Errors in Philofophy alfo, 
tisftill more harfh and injudicious. I wonder how he 
thinks,^ the Doiflrine which he owns, about the motion 
ofthe Earth, fhould efcape the charge of Blafphemy^ 
that being not only indireaiy, but direaiy and plainly 
contrary to Scripture. We thought that expreffion, 
the Earth is dijfolved^ being a Scripture Expreflion, 
would thereby have been prote(fled from the imputation 
ox Blafphemy^ and we alledged to that purpofe,fbef]des 
'^fn%' 3-J //^. 24. 19, Amosg, 5. He would have done 
Well to have proved thefe Places in the Prophets Ifaiah 
and Amos., to have been figurative and tropological., as 
ne calls if, for we take them both to relate to the dif- 
folution of the Earth, which literally came to pafs at 
thQ Deluge. And he not having proved the contrary, we 
are in Hopes frill that the Dljjolution of the Earth may 
not be horrid Blafphemy^ nor oi Blafphemous Importance^ 
Then having quarrell'd with the Guard of Angels 
which the Ti6^or/>? had ailign'd for the prefervation of 
the Ark, in the time ofthe Deluge : He falls next into 
his blunder, thatthe ^^rw^/^^r and £<://>f/c^ of the Earth 
were interchang'd, when the Situation ofthe Earth was 
chang'd. This Error in the Earth is Covfin-Germaln to 
his former Error in l\\t Heavens, vi-L, That the Earth 
chang'd it's Traft about the Sun, and leapt out of the 
Equator into the Ecliptick^ when it chang'd it's Situation. 
The truth is, this Copemican Syftem ieems to lie crois 
in his imagination, 1 think he would do better to let it 
alone. However, tho' at other times he is generally ver- 
bofe and long-winded, he hath the {tn{Q to pais this by, 
in a few words: Laying the blame upon certain Paren- 
thefes or Semicircles^ whofe Innocency notwithfianding 


"Exceptions againfl the Theory of the Eartfi. jt* 

we have fully cleared, and fhew'd the Poifon to be fpread 
throughout the whole Paragraph, which is too great ta 
be made an Erratum Typographic um. 

Then after, P. i6o, i6r. Hermus^ Caijier^ Menander 
and Caius \ Nile and its mud^ Pifcenlus Niger ^ who con- 
tended with Septimus Sever us for the Empire^ and Repri^ 
tnanded his Souldiers for hankering after Wine. JDu Kal^ 
an Ingenious French Writer^ and Cleopatre and her admi- 
red Antony : He Concludes, that the Waters of the 
Deluge raged amongft the Fragments, with Lajiing^ in- 
ceffant and unimaginable turbulence. 

And fo he comes to an Argument again ft the DiflTolu- 
tion of the Earth. P. 162. That, All the Buildings 
BreEicd before the Flood^ would have been JJjaken down at 
that time^ or elfe overwhelmed. He inftanc'd in his Ex- 
ceptions in Stth's Pillars *, Henochia^ Cains City *, and 
Joppa : thefe he fuppos'd fuch Buildings as were made 
before, and flood after the Flood. But now Seth's Pil- 
lars and Henochia being difmift, he infifts upon Joppa 
only, and fays, this muft have confided o^ fuch materi- 
als^ as could never he prepared^ formed and fet vp^ with' 
out Iron Tools, Tho' I do not much believe that Joppn 
was an Antediluvian Town, yet whatever they had in 
Cains time, they might before the Deluge, have Mor- 
tar and Brick *, which as they are the firft Stony Materi- 
als, that we read of, for Building : So the Ruins of theni 
might ftand after the Deluge. And that they had no 
other Materials is the more probable, becaufe after the 
Flood, at the Building of Babel^ Mofes plainly intimates 
that they had no other Materials than thofe. For the 
Text fays. Gen. 11. 3. They faid one to another^ go to^ 
let us make Brich^ and burn them thoroughly : And they 
made Brick for Stone^ and Slime had they for Mortar. 
But now this Argument methinks, may be retorted up- 
on the Excepter with Advantage. For, if there were no 
DifTolutions, Concuflions, or Abforptions, at the Deluge, 
inftead of the Ruins ofjoppa,, methinks we might have 
had the Ruins of an hundred Antediluvian Cities. Efpe- 
cially, if according to his Hypothefis, they had good 
Stone, and good Iron, and all other Materials, fit for 
ftrong and lafting Building. And, which is alfo to be 
confider'd , that it was but a fifteen-Cubit Deluge, 
fo that Towns built upon Eminences or High-Lands^ 


j5 ftMJhon Confideration of the T^e fence of the 

would be in little Danger of being Pvuin'd , much lefs of 
being Abolifht. 

His laft Argument (p. 163.) proves^ if it prove any 
thing, that God's promife, that the World ihouldnotbe 
Drown d again, was a vain and trljiing things to us, who 
Icnow it muft be Burnt. And confequently, if Noah 
underftood the Conflagration of the World, he makes 
it a vain and trifling thing to Noah alfo. If the Excepter 
delight in fuch Conclufions, let him enjoy them, but 
they are not at all to the mind of the Theorift. 

Chap, 15. Now we come to his new Hypothefis of a 
Fifteen-Cubit Deluge, And what fhifts he hath made to 
deftroy the World with fuch a Diminutive Flood, we 
have noted before : Firft, by raifing his Water- mark, 
and making it uncertain. Then by Converting the De- 
luge, in a great Meafure, into a Famine, And Laftly, 
by Deftroying Mankind and other Animals, with evil 
jingels. We fhall now take notice of lome other Incon- 
gruities in his Hypothefis. When he made Mofes's De- 
luge but Fifteen-Cubits deep^ we faid that was an unmer- 
r/ftt/ P^r^^oAT, and askt whether he would ha"o it receiv'd 
as a Fofiulatum^ or as a Conclvfinn, All he Anfv^'ers to 
this is, that the fame Que ftion may be askt concerning. 
feveral Parts of the Theory : P. 166. Particularly, that 
the Primitive Earth had no Open Sea, W' heather is that, 
lays he, to be receiv'd as a Fojiulatumy or as a Coyiclvfion} 
The Anfwer is ready, as a Conclufions deduced from 
Premifes, and a Series of Aniecedent Reafons. Now 
can he make this Anfwer for his Fifteen-Cubit Deluge ? 
Muft not that ftili be a Pofiulatufn, and an unmerciful 
one ? As to the Theory, there is but one Poliulatuni 
in all, viZ' That the Earth rife from a Chaos. All the 
pther Proportions are deduc'd from Premifes, and that 
one Poftulatum alfo isprov'd by Scripture and Antiqui- 
ty. We had noted further in the Anfwer, that the 
Author had faid in his Exceptions, that he would not 
defend his Hypothefis as True and Real ^ and we De- 
manded thereupon, ^F/?y then did he trouble himfelf or 
the World witn what he did not think True and Real ? 
To this he replies. Many have written Ingenious and Vfe^ 
ful Things^ which they never belie vd to be True and ReaU 
Romances fuppofe, and Poetical Fiftions : Will you 
have your fifteen- Cubit Deluge pafs for fuch ? But then 


Excepions agahifl the Theory of the Earth, ^f 

the mifchief is, where there is neither Truth ofFa^l^nor 
Ingenuity of Invention, iuch a Compofition will hardly 
pals for a Romance, or a good Ficlion. But there is 
ftill a greater difficulty behind : The Excepter hath un- 
happily faid, Exc. p, 302. Our fuppofitlcn jiands fuppor^ 
ted by Divine Authority^ as being founded vpon Scripture j 
which tells us as plainly as it can fpeak^ that the Waters 
prevailed but fifteen- Cubits vpon the Earth, Upon which 
Words the Anfwerer made this Remark, Anfw. p, 67. 
// his Hypothefis be founded vpon Scripture^ and vpon 
Scripture as plainly as it can [peak ^ why will he not defend 
itasTRVE and REALt For to be fupported by Scrip* 
ture^ and by plain Scripture^ is as much as we can alledge 
for the Articles of our Faith. To this he replies now, 
Def. p. 168. that he begg'd Allowance at firfi^ to wake 
bold with Scripture a little. This is a bold excufe, and 
he efpecially, one would think, fhould take heed how 
he makes bold with Scripture ^ left, according to his 
own notion, he fall into Blafphemy or fomething of 
Blafphemous Importance^ indireCily^ confequentially^ or 
reduclively^ at lead. However this excufe, if it was a. 
good one, would take no place here, for to underftand 
and apply Scripture, in that Senfe that it fpeaks as 
plainly as itcan fpeak^ is not to make bold with it, but 
Modefty to follow its dilates and plain Senfe. 

He feels this load to lie heavy upon him, and ftrug- 
gles again to (hake it off, with adiftinc^lon. When he 
(aid his fifteen- Cubit Deluge was fupported by Divine 
Authority^ &c. This, he fays, ibid, was fpoken by hintj 
in an Hypothetick or Suppofitious way^ and that it cannot 
poffibly be underjiood otherwife by Men of Senfe. Here are 
two hard Words,letus firft underftand what they fignifie, 
and then we fhall better judge how Men of Senfe would 
underftand his Words. His Hypothetick or Sappofitious 
tr^j/,ro far as I underfland it,is the fame thing as by way of 
fuppofition : Then his meaning is, h^fuppofes his fifteen- 
Cubit Deluge is fupported by Divine Authority : And he 
fuppofes it \s founded uponScnpture as plainly as it can f peak. 
But this is to fuppofe the Qaeftion, and no Man of Senfe 
would make or grant fuch a fuppofition. So that I do 
not fee what he gains by his F/ypothetick 2ind Suppofitious 
way. But to draw him out of this Mift of Words, ei- 
ther he affirms this, that his Hypothefis is fupported by 


'^4 gA Jhort Conjideration of the T^e fence of the 

Divine Authority^ and founded vpon Scripture as plainly 
as it can fpeak^ or he denies it, or he doubts or it. If 
he affirm it, then all his excufes and diminutions are to 
no purpofe, he muft ftand to his Caafe, and fhow us 
thofe plain Texts of Scripture. If he deny it, he gives 
«p his Caufe, and all that Divine Authority he preten- 
ded to. If he doubt of it, then he fhould have ex- 
preflhimfelfdoabtfully : as, Scripture may admit of that 
Senfe^ or may be thought to intimate fiich a thing ^ but 
he faysw^ith a Plerophory, Scripture fpeah it as plainly 
as it can fpeak. And to mend the matter, he unluckily 
fubjoyns in the following Words, P. i68, 169. Teay 
tho* it was fpoken never fo pofuively^ it Tvas but to fet 
forth REI PERSONAM : To make a more full and 
lively Reprefentation of the fuppofed thing. He does v/ell 
to tell us what he means by Rei Perfonam^ for othcrwife 
no Man of Senfe, as his phrafe is, would ever havi? 
made that Tranflation of thofe Words. But the truth is, 
he is (o perfe<5lly at a lofs how to bring himlelf off, as 
to this particular, that in his Confufion he neither 
makes good Ssnfe, nor good Latin. 

Now he comes to another inconfiftency which was 
charg'd upon him by the Anfwer : Namely, that he re- 
)e£ls the Church Hypothecs concerning the Deluge, and 
yet had faid before, Exc. p. 300. I cannot believe (which 
J cannot well endure to fpeak) that the Chnrch hath ever 
gone on in an irrational way of explaining the Deluge, 
That he does reject this Church Hypothefis was plainly 
made out from his own Words, becaufe he rejeds the 
Common Hypothefis : (See the Citations in the Anfw. p, 
6S') The General Jianding Hypothefis : The ufual Hypo^ 
the/is : The ufual Sefife they put upon facred Story^ See* 
Thefe Citations he does not think fit to take notice of 
in his Reply : but puts all upon this general iffue, which 
the Anfwer er Concludes with : The Church way of ex- 
plaining the Deluge^ is cither rational or irrational. If 
he fay it is rational^ why does he defert it^ and invent a 
new one. And if he fay it is irrational^ then that dread- 
ful things which he cannot well endure to fpeak^ That the 
Church of God hath ever gone on in an irrational way of 
explaining the Deluge^ falls fiat vpon himfelf. Let's hear 
his anfwer to this Dilemma. Def, p, 170. We fay ^ fiys 
he, that the Church way of explaining the Deluge^ (by 


Exceptions againjl the Theory of the Earth J5 

Creating and Annihilating waters for the r\.ox\z€)isvery 
rational Then fliy 1 dill, why do yon defertit, or why 
doycu trouble us with a new one/* Either his Hypothe- 
fis is more rational than the Church Hypothefis, or lefs 
rational? If lefs rational, why does he take us off from 
a better, to amufe us with a worfe ? But if he fay his 
Hvpothefis is more rational than that of M}(\t Church*s. 
Then Woe be to him, in his own Words, T. 171. that 
fo hlack a hletniJJ) Jhozild be faficn'd upon the Wifejh and 
Noble]} Society in the World^ as to make himfelf more 
wife than they, and his Hypothecs more rational than 
theirs. The truth is, This hath a mind to 
appear ^Firtuofo; for the new Philofophy, and the 
Ccpernican Syllem •, and yet would be a Zealot for 
Orthodoxy, and the Church way of explaining things.' 
Which two defigus do not well agree, as to the natu- 
ral World, and betwixt two Stools he falls to the 
Ground, and proves neither good Church-man, nor 
good Philofopher. 

But he will not ftill be convinc'd that he deferts th^ 
Church Hypothefis, and continues to deny the defer- 
tion in thefe Words. Ibid. We fay we do not defert or 
rejeEt the Church way of explainir^g the Deluge, Now 
to difcover, whether thefe words are true or falfe. Let 
us obferve^ Hr/?, what he acknowledges to have faid 
ag:iinft the Church Hypothefis : Secondly^ what he hath 
faid more than what he acknowledges here. He ac- 
knowledges that he fiid the Church Hypothefis might be 
difgujlfid to the be ft and foundefi Philofophick 'Jttdg' 
ments. And this is no good Cbarai^er. Yet this is not 
all, for he hath fairly dropt a principal word in the 
Sentence, namely, y^/^/y. Exc. p. 312. His Words in 
h\s Exceptions^ were thefe, fuch Inventions (which he 
applies to the Church Hypothefis) as have been^ and 
^VSTLT may be dlfguflful^ not cnly to nice and fquea* 
mift)^ but to the bcft and foundcft Philofophick Judgments, 
Now judge whether he cited this Sentence before, 
truly and fairly, and whether in thefe words, truly 
dred,' he does not difparage the Church Hypothefis,' 
and juftifie thofe that are difgufted at it. 
y He furthermore acknowledges that the nfual ways of 
Explaining the Deluge feem zinreafonablc to fomcy and 
iimntcIiigibU to oth^rs^ and uvfatisfa^bory to the mcfii 
** • * Bu: 

3 6 (AJIjon QoJifideration of the T)efe7tce of the 

But, it feems, he will neither be of thefe fome^ otherfj 
or 7noJt, Laftly, he acknowledges that he had (aid^ 
Def. p. 17 1. The ordinary [uppofuiG-a^ that the Moun- 
tains were covered with waters in the Deluge^ brings on 
a necejfity of fetting up anew Hypothefis for explaining the 
Flood. If fo, what was this ordinary fuppojition t was 
it not the fuppofition of the Charch .^ And was that 
fuch, as made it necefTary to fet up a new Hypothefis 
for explaining the Flood ? Then the old Hypothefis was 
infufficient , or irrational. 

Thus much he acknowledges, but he omits what we 
noted before, his rejecting or difapproving the common 
Hypothefis^ the general ftanding Hypothefis^ the vfual 
Senfe they put upon the facred Story ^ kc. And do not all 
thefe Phrafes denote the Church Hypothefis ? He fur- 
ther omits,that he confeft,(£A-.j7.325.J^f had expounded a 
Text or two of Scripture^ about the Deluge^ fo as none ever 
did. And defeating the common received Sen fe^ puts an vfu* 
al Glofs vpon them. And is not that common received Senfe^ 
theSenfe of the Church ^ and his unvfual Glofs contra- 
trarytoit? Laftly, he fays, by his Hypothefis, we 
need not fly to a new Creation of Waters^ and gives his 
Reafons at large againft that Opinion, which you may 
fee. Except p. 313. Now thofe Reafons he thought ei- 
ther to be good Reafons, or bad Reafons : if bad, why 
did he kt them down, or why did he not confute them ? 
If good, they ftand good againft the Hypothefis of the 
Church •, for he makes that New Creation and Annihi- 
lation of Waters at the Deluge, to be the Hypothefis of 
the Church. Def.p, 170. I fear I have fpent two much 
timeinfbewing him utterly inconfiftent with himfelf 
in this particular. And I wonder he fhould be fo folli- 
citous to juftifie the Hypothefis of the Church in this 
point, feeing he openly difiTents from it in a greater : I 
mean in that of the Syfrem of the World. Hear his 
Words, if you pleafe, to this purpofe. Dcf. p. 136- 
.A72d what does the famous Arifiotelian Hypothefis fee m 
to be now^ but a Mafs of Errors ? where fuch a Sy/lem 
tpas contrived for the Heavens^ and fuch a Situation 
a]fign*d to the Earthy as neither Reafon can approve y nor 
'Nature allow. Tet fo prof per ous and prevailing was this 
Hypothefis J that it was generally receivd.^ and fuccefsfully 
propagated for many Ages. This Profperous Prevailing 
' .; ■ Error, 

Exceptions againfi the Theory of the Earth. J7 

Error, or Mafs of Errors, was it noterpoufed and fup- 
ported by the Church ? And to break from the Church 
m greater points, and fcruple it in lefs, is not this to 
ftrain at Gnats, and PvVallovv Camels ? 

So liiuch for his inconfiftency with himfelf. The 
teft Qii this Chapter in the Anfwer^ fhews his incon- 
fiftency with Adofes -^ both as to the Waters covering 
the tops of the Mountains, which Mcfes affirms and 
the Excepter denies^ and as to the decreafe of the De- 
luge, ^\\\c\iMofcs makes to be, by the Waters reti- 
ring into their Chanels, after frequent Reciprocations, 
going and coming. But the Excepter fays, the Sun fuck*d 
up the waters from the Earth : juft as he had before 
fuck'd the Mountains out of the Earth. Thefe things 
are fo groundiefs, or fo grofs, that it would be tedi- 
ous to infift longer upon them. And whereas it is not 
reafonable to expert, that any others fhould be idle 
enough, as we muft be, to collate three or four Tra£ls, 
todifcern where the Advantage lies in thefe fmall Alter- 
cations: I defireonly, if they be fo difpos'd, that they 
would collate the Exceptions^ Anfwer and Defence^ m 
this one Chapter, which is our Author's Mafter-piece: 
And from this I am willing they fhould take their mea- 
fures, and make a Judgment, of his good or bad fuc- 
cefs in other Parts. 

What fhiftshe hath us'd to make his fifceeft-Cuhlt De- 
luge fufficient to deftroy all Mankind, and all Amimals,' 
we have noted before : and here 'tis (/?. 181, 182.) that 
he reduces them to Famine, And after that, he comes 
to a long Excurfion of feven or eight Pages, about th^ 
-^imperfe<flion of Shipping after the Flood : Def, p, 183, 
184, 185, &c, agood Argument for the Theorift, that 
thty had not an open Sea, Iron-tools, and Materials 
jfor Shipping, before the Flood. For what ihould 
ijiiake them fo inexpert in Navigation for many Years 
^and Ages after the Flood, iftheyhadthe pradice and 
v€xperience of it, before the Flood ? And what could 
hinder their having that praftice and experience, if they 
had an open Sea, and ali Iron and other Materials, for 
that ufe and purpofe/ 

Laftly, he comes to his notion of the Great Deepi 
or Tehom-Rabbah, Def, p. 191. Which he had made 
before, ia expreis Words, to be the Holes and Caverns 


'^S iAJhoH ConfideYailon of the T>efence of the 

n the Rocks ^ I fay, in exprefs Words, fuch as thefe,' 
Exc, p. 312. Now fuppofwg that the Caverns in the 
Mountains were this great Deep', fpeaking o{ A-^ofes's 
Great Deep^ according to this new Hypothefis. He fays 
•further (^p. 105.) In caje it be urgd^ that Caverns^ 
^efpecially Caverns fo high Situate^ cannot properly be tailed 
the great Deep, Where you fee, his own obje«f^iori 
fuppofes that he made thofe Caverns the Great Deep* 
And in the Time page, fpeaking of the Pfilmift's Great 
Deeps (in his own Senfe of making them Holes in 
Rocks)^ and Mofes's Great Deep^ he fays, the fame 
thing might be meant by both. By all thefe Expreflions 
one would think it plain, that by his Great Deep he 
meant his Caverns in Rocks : yet now, upon obje(^ions 
urged againft it, he feems defirous to ^y off from that 
notion. But does not yet tell us plainly what muft be 
meant by Mofes'% Great Deep^ it, upon fecond thoughts, 
he would have the Sea to be underftood by it, why does 
he not anfwer the Ohjedlions that are made by the The- 
orift againft that Interpretation ? EngL Th. p, iio^&c. 
Nay, why does he not anfwer what he himfelf had ob- 
jefted before (^Except, p. 310.) againft that fuppofiti- 
on ? He feems to unfay now, what he faid before ; and 
yet fubftitutes nothing in the place of it, to be ander- 
ftood by Mofes's Tehom-Rabbah. 

Chap. 16. Is a few Words concerning thefe exprefli- 
ons of Shutting the Windows of Heaven and the Foun" 
tains of the Abyfs^ after the Deluge. And tatk were 
both ftiut alike, and both of them no lefs than the Ca- 
verns in the Mountains. 

Chap. 17. Hath nothing of Argumentation of Philo* 
fophy : but runs on in a popular Declamatory way,- 
and (if I may ufe that forbidden Word) injudicious. 
All amounts to this. Whether we may not go contrary 
to the Letter of Scripture, in natural things, when 
that goes contrary to plain Reafon. This we affirm, 
and this every one muft affirm that believes the Aiotion 
of the Earthy as our Virtuofo pretends to do. Then 
he Concludes all with an Harmonious clofe, that he fol- 
lows the great example of a Reverend Prelate, Def /?, 
215. and militates under that Epifcopal Banner. lam 
willing to believe that he writ at firft, in hopes to cur- 
ry favour with certain Perfons, by his great zeal for 


Exceptions agalnft the Theory of the Earth, J9 

Orthodoxy *, but he hath made fuch an hotch-potch of 
new Philofophy and Divinity, that I believe it will 
(carce pleafe the Party he would cajole : nor fo much as 
his Reverend Patron. I was fo civil to him in the anfwer, 
as to make him a Saint in Comparifon of the former A- 
himadverter : but, by the Stile and Spirit of this laft 
Pamphlet, he hath forfeited with me all his Saintlhip, 
both Abfolute and Comparative. 

Thus much for his Chapters : and as to his Reflefli- 
ons upon the Revlerv of the Theory^ they are fo fuperfi- 
cial and inconfiderable, that I believe he never expe- 
fted that they fliould be regarded. I wonder however, 
that he fhould decline an Examination of the 2^ Part 
of the Theory. It cannot be for want of good v?ill 
io confute it : he hath (hewn that to the height, what- 
foeyer his Power was. Neither can it be for want of 
difference or difagreement in opinion, as to the Con* 
tents of this later Part : for he hath reckon'd the A//7- 
Umiium amongft the Errors of the Antient Fathers^ 
(Def, p. 17,6.) and the Renovation of the World he 
makes Allegorical. (/?. 224, &c.J It mufl therefore be 
for want of fome third thing : which he beft knows. 
. But before we Conclude, Sir, we muft remember 
that we promifed to fpeak apart to two things, whfch 
are often obje£led to the Theorifl by this Writer, and 
to little purpofe -^ namely, his flying to Extraordinary 
providence^ and his flying from the literal Senfe of 
Scripture. As to Extraordinary Providence, is the 
Theorift alone debarr'd from recourfe to it, or would 
he have all Men debarr'd, as well as the Theorift ? If 
fo, why doth he ufe it fo much himfelf ? And if it be 
allow'd to others, there is no reafon it fhould be de- 
ny'd the Theorift, unlefs he have difown'd it, and fo 
debarr'd himfelf that common Priviledge. But the 
contrary is manifefl, in a Multitude of place^^. both of 
the firft and fecond part of the Theory. Eng, The, p, 
144, e^c. For, befidesa Difcourfe on purpofe upon that 
fubje£l, in the Sth. Chap, of the firft Book, in the laft. 
Chapter and laft Words of the fame Book (Latin) he 
does openly avow, both Providence fNatural and Mo- 
ral) and Miracles : in thefe Words, Deniq-^ cum cer- 
tijfimumfit a divina Vrovidentia pendcre res omnes^ cujuf- 
cunque ordinisy Cv- ab eademvera miracula (dita effe^ C^c. 

1 And 

40 oAfiort Confideration of the T)tfence ofihi 

And as to the fecond Part of the Theory, i^\z Minifte- 
ry of Angels is there acknowledg'd frequently, both a? 
to Natural and" Moral Adminiftrations. From all 
which Infhnces it is inanifeft, that the Theorift did 
not debar himfelf, hy denying either Mlratles^ 
Ileal Miniftry^ or extraordinary ProvideTiCe *, But if 
thQ Excepter be fo injuditious (pardon me that bold 
Word) as to confound all extraordinary Providence 
with the Acis of Omriipotency^ he muft blame himfelf 
for that, not the Theorift. The Creation and A?mi' 
hitation of Waters in an A^ of pure Omnipotency. 
This the Theorift did not admit of at the Deluge : and 
^ this be hrs fault, as it is frequently objef^ed to him 
(^Def, p. 9, 66 J 170, Crc.) he perfeveres in it ft ill, 
and in the Reafons he gave for his opinion, which are 
no where confuted. Eng, The. p, 25, 26. But as fot 
Ads of Angelical Power, he does every where aclinow- 
ledge them in the great Revolutions, even of the Na- 
tural World. The. Lat. p. 53. Erig. p. 146, 147. If 
the Excepter would make the Divine Omnipotency as 
cheap as the Miniftry of Angels, and have recourfe as 
freely and as frequently to that, as to this : If he would 
make alt extraordinary Providence the fame, and all 
Miracles, and fet all at the pitch of Infinite Power, 
this may be an efie^l of his ignorance or irradverter^- 
<^y, but is no way imputable to the Theorift. 

In the next place, it may be obferv'd, that the Theo- 
rift hath no where aflerted, that Mofes's Cof?nopcgia 
(which does not proceed according to ordinary Provi-^ 
dence) is to be literally underftood y and therefore 
what isurg'd againft him from the letter of that Cofmo- 
posla^ is improperly urg'd and without ground. There 
are as good Reafons, and better Authorities, that Afa*- 
fes'%fix days Creatiofj ftiould not be literally underftood, 
than there are, why thofe Texts of Scripture that 
fpeak about the Motion of the Sun^ fhould not be li- 
terally underftood. And as to the Theorift, he had 
often intimated his Senfe of that Cofmopoeia, that 
It was expreft more humano^ G^ ad captum popuLi : a9 
appears in feveral pafTages *, in the Latin Theory,- 
fpeaking of the Mofaical Cofmogonid^ he hath thefe 
Words : Theor. //. 2. c. 8. Conjfat h^ec Cofmopoeia du- 
ahus partilms^ quorum prima^ majfas gemraks at que re- 
♦ uA I rum 

Exceptions agahift the Theory of the Earth. 41 

rum incondltarum fiatum exhihet : feqiiiturque eadem 
prhiclpia^ C^ eundetn ordinem^ quern antiqui vfque reti- 
nucrunt, Atq'ue in hoc nobijcuni conviniunt omnes fere 
inter pretes phrifilanl : ncmpt^ Tohu Bohu Mofaicum 
idejn e[fe ac Chaos Antiquorum, Tcmbras Mofaicas^ &:c. 
hucufque convenit M fi cum antlqulsVhilofophis^-"'m€tho' 
dum aiiiem iilam Pf.Hofophicam hie abrumpit^ alicirKque 
orditur^ humantim^ nut^fi ?navis^ Theologicam : qua^ 
pjotibus Chaos ^ fecund urn leges nacur<e^ C^ divini amorii 
aclionem^ plane negleclis^ & fuccejfivis ipfius mutationir 
bus in varias regioics O" elementa : His inquam^ po/r-ha^ 
bitisy popularem narrativricm d-e ortu rerum hoc fnodo in^ 
ftituit. Res omnes vifibiks in fex claffes^ f^€» ' This 1*3 » 
plain indication how the Theorift underi^opd tjiat CGf" 
mopoeia. And accordingly in thQ Efigllfh. Theory th^ 
Author fiySyP.^oi^&c, J iyave mt mention d. Moj'es\ Cof- 
^nopoeia \ becaufc I thought it delivered by hiiii as ^ Lavp-^. 
giver ^ not as a Philofopher. Which I intend to d'ojv at 
large in another Treatife : not thinking that difcvfflori prof 
per for the "julgar Tongue. The Excepter was alfo 
minded of this in the An rwer,j?. 66. Now, 'tis muchj 
that he, who hath fearcht all the Corners, both of the 
Engli/h and Latin Theory, to pick quarrels, fboiikl ne- 
ver obferve fuch obvious pafTages as thefc. But ft ill 
make obje^ions from the Letter of the Mofaical Cof- 
mopccia : w^hich afFe^ the Theorift no more than thofe 
places of Scripture that fpeak of the Motion of the 
Sun, or the PilJars of the Earth. 
^ l^. the laft place, the Theorift diflinguifht two me- 
thods for explaining the Natural World : that of an 
ordinary and that of an extraordinary Providence. And 
thofe tnat take the fecond way, he fiid, might difpatch 
their task as foon as they pleas'd, if they engag'd Om- 
nipotency in the Work. Bur the other method would 
require time : it muft proceed by diftinif^ Aeps, and 
leifurely Motions, fuch as Nature can admit ^ And, 
in that refpect, it might not fait with the bufie Lives, 
or impatient Studies, of moft Men. Whom he left 
ncjtwithftanding to their Liberty to take what method 
they pleas'd ;, provided they were not troublelbme in 
forcing their hafty tiiouahts upon ail others. Thus the 
Theorift hath .ex'preft iiimfelf at the end .of the firft 
Book : C -ii^Jm^r^a^ Qum non omn^S'<i>mturjtits f07n* 

I 2 pofiti 

42 oAJhort Confideratlon of theT^e fence of the 

pofiti fimus^ tit Philofophifi ftudiis deleEiemur : Neque 
etiam liceat multis^ propter occupationes vit£^ iifdem va* 
care^ quibus per ingeniumliciiijfet \ lis jure permittendunt 
efij cempendiario fapere *, & reliEiis viis nature ^ cau- 
farum fecundarutn^ qu^e fape lorjgiufcuU furjtj per caufas 
fuperlores philofophari '^ idq-^ potijfimvm^ cumex pits affe^ 
£iibus hoc quandoque fieri pcfjit : qulbus^ ' vel male fun- 
datis^ aliquld dandtim ejfe exiftlmo^ modo non fint turbw 
lemi. Thus the Theorift, you fee, fets cwo ways be- 
fore them, and 'tis indifFerent to hiin whether they 
take, if they will go on their way peaceably. And he 
does now moreover particularly declare. That he hath 
no Ambition, either to make the Excepter^ or any o- 
ther of the fame Difpofitions of Will, and the fame e- 
levation of underftanding, Profelytes to his Theory. 

Thus much for Vrovldsnce *, As to the literal Sen fe of 
Scripture, I find, if what was noted before in the An- 
fwer^ P. 82, 83, &c. had been duly con fide r*d, there 
would be little need of Additions upon that SubjeiH:. 
The matter w'as ftated freely and diftinftly, and the 
Remarks or Refle£lions which the Excepter hath made 
in his Defence^ upon this Doftrine, are both fhallow 
and partial. I fay, partial : in perverting the Senfe, 
and feparating fuch things as manifeftly depend upon" 
one another. Thus the Excepter falls upon that ex- 
preflion in the Ar?fwer^ Def, p. 202. Let vs remember 
that this contradiUing Scripture^ here preterided^ is only 
in natural things : where he fhould have added the o- 
ther part of the Sentence, And alfo obferve how far the 
Excepter himf elf ^ in fuch things^ hath contradi^ed Scrip- 
ture. Here he makes an odious Declamation, as if the 
Anfwerer had confeft that he contradifled Scripture in 
Natural things : whereas x\iQ Words are contradifting 
Scripture, here pretended : and 'tis plain by all the Dif- 
courfe, that 'tis the literal Senfe of Scripture that is here 
fpoken of, which the Excepter is alfo laid to contradi(fV, 
Suc.i an unmanly captioufnefs fhews the temper and 
niea'ure of that Spirit, which rather than fay nothing 
will mifreprefent the plain Senfe of an Author. In like 
manner, when he comes to thofe Words in the Anfwer, 
The cafe therefore is this, w^hether to go contr-ary to the 
Letter of Scripture things that relate td the Natural 
World^ bey dejiroying the Foui)dation r>/ Relipon^ affrcn- 

Exceptions again ft the Theory ofthe^^LVth. 45 

tlf7g Script'ihe^ and blafpheming the Holy Gho/i-. Def. p. 
206. He fays, This is not to ftate the cafe truly, for 
it is not, fays he, going contrary to the Letter of Scrip- 
ture that draws fuch evil confequences after it^ hut going 
comrary to the Letter of Scripture , where it is 
underjiood. And this the Theoriji doeSj he fays, and the 
Excepter does not. But who fays fo Befides himfelf ? 
This is fiirly to beg the queflion, and can he fuppofe 
the Theorift fo eafie as to grant this without proof? It 
rnuft be the fubjecl matter that determines, what is,and 
what is not, to be literally underftood. However he 
goes on, begging ftill the queftion in his own behalf, 
and fi-ys, Thofe Texts of Scripture that fpeak of the 
Motion and Courfe of the Sun, are not to be under- 
ftood literally. But why not ? Becaufe the literal Senfe 
is not to his mind ? Of four Texts of Scripture which 
the Theorift alledg'd againft him, for the Motion of 
the Sun, he Anfwers but one, and that, very fuperfi- 
cially, to fay no worfe. Tis Pf. 19. where the Sun 
at his rifing is faid to be as a Bridegroom coming out of 
his Chamber^ and to rejoyce as afirong Man to run his 
Race. And his going forth is from the end of the Hea- 
ven^ and his Circuit to the ends of it. P. 207. Which 
he Anfwers with this vain Flourifh : Then the Su7t 
tnuji he a Man^ and muji be upon his Marriage ^ 
and muft be dreft in fine Cloths.^ as a Bridegroom is, 
Then he muji come cut of a Chamber^ and muji give 
no more Light ^ and caji no more Heat^ than a Bride^ 
groom does., &c. If a Man fhould ridicule, at this 
rate, the Difcourfe of our Saviour concerning Laza- 
rus in Abraham's Bofom, and Dives in Hell, with a 
great Gulf betwixt them, yet talking audibly to one 
another ^ Luk. 16. And that Laz^arus fhould be fent 
fo far, as from Heaven to Hell, only to dip the 
tip of his finger in Water .^ and cool Dives his Tongue, 
Wt that fhould go about thus to expofe our Saviours 
Parable, would have a thanklefs Office, and efFe(fl 
nothing: for the Subftance of it would ftand good 
flill: namely, that Mens Souls live after Death, and 
that good Souls are \x\ a State of Eafe and Comfort, 
and bad Souls in a^State of Mifery. In like manner, 
his ridiculing foKie'Circumftances in the Comparifon 
naade by f he ^ FMmift, does -' not' at all deftroy the' 
^^'''^ Subftance 

44 ^fioYt Confiderathn of the Defence of the 

Subftance of that Difcourfe : namely, thkt the Sun 
moves in the Firmament, with great fwiftnefs anc^ 
luftre, and hath the Circuit of its Motion round the 
Earth. This is the Subftance of what the Pfalmifl 
declares, and the reft is but a Similitude which need 
not be literally juft in all particulars. 

After this, he would fain perfwade the Theorift, 
that he hath excufed the Excepter for his receding 
from the literal Senfe, as to the Motion of the Earth 5' 
Def, p. 208. Becaufe he hath granted, that, in cer- 
tain cafes, we may and muft recede from the lite- 
ral Senfe. But where, pray, hath he granted, that 
the Motion of the Earth was one of thofe cafes ? yet 
fuppofe it be fo, may not the Theorift then en)oy this 
Priviledge of receding from the literal Senfe upon oc- 
cafion, as well as the Excepter? If he will give, as well 
as take, this Liberty, let us mutually enjoy it. But 
he can have no pretence to deny it to others, and take 
it himfelf. It ufes to be a Rule ia writing that a 
I^an muft not ftultu?n jiiigcre LeEiorew. You muft 
fuppofe your Reader to have Common Senfe. But he 
that accufes another of Blafphemy for receding from 
the literal Senfe of Scripture in Natural things, and 
does himfelf, at the fame time, recede from the lite- 
ral Senfe of Scripture, in Natural things : one would 
think, quoad hoc, either had not, or w'ould not Exr 
crcife. Common Senfe f, in a literal way. 

Laftly, He comes to the Common known Rule, 
afiign'd to dire£l us, when every one ought to fol-' 
low, or leave the literal Senfe : which is p. 215. 
not to leave the literal Scnfc^ when the fubjt6b mat- 
ter will bear it^ without i^bfurdity or incongruity. Thia 
he repeats in the next Page thus. The Rule is. 
When no kind of Ahfurdities or Incongruities accrue 
to any Texts^ from the literal Senfe. If this be his 
Rule, to what Texts does there accrue any Abfur- 
dity or Incongruity, by (uppofing the Sun to move J 
for Scripture always fpeaks upon that fuppofition, 
and not one word for the Motion of the Earth* 
Thus he States the Rule, but the Jtnfwerer^ fuppafed^ 
that the Abfurda'ty or incongruity might arife from 
the fuh]iU: /»^tr^r. . And accordijigly. he ftill main- 
Uins, that there are. as juft reafoas (from the fub- 


Exceptions againfl the Theory of the Earth* 45 

jert matter) anJ better Authorities, for receding 
from the literal Senfe in the narrative of the fix- 
days Creation, than in thofe Texts of Scripture,' 
that fpeak of the Motions and Courfe of the Sun. 
And to affirm the Earth to be mov'd^ is as much 
Blafphemy^ and more contrary to Scripture, than to 
affirm it to have been dijfolvd^ as the Theorift 
hath done. 

Sir, I beg your excufe for this long Letter, and 
leave it to you to judge whether the occafion was 
juft or no. I know fuch jarrings as thefe, muft 
heeds make bad Mufick to your Ears : *tis like hear- 
ing two Inftruments play that are fiot in Tune 
and Confdrt with one another. But you know Self- 
defence, and to repel an affailant, is always allowed t 
and he that begins the quarrel, mufl anfwer for 
the Confequences'. However, Sir, to make amends 
for this trouble, I am ready to receive your Coni- 
hiands upon more acceptable Subje^ls. 

Tour mofi HumbU Servant^ SL'C. 


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O F T H E 




Upon Occafion of 


His prefenting a 


To be admitted into that 


In Vertue of His 

Letters Difpenfatory. 

The Second Edition. 

L NT) N; 

Printed for J. Hooke, at the Flower Je 

Luce in fleetftreet^ MDCCXIX. 

Let This be Printed. 









f, .■ 

^ E Late Ufurpation npou.the Law^ 
^-^^ Engla-nd^ by Difpenfing Power yW:\s 
'O Remark.^ble and Singiilar, that c- 
• ery Inflance of it ought to be Re- 
corded toPofterity. They begun ve- 
ry early with M**. Sutton's Hofpital, 
commonly called the Charter- hovfe : 
and the King f>:^nt a Papift to be ad- 
mitted Penfioner or Poor Brother there, contrary to 
all Rules of that Foundation. But became accordingly 
Armed with a Royal DifpenGtion, both asto his Con- 
formity to the Church of Etj^land^ and as to the Oaths 
of Allegiance and Supremacy : Which they are bound 
•to take at their Admifiion into that place. 

The Governors of the Hofpital, Perfons <if the 

greateft quality, Ibewed themfelves Faithful Truftees 

; to Mr. Sutton upon that prcafioM. And thb* they had 

'■'.no precedent, at that time^-to follow, made a vis;©- 

•"tous reflftahcc to this 'EncrodchrngPoweti' Whereby 




they did good Service alfo to the Pablick, in that lo\^ 
Station of a Private Hofpital. As fometimes a little 
Frontier Garrifon, well defended, gives a check to a 
great Army, and a good example to the reft of the 
f Country, to ftand ftoutly upon their Defence. 

The K 1 N G's Letter was as folIo\veth<. 


Right- Trufty and Right Weibe^-oved Coufin^ znd 
Counfellors, ancl Right Trufty and Welbeloved 
-Counfellors and Truftees, WE greet you well. Htmi- 
ble fuit having been made unto US, in the behalf of 
Andrew Popham^ Gent, that, in regard of his Loyalty 
and Sufterjngis, and the necellitous condition he ^s there- 
by feduc'd unto, WE would beftow upon him the 
place of one of Our Penfioners in the Hofpital of the 
Chart er-hoi4fe *, which requeft WE are Gracioufly plea- 
fed to Condefcend unto. Our Will and Fleafure there- 
fore is, that you choofe and adnijt him the.faid Andrew 
Topham into the firft Penfioners Place in that Oar Hof- 
pital, that fhall become void and in Our Difpofal. 
Next after fuch as have already obtained Our Letters 
for the like Places, if any fuch be. Without Tendring 
any Oath or Oaths, unto the faid Andrew Popham : or 
requiring o-f him any Snbfcription, Recognition or o- 
ther ktk or Ads in Conformity to the Do^rine and 
Difcipline of the Church of England^ as the fame is now 
Eftablifhed. And notwithftanding any Statute, Order, 
or Conftitution of or in the fiid Hofpital : with 
which we are Gracioufly Difpofed to Difpence in this 
behalf. To hold and enjoy the faid Place, with all 
Profits, Perquifits and Advantages thereunto belonging. 
And fo WE bid you heartily farewel. Given at Our 
Court at Whitehal the I'^th Day of December ^ 1686. 
in the Second Year of Our Reign. 

This Letter was not delivered to the Mafter of , the 
Hofpital, but to the Regifter at his Houfe in the City. 
Who thereupon did not come to acquaint the Mafter 
with the Contents of it, bat fent this Andrew Popham 
to him to be admitted, with a Certificate under his 
Hand, in the ufual Form, as for an Admiflion of Courfe. 
Giving tKc Mafter no Notice that he was a Papift, or 



that the King had difpens'd with his taking the Oaths 
and with his Religion. 

The Certificate was This. 

Thefe are to Certifie^ That Andrew Popham is to be ad- 
mitted a Penfioner into this Hofpital^ upon the No" 
mination of the KingV Alajefiy, And that his Place 
is now fallen, 

2Q Decemb. 1686. W. L. Regifl:. 

Popham c3.mQ to the Mader with this Certificate, and 
defir'd to be admitted. The Mafter askt him, where his 
Letter of Nomination was, and to whom it was direfted? 
He {aid it was dire<fted to the Governors of the Hofpital, 
and he had left it in th'i Regifter's Hands. If it was dire- 
<:1ed to the Governors, the Mailier told him, it mu}l 
be deliver'd to thenj, before he could acl upon it. And 
fo telling him when there would be a meeting of the 
Governors, difmift him without AdmiiTion. 

The day appointed for the meeting of the Governors,' 
was the Munday after Twelve- tide '^ but there did not 
come a full number at that time, fo they could not aft. 
But on the 17/^/7 following, there was a full AfTcmbly, 
and Popham w^as prefent, and his Bufinefs heard. The 
King's Letter being read to the Governors, My Lord 
Chancellor Jefrys prefently mov'd, that they (hould 
immediately, without any Debate, proceed to vote. 
Whether Arrdrevo Popham fhould be admitted or no, 
according to the King's Letter. And 'twas put upon the 
Mafter, as Junior^ to Vote firft. But the Mafter told 
them, he thought it was his Duty to acquaint their 
Lordfhips with the State and Conftitution of thatHof- 
pital, before they proceeded to a Vote. This was op* 
pofed by fome, bat, after a little debate, the Mafter 
was heard *, Who thereupon acquainted their Lord- 
ftiips. That to admit a Penfioner into the Hofpital, 
without taking the Oaths of Allegiance and Supre* 
macy, was not only contrary to the Conftitutions 
of the Houfe , but alfo to an Aft of Parliament 
provided in that Cafe ; namely, to the Chart er-Houfcy 

K ? ' A^ 

( 4 J 

>?f? 5". CaK * In which it is declared and order'd in ex- 
prefs terms, that no Perfon, Governor, Officer, nor 
Penfioner, fhall be admitted into this Hofpital, till 
they have taken the Oaths of Alles^iance and Suprema- 
cy. When the Mafter had fiid this, One Governor 
anfwer'd, ^Vhat is this to the purpofe ? To whom the 
late Dalie ofOrmond reply'd. He thought it was very 
much to the purpofe *, For an AS: of Parliament was 
not fo flight a thi^g, but that it deferv'd to be confi- 
der'd. Hereupon, after fome Difcourfe, the Queftion 
was put again. Whether jindrew Popham (hould be ad- 
mitted or no : and it was carried in the Negative. 

This, I think, was the firft Stand that was made a- 
againft the Power, by any Society in England, 
After which followed the Oppofition it met with at the 
Univerfity of C^w^'rzW^^, and -xl AlagdaUn Colledge in 
Oxford. The Governors o^ Charter- Ho life had a frefh 
Example in fight, of a tame refignation to that Difpen' 
fing Power, in an Inftance where both the honour of the 
Church, and many Afts of Parliament, were concerned \ 
But that had no other effeft upon them, than to make 
them think it the more necefiary to (land in the Breach 
that was already made, and to ftop the progrefs of that 
Torrent, which was in'a fair way, at that time, to 0- 
ver-r an the Nation. 

They intended to have returned an Anfwerin Writing 
forthwith to the King's Letter ^ But as foon as that Vote 
was paft, my Lord Chancellor [lung away, and fome o- 
thers followed him *, fo that there was not a Number left 
to a^ as an Aflembly, or to do any mere bufmefs at 
that time. My Lord oi Canterbury attempted feveral 
times afterwards to have another AfTembly, that this 
Letter might be writ tothe King, but could not get a full 
Number together, till Miifuminer foliovv^ng. 

r i.|| . 1.1 ■ ' -■ 

* Tkc veords of the A8 uf ?<xrlutmer,t are tbefe ', And be it Euaded 
and Eftabliflied by the Authi">rity aforcfaid, that every perfon 
that fliall from henceforth be eledied a Governor of the faid Hof- 
pital, iliall, before he exercifi the place of a Governor, take the 
feveral Oaths of Allegiance and Suprcmacv.^^^-^And that the 
Preacher, Minifter, Schoolmafter, U^ier, OiHccrs, and poor Men, 
and every of them henceforth to be elcded or admittsd, ihall be- 
ibrc he exercife or take benefit of any fuch place, take the faid 
icveral Oaths cf Supremacy and Allegiance, 


While the Bufinefs w^as hanging thas, there hap- 
pened an Accident, which we thought would have put 
an end to the Controverfie, Another Perfon appear'd 
with a Letter of Nomination from the Kins; of a Date 
Antecedent to th:xt o^ Popham's, And 'twas a Fen on 
qualified for the Place, on^^ Cardonel^ a French Pro- 
tefVant Naturaliz'd. This we thought had been a foft 
method, invented by the Court, to faperfede Popham's 
Letter, and folet the Controverfie fall without noife. 
But it prov'd otherwife ^ for when this Man's prcten- 
(lons came to be known at Court, The King; fent ano- 
ther Letter to exclude him, and to reinforce His for^ 
nier Order for Pcpham, 

The KING'S Second Letter was this: 


T> Ig:ht Trudy and Right Welbeloved Coufins and 
^^ tounfeliors, and Right Trufty and Welbelovedt 
Coimfellors and Truftees, We greet you well. We 
did by Our Letter of tht jyth of December lafl, figni- 
fie unto you, that it was Our Royal Will and Pleafure,' 
Xhit Andrew Popham^ Gent, fhould be chofen and ad- 
niitted into the firft Penfioner's Place in that Our Hofpi- 
tal, which fhould become void and in Our Difpofal : 
Next after dich as had already obtained Our Letters for 
the like Places, if any fuch there were. Without Ten- 
dring any Oaths unto the faid Andrew Popham^ or re- 
quiring of him any Subfcription, Recognition, or other 
Ail or A6ls in Conformity to the Do£lrine and Difci- 
pline of the Church of England^ as the fame is now E- 
ftablifhed. Notwithftanding any Order or Conftitu- 
tion of or in Our fiid Hofpital : which We w^ere and 
are Gracioufly pleas'd to Difpence in this behalf. To 
hold and enjoy tht {aid Place, with all Profits, Perqui- 
fites and Advantages thereunto belonging. And We 
do accordingly expeift and hereby Require, that you 
forthwith admit him, the faid Andrew Popha}^^ a Pen- 
fioner of that Our Hofpital, in purfaance of this and 
Ourfaid former Letters. And whereasWeareiuformed, 
that Philip de Cardoncl had Our Letter, Dated the 
tirft Dsy of Augvft laft pafl, and that he omitted to 
prefent the fame, till the 23 of February laft, after 

K 4 Andrcjp 

j4ndrew Topham's Letter had been prefented : We do 
therefore hereby declare Our Will and pleafure to be. 
That the faid Andrew Popham have the preference, and 
be immediately admitted into a Penfioner's place in that 
OurH ofpital. And fo we bid you heartily farewel. 
Given at Our Court at Whitehall ih^. 21ft day oiAdarck, 
1686-7. I" t^s Third Year of Our Reign. 

Here were Two Letters, you fee, already, under the 
Signet : And thei-e wanted only a Broad-Seal, that all 
the Forces of the Difpenfing Power might be employ'd 
in this attack againft Chart er-Houfe. At length a Broad 
Seal was fent, to compleat and ratify this Difpenfatioa 
for Popham ^ and a Copy of it left with the Mafter, col- 
lated in his prefence, with the Original. They brought 
alfo Witnefles along with them, to atteft the Delivery 
and Collation, and fo left it in the Mafter's Hands. 

Thefe Letters-Patents did not refpecl Popham only, 
but feveral Others alfo in theUniverfity of Cambridge : 
Four or Five there, that were difpens'd with for like 
unqualifications. And becaufe the form of one of thefe 
newDifpenfations is worth feeing, 1 will fet down the 
form of this in general, as it relates to them all \ and 
particularly, all that belongs tp Andrew Popham, They 
begun thus. 

^AMES the Second^ By the Grace of God of Eng^ 
J land^ Scotland^ France and Ireland King, Defender 
of the Faith, &c. To all to whom thefe Prefents fhall 

come Greeting. Whereas Jojhua Bajfet and A?:' 

drew Popham^ Ele<fled, ordire<^ed by US to be eleifled 
one of the Alms-men of or in Sutton s Hofpital near 
Smithfield^ commonly called the Charter- Hcufe^ have 
humbly befought ns, that they may rerpe<ftively have 
and enjoy the faid feveral and refpedive Places and Pre^ 
ferments, with all the Advantages and Emoluments to 
the fame refpeclively belonging. Without being obliged 
to repair to Church, or to ufe the Book of Common- 
Prayer, or to take the Oaths of Allegiance and Supre- 
macy, or either of them *, Or the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper, or any Teft, or making any Declarati- 
on orSubfcription relating to Relig,ion : or doing, pev- 
forniing, or iubfcribing any other Ael or Ads in Con- 

( 7 ) 

formity to the Doftrine, Difcipline; or Liturgy of 
the Church of England, And We being well aflured of 
the Loyalty and Integrity of the faid refpedlive Per- 
fons, and of their fitnefs to have and enjoy the faij 
refpe^live Places and Preferments, are gracioufly difpo- 
fed to grant their faid humble fuit. KNOW TE there- 
fore, that WE^ for the confiderations afore-faid, and of 
Our efpecial Grace, certain Knowledge and nieer Mo- 
tion, have given and granted, and by thefe Prefents, for 
Us, Our Heirs, and SuccefTors do give and grant unto 
the faid JoJIjua Baffet^ &c, and Andrew Pophanty and 
to every of them. Our Royal Licenfe and Difpenfation 
to abient them Pelves refpe^tively from Church, Chap- 
pel and ufual Place of Common-Prayers, as the fame is 
now ufed in England ^ and to forbear ufing or reading 
the (aid Prayers, or declaring their refpeftive afTent or 
confent to the Contents of the Book of Common- 
Prayer, now ufed in England ^ and to abftain from and 
forbear receiving and adminiftring iht Sacraments of the 
Lord's Supper, according to the Liturgy or ufage of the 
faid Church *, and from taking the Oaths of Suprema- 
cy and Allegiance-, and from reading and fubfcribing 
the Articles of Religion, commonly called the Nine and 
Thirty Articles *, and from making, fubfcribing and re- 
peating any Declaration, Acknowledgment, or Recog- 
nition ^ and from doing any other A^ or Thing, requi- 
red by, or mentioned or contained in one A<^ of Par- 
liament made in the Thirteenth or Fourteenth Year of 
the Reign of our late Royal Brother, Entituled, An 
A^ for the Uniformity of Publick Prayers, and Admi- 
niftration of the Sacraments, and other Rites and Ce- 
remonies, and for eftablifhing the form of Making, 
Ordaining and Confecrating Bifhops, Priefls and Dea- 
cons in the Church oi Engl and ^ mentioned or contained 
in another Acl of Parliament, made in the Five and 
Twentieth Year of the Reign of our faid late Brother, 
Entituled, An A^ for the preventing Dangers which ?nay 
happen from PopiJ}) Recufants : And from doing, decla- 
ring and fubfcribing all and every fuch other A£l and 
A£Vs, thing and things, in Conformity to the Do^irine, 
Difcipline, and Liturgy of the Church o^ England ^ as 

the faid JoJJjua Bajfet and Andrew Topham^ or any 


of them, by reafon of their or any of their being ad- 
mitted into, or having or enjoying the faid refpeiftive 
Promotions and Places, are, is, or (hall be, by the Laws 
and Statutes of this our Realm of England^ or by any 
Statute, Conftitation or Cuitom of our faid Univerli- 
tyof Camhridgey or of the Colleges or Hofpiiil hereto- 
fore mentioxied.-- -^iVi) OVR PLEASURE ALSO 
ISy and we hereby require, enjoyn, and command, the 
Governors of the Lands, Polfeffion^, Revenues and 
Goods of the Hofpital of King James founded in Char* 
ter-Houfe^ within the County oiMiddlefeXy at the 
humble Petition and only Coft and Charges of Tho?nas 
Sutton^ Efquire: Now and for the time being*, and all 
other Perfons whom it may concern, that they, and e- 
Very of them in their refpeftive Places, do ac^ and per- 
form all and whatfoever is or ought to be afted, done 
and performed by them refpeflively, for the Elefting, 
Admitting and Eftablifhing the faid Ar:d-ev[> Popham to- 
be one of the Poor Men in the (aid Hoipital, and to have 
and enjoy all the Profits, Benefits and Advantages, to 
any Poor Man in the fail Hofpital belonging. Notwith^ 
fianding that the faid Andrew Popham hath not taken, or 
fhall omit, negled, or refufe to take the Oaths of Supre-r 
niacyand Allegiance, or either of them : Or hath not 
done or performed, or fhall omit, negie^:, or refufc 
to do or perform v^^hat by the faid hE\.s of Parlia* 
meat, or ahy of them, or by one other A£l: of 
Parliament made in the Third or Fourth Year of 
the Reign of our late Royal Grandfather King. James ^ 
over E-agland^ &c. Entituled,, An AEb for the efta^ 
hllpjing and confirming, of the Foundation of the Hofpi- 
tal of King James, founded in Charter-Houfe, in the 
County 0/ Middlefe^, at the humble Petition and onl^ 
Colls and Charges of Thomas Sutton, Efquire •, and of 
|:he PoiTeffions'thereof. Or by any Statute, Law, Con- 
ftitution, orCuft'om of the faid Hofpital, he is enjoyn- 
ed or required to do or perform : as if he had fully and 
effeiflually done, or performed t}iQ fime. AND do 
hereby further for Us. our Heirs and SuccefTors, antho- 
rize and impower the fiid Jofina Ba[fet—'hnd Andrew 
Popham^ to accept, hold and continue in the {:\id refpe- 
aive Promotions and Places, with all the Rights, Pro- 
fits, Powers, Privlle-es, Authorities and Advantages 


( 9) 

whatfoever to the fdme rerpe(fi:ively belonging^ with- 
out incurring any pain, penalty, lofs, difability, or 
cen^jre whufoever, and alfo to travel to the Cities of 
London and lVe!}miyjfier^ and to come, remain, and be 
in our Prefence, or in the Prefence of Our Royal Coa- 
fort t\\Q Qufffij or o( Katherlne Queen Dowager of Eng^ 
land^ or in Our Court, or in the Court or houfe where 
We or They are, or fhall be, or refide^ although the 

faid Jofljua Bajfet- and Andrew Popham have not, or 

any of them hath not done or performed, or iball at any 
time or times hereafter omit, neglefl or refufe to do or 
perform any thing or things enjoyned, required or en- 
a^ed to be done or performed by the faid Acls of Parli- 
ament, or either of them, or in or by any other Aft or 
Afts of Parliament made in the Thirtieth Year of the 
Reign of our iiid late Royal Brother King Charles the 
Second, or in the firft, fifth, thirteenth, three and 
twentieth, feven and twentieth, nine and twentieth, 
and five and thirtieth Years of the Reign of the late 
QiKQn Elizaberhy or in the firfl: or third Years of the 
Reign of Our late Royal Grandfather King James over 
England^ ^c. Or in or by any Statute, Conftitution, 
or Cuftom of, or in the Univerfity of Cambridge^ or oi 
the Refpeftive Colleges and Hofpital aforefaid, or any 

of them: and although lY.^ hidJoJJjua Bajfet -and 

Andrew Popham^ or any of them have or hath commit- 
ted or done, or fhall commit or do any thing or things 
contrary unto the {aid Afts of Parliament, or any or ei- 
ther of them, or contrary unto any Claufe, Article or 
Thing in them, or any of them contained, or contrary 
unto any Statute, Conftitution or Cuftom of, or in the 
faid Univerfity of Cambridge^ or of the feveral and re- 
fpe(n:ive Colleges and Hofpital aforefaid, or any of them, 
AND to the end that this Our Royal Licenfe, Difpenfa- 
tion and Grant may have its due effeft, We do hereby 
of Our further efpecial Grace, certain knowledge and 
meer motion, pardon, remit, exonerate and discharge 

the faid Jolhua F>afj'et and Andrew Popham^ of and 

from all Treafons, mifprifions of Treafon, Crimes, Of- 
fences, Pains, Penalties, Sufpenfions, Deprivations, 
Sentences, Cenfures, Forfeitures and Difabilities by 
them, or any of them, incurred or to be incurred, or 
whereunto they ox any of them now are, is, or hereaf- 

( lo ) 

tcr may be liable for, or by reafon of their or any of 
their having acfled, done or committed any thing or 
things contrary to the faid A(fls or any of them, or for 
that they or any of them have or hath omitted, neglecl- 
cd or refufed, or fhall at any time hereafter omit, neg- 
le£l or refufe to do, execute or perform any thing or 
things enjoyned or required to be done, executed or 
performed in d^hy the Aid Afls of r>arliamenr, or any 
of them, or in or by the Statutes, Conftitutions or Cu- 
flomsof the Univerfity of Cambridge^ or of the refpe- 
clive Colleges or Hofpital aforefaid oi* any of them, 
hereby enjoyning and requiring all and f.ngular Courts 
and Judges, as well Eccledaftical as Civil, to fuperfede 
and forbear at all times hereafter all Profecutions and 
Proceedings whatfoever againft the faid Jojhtia Bajfet-" 
and Andrew Popham^ or any of them, for or by reafon 
of any matter or thing hereby difpenfed with, licenfed 
or remitted. AND our pleafure is, and we do hereby 
of Oar more abundant Grace, certain Knowledge, and 
meer Motion, grant and declare, that thefe Prefents 
iballbe in and by all things firm, valid and elfe£lual in 
the Law, and fhall be available for the Purpofes afore- 
faid, notwithflanding the faid A£ls of Parliament, or 
any of them, or any the Statutes, Conftitutions or Cu- 
ftoms of the faid Univerfity of Cambridge^ or of the 
Colleges or Hofpital aforefaid, or any of them. AND 
notwithflanding the not reciting or mentioning, or not 
fuHiciently or particularly reciting or mentioning, or 
mifreciting the Statutes, Conllitutions or Cuftoms of 
the faid Univerfity, Colleges or Hofpital aforefaid, or 
any of them, or the Titles or Contents thereof. AND 

notwithflanding that the hid Jofljua Baffet and ^«- 

drew Pophamj or any of them is, are or at any time 
hereafter fbal! be a convifl P.ecufint, or convi£l Recu- 
iants. And notwirhlfanding any mifnQmer, mifreci- ' 
tal, or other Defeft or Imperfeif^ion in thefe Prefents^ 
and any A6^, Ordinance, Provifion, Proclamation, 
Difability or Reflri(n:ion to the contrary thereof in any 
wife notwithflanding. IN V/ITNESS whereof 
we have caufed thefe Our Letters to be made Patents. 
WITNESS Our Selfe at Wefiminfier the Fourth 
day of March^ in the Third Year of Our Reign, 



. There was a great miftake committed in thefe Letters 
Patents, and in a part that required the greateft car?. 
The Aft of Parliament that fhould have been difpens'd 
^Nith in behalf of Popham^ was 3 Caroli. Whereas the 
Patents refer to, and Difpence with one in the idot^th of King James, The Governors were made fen- 
iih\c of this, but they would not lay any ftrefs upon a 
Circumftance, when the fubftance was faulty, and 
therefore took no notice of it. 

This is the Summ and Subftance of the Letters Pa- 
R Y. And as to the Cafe of Popham^ in Vertue of that 
Clanfe, where the Governors cf Sutton'/ Hofpital^ and. 
all other Per fans concerned^ are required to oEt and per- 
fortn whatfoever ought to be done and performed by them 
refpcthively^ for the Ele^ing^ Admitting and EfiabliJIj- 
ing the [aid Andrew Popham in the [aid Hofpital. In 
vertue, I fay, of this Claufe, they demanded prefent 
Admiflion of the Mailer*, Admijfiions being made by 
his Order. Bat he told them, the bufinefs was now 
depending before the Governors in a Body, and there- 
fore no fingle Governor could aft feparately in it. 
, My Lord of Canterbury^ as I told you, call'd an Af- 
fembly of the Governors feveral times, but without 
fuccefs : Some coming, and fome (laying away, fo as the 
number ftill fell fhort ^ till Midfummer day came, 
w^hich being a Stated AfTembly, there were Nine Gover- 
nors prefent. Then the King's Second Letter, and thefe 
Letters Patents were read and confider'd^ And there- 
upon a Letter was drawn up to give Reafons to his Ma- 
jefty, why they could not comply with his Pleafure as 
to the AdmiAion of Andrew Popham into that HofpitaL 
This Letter was Signed by Eight Governors, and Di- 
refted and fent to one of the Secretaries of State to 
repreient the Contents of it to the King. 

The LETTER was as followeth. 

TJ I S Majefty's Two Letters, the one dated the ijth 
•*••*■ of Deccn.ycr lait, and the other the 2iy^ of March 
laft, Counterilgiied by your Lordfhip, came to our 
Hands. Whereby His Majefty requires u-, that we 



admit Andrew Fopham to be a Penfioner in Sutton's Hof- 
pital, without Teniring any Oith or Oaths unto the 
faid Andrew Popham^ or requiring of him any Sub- 
fcription. Recognition, or other Acl or Afts in Con- 
formity to the Doftrine and Difcipline of the Church 
o^ England^ as the firne is now ElLibtilliii ^ And not- 
withftanding any Statiite, Order, or Conllitutlon, of 
or in the {aid Hofpital, with all which His Majefty was 
pleafed to Dilpsnfe. Which Letters were received with 
the refpeft that is du^ to whatfoever cometh from 
His Majefty. And it hath not been any fiult of ours, 
that an Anfwer hath not been fooner returned. Several 
AfTemblies having been appointed in order to it, but 
there were not, at thofe times, fo many Governors in 
or about the Town, in a Condition to attend, as would 
make up the number direjfled by the Conftitutions. 
We could not till now acquaint your Lordfhip, that up- 
on Debate of the afore fiid Letters, it is agreed to re- 
prefent, in the moft humble manner, to his Majefty 
by your Lordftiip's means, and through your Hands-, 
That we apprehend our felves to be tyed up, and to 
lie under fuch ftrift Obligations, that we are not at 
Liberty to comply with what is required from us, for 
thefe Reafons. 

For that the faid Hofpital is of a private Foundation ; 
and the Governors obliged to a£l according to the Con- 
ilitutions of the fame. 

That by an Acl of Parliament, made in the Third 
Year of the Reign of King Charles the Firft, of BleiTed 
Memory, It is Eaafted, That everv poor Man to be 
Elefted and Admitted into the faid Hofpital, ftiall, 
before he receive Benefit of any fuch Place, take the 
Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance. 

Therefore We pray vour Lordfhip to reprefent to 
Kis Majefty that-we conceive, We cannot wnth a Faith- 
ful difcharge of our Truft, admit the faid Andrew Po- 
pham. This, We pvay your Lariftiip'to reprefent to 
His Majefty in the moft humble Manner •, Whereby 
you will extremely oblige 


O R MO ND. NO r ri NG HA M^ 




This Letter, when it was Read to the King, he gave 
it, as we heard to my Lord Chancellor : And bid him 
find out a way how he might have right done Him at 
that Hofpital. Bat there were fcveral Reafons that 
hinder'd the farther proceedings of the Court againft 
Charter 'Houfe. The Perfons concern'd were of fo 
great a Character, fo much confider'd by the Nation, 
and fo well able to defend their Caufe, that the Ecclefi- 
aftical CommilTioners (who were the fupport of the 
JDifpenfwg Power) had no mind to meddle with them. 
Befides they had their Hands full Of other bufinefs at 
th at time.They were quarrelling with the two Univerfi- 
ties upon the fame point. And the next Spring, they i<i\\ 
Dpon the Clergy, for not reading the King's Declaration 
about Liberty of Confcience. The Archbifhop, and 
fix Ei.nops more werefent to the Tower, by Warrant 
'from the Privy-Council : ana afterwards formally Try^'d 
at the King's- Bench Bar. Thefe things had put die 
Nation into a great ferment and uneafmefs, fo that it 
was neccflary to allow fome time for things to fettle and 
grow calm asiain, before they entered upon any more 
angry bufmefs. But towards the latter end of the Sum- 
mer, when they fhould have begun their Profecutions 
a ueih, They fee the Heavens grow Cloudy, and a 
Storm a coming from Abroad. Then the Court bugun 
to think of new meafures, how to pleafe the Nation, 
and put all things to Rights again. So that it was no 
more time to call to Account the Difobedient Gover- 
nors of Charter- Houfe *, who bv the necellity of Affairs,' 
had been conniv'd at thus long. But in this interval, 
we had feveral threatnings. That a Quo Warranto 
f which was the battering Engine of thofe Days)fhould 
be brought againft the Corporation. And that the 
Mafter, particularly, fhould be Summon'd before the 
Ecclefiaftical Commiilioners. But all this came to no 
Effe^l^ Neither could they ever get any Fopifi Gover-, 
nor, or FopiJ}} Penfioner, admitted into that Society;- 




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